European Journal of Personality
ISSN / EISSN : 0890-2070 / 1099-0984
Published by: SAGE Publications (10.1177)
Total articles ≅ 1,449
Latest articles in this journal
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211065236
Although several studies show that personality traits are associated with absenteeism, few large-scale studies have examined these relationships prospectively, integrating survey data and register data on sickness absence. This study examines whether personality is associated with sickness absence, and whether health factors, gender, age, type of occupation and job satisfaction moderate this relationship. We combine survey data assessing the Big Five personality traits from a large sample of Norwegian employees aged 18–62 years (N = 5017) with register data on physician-certified sickness absence up to four years after. Negative binomial regression analyses showed that extraversion was positively associated with subsequent sickness absence when controlling for several covariates, including health, work factors and previous spells of sickness absence. Neuroticism also showed significant positive associations with sick leave; however, the association diminished when accounting for previous spells of sickness absence. Moderator analyses demonstrated that age and type of occupation affected some of the associations between personality and sickness absence. The findings indicate that – in addition to general health promotion measures – specific interventions targeting individuals high in extraversion may be beneficial in reducing sick leave. How socio-demographic and work-related factors moderate the relationship between personality and sickness absence may be an interesting future research area.
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211062327
Adversity has been assumed to foster positive personality change under certain conditions. In this article, we examine this assumption within the context of the three-tier personality framework integrating traits, characteristic adaptations, and narrative identity to provide a comprehensive understanding of personality growth. We first review findings on how adverse events affect personality on each of these three levels. Second, we summarize knowledge on event-based and person-based predictors of personality change in the face of adversity. Third, we specify affective, behavioral, and cognitive processes that explain personality change across levels of personality. Innovatively, our proposed process model addresses change at all three levels of personality, as well as similarities and differences in processes across the levels. We conclude by discussing unresolved issues, asking critical questions, and posing challenging hypotheses for testing this framework.
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211056901
In response to recent calls to incorporate Implicit Trait Policies (ITPs) into personality research, the current study examined the construct-related validity of ITP measures. ITPs are defined as implicit beliefs about the effectiveness of behaviors that reflect a certain trait. They are assessed by utilizing the methodology of Situational Judgment Tests. We empirically examined ( N = 339) several underlying key assumptions of ITP theory, including trait-specificity, the relation to personality traits, their context-independence, and the relation to general domain knowledge. Overall, our results showed little support for these assumptions. Although we found some confirmation for expected correlations between ITPs and personality traits, most of the observed variance in ITP measures was either method-specific or due to measurement error. We conclude that the herein examined ITP measures lack construct-related validity and discuss implications for ITP theory and assessment.
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211050170
Many constructs in personality psychology assume a hierarchical structure positing a general factor along with several narrower subdimensions or facets. Different approaches are commonly used to model such a structure, including higher-order factor models, bifactor models, single-factor models based on the responses on the observed items, and single-factor models based on parcels computed from the mean observed scores on the subdimensions. The present article investigates the consequences of adopting a certain approach for the validity of conclusions derived from the thereby obtained correlation of the most general factor to a covariate. Any of the considered approaches may closely approximate the true correlation when its underlying assumptions are met or when model misspecifications only pertain to the measurement model of the hierarchical construct. However, when misspecifications involve nonmodeled covariances between parts of the hierarchically structured construct and the covariate, higher-order models, single-factor representations, and facet-parcel approaches can yield severely biased estimates sometimes grossly misrepresenting the true correlation and even incurring sign changes. In contrast, a bifactor approach proved to be most robust and to provide rather unbiased results under all conditions. The implications are discussed and recommendations are provided.
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211046266
Narcissists successfully emerge as leaders. However, the processes by which this occurs are mostly unknown. Following a dual-pathway approach and differentiating between agentic (narcissistic admiration) and antagonistic (narcissistic rivalry) narcissism, we investigated the behavioral processes underlying narcissists’ leadership emergence in social groups. We applied data from a multimethodological laboratory study ( N = 311) comprising three groups of variables: personality traits, expressed interaction behaviors, and interpersonal perceptions. Prior to the laboratory sessions, participants provided self-reported answers to various narcissism measures. Interpersonal perceptions were obtained from round-robin ratings after participants completed the Lost on the Moon task in small groups. Participants’ behaviors during the group discussion were videotaped and coded by trained raters. Results supported the notion of a pathway from agentic narcissism to leadership (measured as target effects of being seen as a leader) determined by narcissistic admiration, dominant-expressive behavior, and being seen as assertive. To clarify narcissism’s relationship to leadership emergence, the effects were (a) contrasted with narcissism’s effects on popularity and (b) set in relation to process pathways leading from intelligence and physical attractiveness to leadership. The findings underscore the benefits of a behavioral pathway approach for unravelling the impact of narcissism on leadership emergence.
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211048728
Based on a perspective on personality coherence as the extent to which personality-relevant characteristics are differentiated and integrated within a person in his or her environment, we propose a synthesis that builds on and harmonizes existing and partly conflicting theories, methodological approaches, and empirical findings. This understanding of personality coherence needs clear definitions of person and environment characteristics. We define traits as characteristics of the person, adaptations as characteristics of the person-in-contexts, and states as characteristics of the person-in-situations. Thus, our synthesis involves concepts of environments and person-environment units. Next, we provide testable criteria to differentiate characteristics of persons from characteristics of person-environment units and to identify dispositional traits for a narrow-sense perspective on personality coherence. We raise awareness of the importance of fit between (profiles of) person and environment characteristics for an understanding of the integrated uniqueness of persons in their environments. We outline implications of this broader perspective on personality coherence for personality development, self-regulation, social integration, well-being, and psychological interventions. Lastly, we conclude that the analysis of an individual’s uniqueness and personality differences requires information about how well-defined, well-differentiated, well-integrated, and well-operationalized person(ality) variables are actually expressed in, or interact and transact with, the individual environment.
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211045825
Research examining the associations between major life events and personality trait development is mixed. Work that evaluates perceptions of life events and how those perceptions are themselves associated with personality traits may help clarify the existing literature. We used a large student sample ( N = 1,509) and a demographically diverse sample from a Qualtrics panel ( N = 552) to conduct exploratory analyses examining the associations between the big five personality traits and perceptions of life events. Results suggested that (a) associations between personality and beliefs about event-related personality change differ between students and more representative samples, (b) associations between personality and event perceptions are often nuanced, and (c) event perceptions are not merely proxies for personality traits. These studies highlight the importance of subjective event perceptions in the study of major life events and personality.
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211043023
Research on self-control has increasingly acknowledged the importance of self-regulatory strategies, with strategies in earlier stages of the developing tempting impulse thought to be more effective than strategies in later stages. However, recent research on emotion regulation has moved away from assuming that some strategies are per se and across situations more adaptive than others. Instead, strategy use that is variable to fit situational demands is considered more adaptive. In the present research, we transfer this dynamic process perspective to self-regulatory strategies in the context of persistence conflicts. We investigated eight indicators of strategy use (i.e., strategy intensity, instability, inertia, predictability, differentiation, diversity, and within- and between-strategy variability) in an experience sampling study ( N = 264 participants with 1,923 observations). We found that variability between strategies was significantly associated with self-regulatory success above and beyond mean levels of self-regulatory strategy use. Moreover, the association between trait self-control on one hand and everyday self-regulatory success and affective well-being on the other hand was partially mediated by between-strategy variability. Our results do not only show the benefits of variable strategy use for individual’s self-regulatory success but also the benefits of more strongly connecting the fields of emotion regulation and self-control research.
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211041852
The notion that adversity leads to enduring improvements in psychological functioning carries promise given the diverse adversities individuals confront over their life course. However, research on posttraumatic growth (PTG) has relied on cross-sectional research designs, which severely limit the ability to discern whether growth transpires following adversity. Our goal was to examine whether PTG is possible across a diverse array of outcomes and identify factors that promote PTG. We analyzed data from a longitudinal, prospective study that assessed midlife participants monthly for a period of 2 years. Over the study period, 276 participants experienced a major life stressor, and multiphase multilevel models were used to examine whether PTG transpired in life satisfaction, gratitude, compassion, generativity, meaning-making, and religiosity/spirituality. On average, life satisfaction, generativity, and meaning-making declined following adversity; substantial between-person differences were observed across all outcomes. Our multidimensional approach revealed that, on average, individuals experienced PTG in less than one outcome. More anticipated support and less interpersonal strain were consistently associated with positive functioning in each outcome. Our discussion focuses on how multidimensional approaches to studying PTG promise to disentangle which outcomes potentially grow following adversity and illuminate best research practices for examining PTG, laying the groundwork for future research.
European Journal of Personality; https://doi.org/10.1177/08902070211040978
Self-direction values (e.g., independence, curiosity) are among the most important values to people worldwide. However, it is not clear what encourages their development. We propose that self-esteem may be associated with the development of self-direction values because feelings of self-worth provide the confidence needed for independent pursuit. As both independence and self-esteem develop during adolescence, we examined longitudinal associations between self-direction values and self-esteem in adolescents. Study 1 ( NT1 = 527, 55.6% girls, Mage = 16.24, SD = .71, NT2 = 198) included two annual waves of data collection. Study 2 ( Noverall = 486, 55.6% girls, initial Mage = 13.76, SD = .51, NT1 = 418, NT2 = 420, NT3 = 426, NT4 = 387) included four annual waves. In the studies, a cross-lagged panel model and a random-intercept cross-lagged panel model showed that adolescents who feel worthy are more likely to experience an increase in the importance of values of independent thoughts and actions relative to other values. Partial support was found for the opposite direction of association. The results were replicated across longitudinal studies of varying duration and across measures. We discuss the results in light of theories of self-esteem, values, and specifically the development of self-direction values.