European Journal of Personality
ISSN / EISSN : 0890-2070 / 1099-0984
Published by: SAGE Publications (10.1177)
Total articles ≅ 1,506
Latest articles in this journal
European Journal of Personality; doi:10.1177/08902070211028696
This prospective longitudinal study examined whether repeated written narration of relational transgressions was associated with increases in empathy, humility, and compassion over 1 year. Although engagement in reflective and meaning-making processing styles has been theorized to facilitate adversarial growth existing research has been limited by methodological issues and has yet to examine whether this mechanism is associated with character trait changes over time. Participants provided ratings of trait empathy, humility, and compassion in 5 waves at 3-month intervals. In Wave 2, participants provided a written narrative describing a recent relational transgression against their romantic partner. Participants then engaged in repeated narration of recent romantic transgressions in Waves 3 through 5. The narratives were coded for redemption, positive self-event connections, and degree of personal responsibility taken. Linear growth curve models were used to examine the extent to which these narrative themes were associated with character growth. Overall, there was little consistent and robust evidence across models that narration was associated with changes in empathy, humility, and compassion. The implications for research into adversarial growth are discussed in reference to the appropriateness of operationalizing adversarial growth as character growth and the extent to which relational transgressions can facilitate adversarial growth.
Published: 4 July 2021
European Journal of Personality; doi:10.1177/08902070211028104
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European Journal of Personality; doi:10.1177/08902070211028362
We present a novel personality assessment method that applies social cognitive personality theory, and more specifically, the Knowledge and Appraisal Personality Architecture model (KAPA; Cervone, 2004 ; 2021 ; see Scott & Cervone, 2016 ). Our assessment method generates descriptions of how personality structures, including temperament, beliefs, goals, and evaluative standards, are activated in “functionally equivalent” situations to generate if–then personality signatures ( Mischel, 2004 ). These descriptions represent models of personality coherence, which we characterize as strong attractor states. We define personality incoherence as nonexistent or perturbed attractor states, in which the situational “if” does not consistently produce a coherent “then” pattern of thinking, feeling, and behaving. We provide a step-by-step description of our personality assessment method, and include lists of measures that can be used to assess temperament, beliefs, goals, and standards. To illustrate our personality assessment method, we present a case study of a man in his forties who met criteria for persistent depressive disorder, with intermittent major depressive episodes, with current episode and generalized anxiety disorder. For this client, we describe two “attractor states,” one maladaptive and one adaptive, each providing an example of personality coherence. We conclude by discussing potential future directions and limitations of our personality assessment method.
European Journal of Personality; doi:10.1177/08902070211026793
Models of basic personality structure are among the most widely used frameworks in psychology and beyond, and they have considerably advanced the understanding of individual differences in a plethora of consequential outcomes. Over the past decades, two such models have become most widely used: the Five Factor Model (FFM) or Big Five, respectively, and the HEXACO Model of Personality. However, there is no large-scale empirical evidence on the general comparability of these models. Here, we provide the first comprehensive meta-analysis on (a) the correspondence of the FFM/Big Five and HEXACO dimensions, (b) the scope of trait content the models cover, and (c) the orthogonality (i.e., degree of independence) of dimensions within the models. Results based on 152 (published and unpublished) samples and 6,828 unique effects showed that the HEXACO dimensions incorporate notable conceptual differences compared to the FFM/Big Five dimensions, resulting in a broader coverage of the personality space and less redundancy between dimensions. Moreover, moderator analyses revealed substantial differences between operationalizations of the FFM/Big Five. Taken together, these findings have important theoretical and practical implications for the understanding of basic personality dimensions and their assessment.
European Journal of Personality; doi:10.1177/08902070211017760
The Values in Action (VIA) framework maps 24 character strengths onto six more abstract virtues through a theoretical classification. However, compared to other individual difference constructs, there is little consensus about the factor-analytic structure of the VIA trait space. Applying Horn’s parallel analysis, Goldberg’s Bass-ackwards approach, and cross-country congruency analysis, we scrutinize the factor-analytic solutions-hierarchy of the 24 VIA strengths with the aim to identify one or more useful global levels of abstraction (akin to the Big Five, HEXACO/Big Six, or personality metatraits). We assessed the 24 character strengths with the psychometrically refined IPIP-VIA-R inventory in two large and heterogeneous samples from Germany and the UK (total N ≈ 2,000). Results suggested that three global dimensions suffice to capture the essence of character strengths: Level III recovered more than 50% of the total variation of the 24 character strengths in well-interpretable, global/general, cross-culturally replicable dimensions. We provisionally labeled them positivity, dependability, and mastery. Their superordinate Level-II-dimensions were reminiscent of the “Big Two” personality metatraits Dynamism and Social Self-Regulation. Our results advance the understanding of the VIA character trait space and may serve as a basis for developing scales to assess these global dimensions.
European Journal of Personality, Volume 35, pp 418-420; doi:10.1177/08902070211022491
European Journal of Personality; doi:10.1177/08902070211022131
This paper reports two studies that explore complementary aspects of personality coherence. Study 1 addressed cross-situational coherence in contextualized psychological response. Idiographically-tailored methods assessed individuals’ (i) beliefs about their personal attributes, (ii) subjective “mappings” of these attributes to everyday circumstances, and (iii) self-reported contextualized action tendencies. A novel index of idiographic–nomothetic relations gauged the degree to which the idiographic methods yield unique information. Participants’ mappings commonly deviated from the structure of nomothetic trait categories; people often grouped together contextualized action tendencies traditionally associated with different trait categories. The idiographic mappings predicted cross-situational coherence in action tendencies. Study 2 asked whether the contextualization of personal qualities would be evident when people merely are asked to describe their personal attributes in natural language. Participants wrote narratives describing positive and negative qualities. Narratives were coded for the presence of three linguistic features: conditional statements, probabilistic statements, and personality trait inconsistencies. All three occurred frequently. Furthermore, they co-occurred; among participants who described trait-inconsistent attributes, the large majority spontaneously cited conditions in which these attributes are manifested. People who recognize that they possess inconsistent personal qualities may nonetheless attain a coherent understanding of themselves by spontaneously developing a contextually-embedded sense of self.
European Journal of Personality; doi:10.1177/08902070211022477
We respond to El-Hout et al.’s commentary on our paper ‘Men, Women and STEM: Why the Differences and What Should Be Done?’. El-Hout et al. challenge several aspects of the position we present in the paper and outline their recent work on the concept of ‘masculine defaults’: a plausible contributor to the gender gaps found in some STEM fields. For the most part, El-Hout et al. present our views fairly and accurately. In a number of places, however, they misdescribe them, especially when it comes to policy options. In this response, we clarify and expand on our earlier arguments and explore various interesting issues raised by El-Hout et al.’s commentary.
European Journal of Personality; doi:10.1177/08902070211014055
Recent theoretical accounts on the causes of trait change emphasize the potential relevance of states. In the same vein, reactions to daily stress have been shown to prospectively predict change in well-being, speaking for the proposition that state dynamics can be a precursor to long-term change in more stable individual-differences characteristics. A common analysis approach towards linking state dynamics such as stress reactivity and change in some more stable individual differences characteristic has been a two-step approach, modeling state dynamics and trait change separately. In this paper, we elaborate on one-step procedures to simultaneously model state dynamics and trait change, realized in the multilevel structural equation modeling framework. We highlight three distinct advantages over the two-step approach which pre-exists in the methodological literature, and we disseminate these advantages to a larger audience. We target a readership of substantive researchers interested in the relationships between state dynamics and traits or trait change, and we provide them with a tutorial style paper on state-of-the-art methods on these topics.
European Journal of Personality; doi:10.1177/08902070211017746
Personality is a study of persons. However, persons exist within contexts, and personality coherence emerges from persons in contexts. But persons and environments bidirectionally influence each other, with persons selecting into and modifying their contexts, which also have lasting influences on personality. Thus, environmental change should produce changes in personality. Alternatively, environmental changes may produce few changes. This paradoxical viewpoint is based on the idea that novel environments have no predefined appropriate way to behave, which allows preexisting personality systems to stay coherent. We test these two perspectives by examining longitudinal consistency idiographic personality coherence using a quasi-experimental design (N = 50; total assessments = 5093). Personality coherence was assessed up to one year before the COVID-19 pandemic and again during lockdown. We also test antecedents and consequences of consistency, examining both what prospectively predicts consistency and what consistency prospectively predicts. Overall, consistency was modest but there were strong individual differences, indicating some people were quite consistent despite environmental upheaval. Moreover, there were relatively few antecedents and consequences of consistency, with the exception of some goals and domains of satisfaction predicting consistency, leaving open the question of why changes in coherence occur.