Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2162-5816 / 2162-5824
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Former Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 167
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Charity Gikunda, Lucy Gitonga, Paul Kamweru
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 11, pp 19-46; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2021.112002

Abstract:
Background: Non-adherence to hypertensive medication continues to become a contributing factor to hypertensive complications like stroke, heart attacks, kidney disease heart failure. Associated factors to non-adherence are complex, are both internal and external to the patient and are difficult to extrapolate. Reports from Chuka referral hospital records showed that in 2016 there were 140 patients with hypertensive complications from 560 patients who attended the medical clinic that year. Objective: This study sought to explore the patient’s related factors that are associated with non-adherence to hypertension medication. Methods: This is a descriptive study design of (N = 575) people among them doctors, pharmacists, nurses, record officers and hypertension patients. Simple random sampling for patients (n = 81) and census sampling for health care workers was done and data collected using questionnaires and interview schedules between April 4th-May 30th 2019. Inferential and descriptive statistics were used for data analysis, aided by SPSS version 25. Results: 64% of the patients stated that they had missed medication. A significant negative correlation (rpb = -0.23, p rpb = 0.24, p rpb = -0.13, p = 0.25) and patients’ level of education (rpb = -0.06, p = 0.57). The overall model of health system related factors were found to be significant (p p = 0.012). Conclusion: Lacks of funds, unavailability of drugs are the leading factors to regimen completion. This could be easily be addressed by the government.
Micah Matiang’I, Koen Joosse, Priscillah Ngunju, Colleta Kiilu, Romy Harkx, Marianne Hangelbroek, Jarim Omogi
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 11, pp 1-17; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2021.111001

Abstract:
Background: The World Health Organization recommends to have all pregnant women to undergo an obstetric ultrasound scan before 24 weeks gestation. However, this has been a challenge as a result of limited access to appropriate Point of Care Ultrasound Screening (POCUS) services in lower levels of developing countries’ Health Systems, cost of care, skills gap among care providers and unclear regulatory policy frameworks. Obstetric Ultrasound scan helps to confirm viability of a pregnancy, gestational age, multiple pregnancies and it also helps rule out fetal abnormalities early enough. Methods: One year after intervention, a cross-sectional study was carried in the two pilot counties of Kisii (rural) and Kajiado (peri-urban). This followed after selected midwives in the two counties were trained on basic obstetric ultrasound screening for ANC women. A total of 366 women who were either in their last phases of pregnancy or had delivered within three months before the survey were interviewed. Cumulatively, the 36 midwives had screened 1,250 mothers out of whom 18 high risk pregnancies were identified. Open Data Kit (ODK) was used to collect quantitative data and analysed using STATA version 15. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data test associations between variables. Bivariate and logistic regression was used to identify predictive variables, and ORs with 95% confidence intervals used to measure the strength of the associations. Findings: Slightly more than a third (36%) of the women had recently delivered. In total, Kisii (rural county) had a representation of 59% of the respondents. Half of the respondents were aged between 25 - 34 years, 55% of the women interviewed were housewives while 48% had secondary level of education. Only 21% of the women had undergone routine ultrasound screening before 24 weeks of gestation with the average distance travelled by majority (45%) of the respondents to access the POCUS service being 3 - 5 km. The need to confirm a pregnancy’s gestation was the major (68.1%) motivator for seeking the service in the two pilot counties. Employment status, household income, education level, pregnancy gestation and distance to the facility had a statistical significance (P P Conclusion: Women in developing countries are eager to access obstetric ultrasound screening services but for limited opportunities and sustainable implementation frameworks on Point of Care Ultrasound Screening (POCUS) services. Training and continuous coaching of frontline health professionals are critical in deployment of POCUS but there is limited access to standardised training content.
Micah Matiang’I, Priscilla Ngunju, Josephat Nyagero, Jarim Omogi
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 10, pp 65-79; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2020.102006

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Erdenetsetseg Chuluun, Bayartsetseg Ankhbayar, Ganbayar Ganzorig, Ganbayar Luuzan, Davaalkham Dambadarjaa, Zorig Dungerdorj, Puntsag Chimedtseye
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 10, pp 93-103; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2020.104008

Abstract:
Introduction: Acute appendicitis (AA) is a common surgical disease which occurs in almost all age groups, and especially in childhood. Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of acute abdomen. The lifetime occurrence of this disease is approximately 7%, with perforation rate of up to 20%. In spite of the well-known classical symptoms and clinical findings of acute appendicitis, early diagnosis can be sometimes challenging. For the treatment of simple appendicitis (SA) in children, the effectiveness of antibiotic treatment has been reported. We aimed to determine predictive value of combination NLR and PAS in pediatric patients with clinical suspicion of acute appendicitis and complicated appendicitis Methods: Our study was performed on 480 children admitted for suspected acute appendicitis and underwent appendectomy at the MNCMCH, Ulaanbaatar Mongolia, between May 2019 and December 2019. White blood count (WBC), Neutrophil, NLR and PAS were compared between groups. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of PAS + NLR for differentiating complicated and noncomplicated appendicitis were 86.8%, 89.4%, 92.1% and 76% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV of PAS + NLR for diagnosis of acute appendicitis were 90.5%, 68.1%, 97.68% and 32.6% respectively. Conclusion: In the era of conservative antibiotic-based management of uncomplicated acute appendicitis, we advocate that combination of NLR and PAS is a useful aid in predicting complicated appendicitis.
Mohsen Kamel Arid
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 10, pp 104-114; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2020.104009

Abstract:
Introduction: Left-sided acute appendicitis (LSAA) develops in association with two types of congenital anomalies: situs inversus totalis (SIT) and midgut malrotation (MM). A Left sided appendicitis is an ambiguous and difficult diagnosis to make. Aim: To present a proven case of left-sided acute appendicitis (LSAA) associated with situs inversus totalis (SIT). Case Report: A case of Left appendicitis was evaluated in a 28-year-old Asian male, who presented to our hospital in Feb. 2016, with lower abdominal pain more on left side and suspected diverticulitis or acute appendicitis with unusual appendix location. The patient doesn’t recall any history of abdominal surgery or about situs inversus totalis, abdominal and pelvic ultrasound was done, left iliac fossa appendicitis was diagnosed, Erect chest X-ray including upper abdomen revealed dextrocardia and stomach air on right side (situs inversus totalis), the patient underwent diagnostic Laproscop and Endoscopic resection of the appendix, with no incidents, and then discharged without complications, follow visits went unremarkable. Conclusion: The diagnosis of left lower quadrant pain is based on well-established clinical symptoms, physical examination and physician’s experience.
Seydou Sy, Magara Samaké, Hamadoun Yattara, Moctar Coulibaly, Ba Oumou Diallo, Aboubacar Sidiki Fofana, Djénéba Diallo, Atabieme Kodio, Modi Sidibé, Nouhoum Coulibaly, et al.
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 10, pp 18-28; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2020.101002

Abstract:
Introduction: Chronic renal failure (CKD) is defined as a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 ml/min/1.73m2 for more than 3 months [1]. Infectious complications are a major source of morbidity in patients with chronic renal failure. In Mali, we have no data on pneumopathies in this population, hence the interest of this study. The objective of this work was to determine the frequency of pneumopathies in patients with chronic renal failure, describe the clinical radio-types, identify the microorganisms involved, and assess the renal prognosis of pneumopathies. Materials and Methods: This was an 18-month prospective and descriptive study from January 1, 2018 to June 30, 2019 conducted in the nephrology and hemodialysis department of the University Hospital of Point G. Included were patients hospitalized during our study period with CKD associated with pneumopathy on a chest X-ray. Not included were all patients hospitalized outside the study period, all CKD cases without pneumonia, patients with incomplete records, and non-consenting patients. Results: We examined 1111 patients, 35 of whom presented an image on chest X-ray related to pneumopathy, a frequency of 3.15% of cases. Twenty-one men (60%) and 14 women (40%) with a sex ratio of 1.5. The mean age was 46.8 ± 13.9 years with extremes of 23 and 76 years. The types of pneumopathy on the chest X-ray were: alveolar pneumopathy: 23 cases (65.7%), pleuropneumopathy: 10 cases (28.6%) and cavitary pneumopathy: 2 cases (5.7%). Cytobacteriological sputum examination was positive in 65.7%; leukocytes (68.6% of cases). The germs found were: Klebsiella pneumoniae (25.7% of cases), Escherica coli (11.4%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (5.7%), Staphylococcus aureus (5.7%), Citrobacter freundi (5.7%), Enterococus sp. (2.9%), Enterobacter cloacae (2.9%), Candida albicans (5.7%). The search for acid-alcohol-resistant bacilli (BAAR) in sputum was positive in 4 cases (11.4%). There was an association between the results of cytobacteriological examination of sputum and the results of BAAR testing of sputum (p = 0.046).
Magara Samaké, Seydou Sy, Hamadoun Yattara, Moctar Coulibaly, Mamadou Badou Sanogo, Aboubacar Sidiki Fofana, Aboudou Messoum Dolo, Djénéba Maiga, Djénéba Diallo, Atabieme Kodio, et al.
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 10, pp 41-48; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2020.101004

Abstract:
Introduction: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is the progressive and irreversible loss of kidney function. It exposes to many complications, among which, digestive complications. In Mali, we do not have data on the prevalence of digestive pathologies in people with chronic renal failure, hence the interest of this study. Objective: To determine the prevalence of digestive pathologies and to describe their manifestations during chronic renal failure. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective cross-sectional study conducted from September 2016 to August 2017, a period of 12 months. Included were patients hospitalized in our department with CKD who received digestive endoscopy and/or liver serology. Results: Seventy-one patients underwent digestive endoscopy with oesogastroduodenal fibroscopy (60 patients), rectoscopy (6 patients) and anoscopy (5 patients), i.e. 15.9% of those hospitalized. The mean age of the patients was 48 ± 14 years with extremes of 15 and 84 years. The sample consisted of 59.2% men versus 40.8% women, for a sex ratio of 1.5. The functional signs are in order of frequency: vomiting (72.4%), anorexia (51.3%) and epigastralgia (48.7%). Terminal CKD by creatinine clearance accounted for 88.2% of cases, of which 47.4% were monitored by hemodialysis. Hepatitis C virus infection was present in 21.3% of cases, hepatitis B (18%) and HIV (7.5%). Endoscopic examinations were represented by fibroscopy (84.5%), rectoscopy (8.5%) and anuscopy (7%). The fibroscopic lesions were respectively gastric (96.8%), duodenal (14.1%) and esophageal (12.5%). They were dominated by gastritis (40.5%), duodeno-gastric reflux (16.4%), pyloric gap (12.6%). Rectoscopy found 4 cases of hemorrhoids, 2 cases of rectitis and no lesions were observed at anuscopy. Conclusion: The prevalence of these digestive manifestations and the endoscopic lesions encountered indicate the importance of digestive endoscopy and the performance of hepatic serologies in chronic renal failure patients with digestive symptoms and/or treated by hemodialysis.
Fane Seydou, Sissoko Abdoulaye, Kanté Ibrahima, Bocoum Amadou, Sima Mamadou, Sanogo Abdoulaye, Traore Soumana Oumar, Sanogo Siaka Amara, Traore Mamadou Salia, Traore Alassane, et al.
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 10, pp 49-64; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2020.101005

Abstract:
Every woman has the right to receive satisfactory quality prenatal care in reproductive health. Giving a life while remaining alive and without sequelae must be the slogan of any gynecologist - obstetrician and midwife, as well as any health worker. It was a descriptive cross-sectional study dealing with the evaluation of the quality of prenatal consultations at the Kadiolo referral health center (or RHC). Adevis Donabedian’s model for assessing the quality of care and services served as a benchmark. According to Donabedian quality means good technical care, with good interpersonal relationships, and adequate and comfortable premises. This study took place from April 24 to December 04, 2017 and aimed to assess the current level of the quality of prenatal consultations at the Kadiolo referral health center, to study the structures in place including infrastructure and personnel, to specify the procedures and to determine their results. This work has permitted us to classify the RHC of Kadiolo at level III with 85%, which means that the references evaluated were satisfactory, with the level of 75% to 94%. In terms of structure, a pricing system was deemed affordable by the opinion of pregnant women. The analysis of the level of the human dimension revealed that the health center was level III. The pregnant women were satisfied with the reception which was good in 76% of the cases, as well as with the quality of the respect of the privacy in 96% and confidentiality in 95%. Despite the satisfaction of pregnant women, gaps remain to be filled in concerning the quality of the services received at the Kadiolo referral health center so as to reach level IV.
Sumayah Fahad Alhumaid, Zainab Wajih Aljishi, Fathma Fahad Alribdi, Hessah Khaled Aldhubaiy, Abeer Ibrahim AlGhfaili
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 10, pp 115-123; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2020.104010

Abstract:
Background: One of the most reported dental problems is a tooth impaction which is defined as the infraosseous position of the tooth after the estimated time of eruption [1]. Thus, the most notable tooth impaction is canine impaction which is a frequently encountered clinical problem. Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of impacted canines among Saudi people from the 5-year period of 2013-2018 in Al Qassim area in the KSA. Methodology: A retrospective research designed was utilized in the study. A retrospective study simply means to “look back” in the past and usually done by obtaining data from medical records of the targeted population with common characteristics [2]. Results: This 5-year study covered year 2013 to 2018. In this study, there were 1500 who seek dental health in King Fahd Specialist Hospital. Thus, out of these clients, only 89 were identified with cases of impacted canine using the OPG with a prevalence rate of 5.9 %. In addition, it was found that out of 89 patients identified, the patients have impacted canines in different locations: maxillary, mandible, right side and left side. It was found that there were 187 impacted teeth in different locations among 89 clients affected. There were 48 cases (25.7%) of impacted canines on the right side while 64 cases (34.2%) were reported on the left side of the total group. Moreover, impacted maxillary canine were 68 cases (36.4%) and mandibular impacted canine were only 7 cases (3.7%) of the total group. Conclusion: The early detection and treatment approach of impacted canines among affected individuals is vital in order to prevent different problems that may arise during impaction of canine teeth. Awareness, early detection, proper diagnostic test and multiple treatment approaches are needed to prevent different sequelae due to canine impaction.
Seydou Sy, Magara Samaké, Hamadoun Yattara, Moctar Coulibaly, Ibrahima Koné, Aboubacar Sidiki Fofana, Djénèba Diallo, Atabieme Kodio, Modi Sidibé, Nouhoum Coulibaly, et al.
Open Journal of Clinical Diagnostics, Volume 10, pp 29-40; doi:10.4236/ojcd.2020.101003

Abstract:
Introduction: Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is defined as the inability to achieve or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse. The frequency of erectile dysfunction in patients with kidney failure is estimated at 50% to 70%. The objective of this work was to determine the frequency of sexual dysfunction in chronic hemodialysis patients, to evaluate the psycho-social impact and to describe hormonal disturbances. Patients and Methods: This was a descriptive prospective study carried out from 3 April to 31 August 2017 in the nephrology and haemodialysis department of the Point G University Hospital. She has been interested in men over the age of 18 who have been on chronic hemodialysis for more than a year. Sexual dysfunction was assessed using the questionnaire: International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5). Results: Sixty-five patients were included. Forty-six (70.8%) had severe (30.8%), moderate (13.8%) and mild (26.2%) ED. 56.9% of patients had libido disorders, with decreased sexual desire (38.5%); absent sexual desire (18.5%). Sexual desire was normal in 43.1% of patients. Sexual activity was absent in 20 patients (30.8%). Sexual rigidity was reduced in 28 patients (43.1%) and normal in 24 patients (36.9%). The mean age of our patients was 42.55 years with a median age of 40 years and extremes of 23 and 74 years. Eighty percent were married. Nine patients (13.8%) were using sildenafil-based medications. Antihypertensives were prescribed in 93.9% and erythropoietin in 30.8% of patients. The main impact groups were anxiety (53.8%), fear of failure (27.7%), insomnia (7.7%) and anxiety (6.1%). And defence mechanisms included: understanding (54.7%); isolation (24.6%); repression (7.7%); quarrel (7.7%); and divorce in 1 case (1.5%). The occurrence of ED was related to hypotestosterolemia (p = 0.030), and between low libido and testosterone (p = 0.001). Nutritional status was satisfactory in 78.4% of our patients. Moderate and at and severe undernutrition was found in equal proportions (10.8%) in our patients with a statistically significant relationship with the occurrence of erectile dysfunction (p = 0.015). There was no correlation between ED and duration of dialysis (p = 0.715), the existence of inflammatory syndrome (p = 0.870), age (p = 0.249) and diabetes, hypertension, smoking (p = 0.442). Sexual activity was decreased in 41 patients with Hb 10 g/dl (p = 0.340). Conclusion: Sexual disorders are common in hemodialysis patients. Psychological support of the patient is essential throughout the therapeutic sequence of erectile dysfunction, whatever the molecule or physical means considered.
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