Althea Medical Journal

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EISSN : 2337-4330
Total articles ≅ 481
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Maria Christina Sekarlangit, Denio Adrianus Ridjab, Eva Suryani, Dwi Jani Juliawati
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 111-116;

Background: Instagram is one of the social media that is growing rapidly in Indonesia. However, the impact of Instagram usage intensity, especially on the users’ emotional well-being, is still unclear. This study aimed to explore the impact of the intensity of using Instagram on the self-esteem among preclinical medical students in Jakarta. Methods: This study was an observational analytic study with a cross-sectional approach in preclinical medical students in Jakarta, Indonesia, conducted from January 2020 to January 2021. Sampling was performed by stratified random sampling followed by simple random sampling. Instagram usage intensity and self-esteem were measured using the Instagram Intensity Scale Questionnaire (IISQ) and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). Data were analyzed using the Chi-Square test. Results: Of the108 students, 45.4% had used Instagram above the usage intensity average (average 3.01), of whom 30.6% had low self-esteem (15 out of 49). There was a significant relationship between Instagram usage intensity and self-esteem (p=0.031). Conclusion: Instagram usage intensity has an impact on the self-esteem of preclinical medical students. Further studies are needed to explore this issue, as to see other contributing factors and a larger population with different characteristics.
Arnold Arnold, Vycke Yunivita Dewi, Fifi Veronica
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 93-99;

Background: Depok is the city with the largest COVID-19 cases in West Java, Indonesia. The application of health protocol for high school student as the second-largest age group,’s depends on the level of knowledge and attitudes that can be affected by gender. This study aimed to determine the level of knowledge and attitudes based on the gender of high school students towards COVID-19 in Depok. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional analytic study, conducted from June 2020 to June 2021. The data was collected using a Google form application with a validated questionnaire and the research subjects were high school students in Depok. Knowledge of COVID-19 was assessed with 18 questions, true or false questions. Correct answer was assigned 1 point. Points were summed for a total knowledge score of Poor, Moderate, or Good. Attitude was assessed with 6 questions. For each answer given, subjects with a total score of >18 were assessed as a positive attitude. Results: Of a total of 273 respondents, 238 had met the inclusion criteria. Most of the respondents had a moderate level of knowledge (60.5%) and most of the respondents (89%) had a positive attitude towards COVID-19. No significant differences in level of knowledge or attitude between males and females (p>0.05). Conclusions: High school students in Depok have a moderate level of knowledge and have a positive attitude in dealing with COVID-19 which is not influenced by gender. The lack of information regarding the timing of vaccine administration and examination of COVID-19 needs to be a concern for high school students in Depok.
Jane Haryanto, Agnes Rengga Indrati, Tiene Rostini
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 106-110;

Background: Tissue biopsy examination which is an invasive procedure has become the mainstay for hepatic cirrhosis identification in patients with hepatitis. Alternatively, noninvasive method using the aspartate aminotransferase (AST) to platelet ratio index (APRI) score has been developed to predict hepatic cirrhosis. Furthermore, the neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have been used to predict the severity of hepatitis C. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between APRI scores and NLR and PLR in chronic hepatitis C patients. Methods: This correlative cross-sectional observational study used secondary data of complete blood counts such as neutrophil, lymphocyte, and platelet values, as well as AST values of patients with hepatitis C in the outpatient and inpatient installation of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital during 2019. The inclusion criteria were patients aged ≥18 years, male and female, who were diagnosed as hepatitis C patients, patients who had AST examination data, leukocytes, count type, and platelets. Data were analyzed using the Spearman rank correlation test. Results: The 123 subjects were dominantly male with an age range of 46–55 years. There was no correlation between the APRI and NLR scores (p=0.229). However, there was a moderate and significant negative correlation between APRI and PLR scores with a correlation coefficient of -0.468 (p=0.000). Conclusion: There is a significant negative correlation between APRI and PLR scores to predict the occurrence of hepatic cirrhosis in patients with Hepatitis C.
Aisyah Putri Pratiwi, Berlian Isnia Fitrasanti, Sani Tanzilah
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 117-124;

Background: Autopsy is a comprehensive evaluation of the body and the circumstances surrounding an individual’s death. Currently, autopsy rates in various countries have been decreased in recent years. This decrease was due to the rejection by people who had inadequate knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about autopsies. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions of Bandung residents about autopsies. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive observational study involved people in the Bandung City who were over the age of 20 during the period August to September 2020. The sample was obtained using a snowball system. Research subjects filled out a questionnaire through a Google form containing questions about knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions. The results were categorized based on the median for each variable. Results: Subjects with questionnaire data obtained were 378 people with an average age of 30.30±13.48 years, and most (66.9%) were female. A total of 259 people had adequate knowledge (68.5%), 254 people (67.2%) had a positive attitude, and 249 people (65.9%) had a positive perception, with a median value of 7, 6, and 12, respectively. However, 95 people did not agree to do an autopsy on their relatives or family to determine the cause of death. Conclusion: The subject as a whole showed adequate knowledge, positive attitude, and perception. However, there are still some people who show inadequate knowledge and poor attitudes and perceptions about autopsies. It is recommended that the government and other institutions intervene in the community to increase knowledge and attitudes and improve public perception.
Annisa Triska Almanda Dewi, Ari Indra Susanti, Fedri Ruluwedrata Rinawan, Sharon Gondodiputro, Neneng Martini
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 80-85;

Background: Premarital screening (PMS) is an action to prevent the occurrence of genetic and the transmission of infectious diseases. The screening has been recommended and promoted in Indonesia. This study aimed to assess the level of knowledge and attitudes towards premarital screening among teenagers in a university setting. Methods: This study used a cross-sectional design, including 310 adolescents aged 18–21 years at obtained through a non-random consecutive sampling at Universitas Padjadjaran. The data was collected from October 2020 until January 2021 using a close-ended questionnaire, assessing knowledge and attitude towards the PMS. The frequency knowledge level was grouped as good, moderate, and poor. The attitude level was categorized as positive and negative. Results: Most of the respondents (90.3%) had good knowledge of PMS. Respondents who had positive attitudes (79%) strong agreed that carrying out PMS was important, and 51% perceived that PMS needed to be a mandatory procedure before marriage. However, 59.6% had no idea how to deal if the result of the PMS was positive. Conclusion: In general, adolescents at Universitas Padjadjaran have good knowledge and a positive attitude towards PMS. However, comprehensive information about PMS is still needed, especially on decision points that must be taken after getting the test results.
Fidkya Allisha, Wijana Wijana, Sally Mahdiani
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 74-79;

Background: Hearing function is one of the most important factors affecting children’s development process. The first three years of life is a golden period of growth and development of children. This study was conducted to investigate the hearing profile of children below three years old at Jatinangor Integrative Health Care Center (Pos Pelayanan Terpadu, Posyandu), West Java, Indonesia. Methods: An observational cross-sectional study was conducted to 86 children below three years old who was selected by using multistage cluster sampling at 12 Posyandu in Jatinangor sub-district by using in-depth interview related to hearing loss risk factors, reaction test, and tympanometry test. Results: The hearing loss prevalence of children below three years old in the Jatinangor sub-district was 7.0%. Of the 86 children, there were 2.3% (n=2) children with moderate conductive hearing loss, 1.2% (n=1) children with moderate sensorineural hearing loss, and 3.5% (n=3) children with very severe sensorineural hearing loss. Fifty percent of children with sensorineural hearing loss were discovered without any risk factor. Conclusions: The prevalence of hearing loss in children under three years old at the Jatinangor Integrative Health Care Center is slightly higher than the national prevalence. Fifty percent of children are found without risk factors, therefore Universal Newborn Hearing Examination (UNHS) needs to be implemented at the national level in accordance with the guidelines of the Joint Committee for Infant Hearing (JCIH) in which are integrated with primary health care units, tertiary health care centers otorhinolaryngology, and also the audiological center.
Steven Yulius Usman, Salvabilla Azheema Rahmat, Vetinly Vetinly, Felicia Kurniawan
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 86-92;

Background: Impaired growth and inadequacy of dietary intake in thalassemia patients may affect the quality of life. This study aimed to determine and examine the relationship between dietary intake, nutritional status, and quality of life in in patients with thalassemia major. Methods: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted from February to October 2020. Twelve respondents who were registered at the Yayasan Thalassemia Indonesia and the blood transfusion unit at Fatmawati Hospital participated. This study conducted a physical examination and distributed food record questionnaires and WHOQOL-BREF. Data analysis was performed using Nutrisurvey 2007 and Fisher’s exact test. Results: The majority of the respondent were male (58.3%), categorized in the age group 5–18 years (58.3%), had normal nutritional status (50%) and quality of life. Interestingly, the respondents had an excess intake of protein and fats, while the intake of energy and carbohydrates was normal. Respondents had less intakes of all micronutrients. Conclusion: The majority of respondents have normal nutritional status and quality of life but have a low intake of micronutrients. Both patients and parents need to be further educated on dietary intake to meet their nutritional needs
Dinda Sayyidah Laela Fatimatuzzahra, Ahmad Rizal Ganiem, Aih Cahyani, Suryani Gunadharma, Sofiati Dian
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 100-105;

Background: The low coverage of diagnosis and treatment in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Indonesia increases the risk of opportunistic infections that affects various organs, including the central nervous system (CNS). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of opportunistic infections in the CNS among hospitalized patients with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung, Indonesia. Methods: In this cross-sectional study with a total sampling method, data were collected from HIV/AIDS patients who were diagnosed with CNS opportunistic infection and hospitalized in the neurology ward during the period 2015–2019. Data were presented as median (interquartile range) and percentage frequency. Results: Among the 2,606 HIV/AIDS patients registered, 219 (8.4%) were accompanied by CNS opportunistic infections. The highest number was cerebral toxoplasmosis (58.9%; n=129) followed by tuberculous meningitis (33.3%; n=73) and cryptococcal meningitis (7.8%; n=17). Most of the patients admitted for unconsciousness (64.4%; n=141), with unknown HIV-infection status (61.2%; n=134). Among patients with positive HIV-infection status, only 50.6% (43/85) patients were taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 24.7% (21/85) patients dropped out ART before being diagnosed with CNS opportunistic infections. The CD4+’s median value was 21 cells/mm3 (IQR 9-61.25), with mortality during hospitalization was 36.5% (80/219). Conclusions: The prevalence of CNS opportunistic infections among HIV-infected patients is 8.4%, dominated by cerebral toxoplasmosis, and laboratory result showed very low CD4+ levels. The diagnosis of HIV infection is shortly made before hospitalization, and those who has been diagnosed have low compliance with ART. The mortality rate during hospitalization is high.
Nedra Wati Zaly, Mugia Bayu Rahardja, Murtiningsih Murtiningsih
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 61-69;

Background: Fertility is the main component of population dynamics that determines the population structure of a country. One method to measure fertility is to analyze the birth interval. This study aimed to identify determinants of birth interval based on the Indonesian Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) data in 2007, 2012, and 2017. Methods: This study design was descriptive using IDHS data from 2007, 2012, and 2017 with a cross-sectional study design. Samples were mothers who gave birth to their last living child in the last five years. Results: In the IDHS 2007, the birth interval at risk (<24 months) was 11.8%, increased in the 2012 IDHS to 12.1%, and decreased in the 2017 IDHS to 9.8%. In the three-period IDHS, the same determinants of the birth interval were discovered, such as the age of the woman, duration of breastfeeding, use of contraception, the status of the child before the last child, mother’s education level, and wealth quintile. However, in 2007, the sex of the child before the last child and the number of surviving children also influenced the birth interval. In 2017 the number of children who were still alive also affected the birth interval. The most dominant factor influencing the occurrence of short birth intervals after controlling for other variables was the survival status of the previous child. Conclusion: The short birth interval is the most prevalent in the 2012 IDHS. Optimal birth interval has the potential to improve maternal, neonatal, and infant health.
Timoty Krisna Sukoco, Dini Hidayat, Raden Tina Dewi Judistiani
Althea Medical Journal, Volume 9, pp 70-73;

Background: The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally, causing various possible disorders and complications. Maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality might potentially be affected by maternal obesity. This study aimed to evaluate the association between maternal obesity and pregnancy outcomes. Methods: This retrospective cohort study was part of a larger cohort study performed from July 2016 to July 2017 in West Java, including 223 pregnant women with normal fetuses, who were obese or non-obese pre-pregnancy. Underweight women were excluded. Data on pregnancy outcomes consisting of Caesarean section, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membrane (PROM), preterm birth, post-term birth, small for gestational age (SGA), and large for gestational age (LGA) were collected. The association with maternal obesity was analyzed using the Fisher’s Exact Test to determine the association with a 95% confidence interval, and a p-value <0.05 was considered significant. Results: There was an association between maternal obesity and Caesarean section, with an increased risk in obese mothers compared to non-obese mothers (RR 2.398 CI 1.328-4.329). There was no significant association between maternal obesity and preeclampsia, PROM, preterm birth, post-term birth, SGA, and LGA. Conclusion: Maternal obesity is associated with Caesarean section. A more comprehensive approach is essential for obese pregnant women to ensure the health of both the mother and the infant.
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