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ISSN / EISSN : 1802-4637 / 2336-3177
Total articles ≅ 495
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Petr Knecht
Book review on Fasora, L., Hanuš, J. Mýty a tradice středoevropské univerzitní kultury. Brno: Masarykova univerzita, 2019, 220 s.
Kateřina Kubíková, Isabella Pavelková, Aneta Boháčová
Objectives. We investigated the biological response of organism to stress in real situations at school in adolescents. We were interested in how stress is manifested in adolescents without anxiety and in adolescents with a tendency to anxiety experiencing. The aim of the study is to analyse changes in salivary cortisol levels during stressful situation at school. Hypotheses. The analyses verified how cortisol levels change in situations associated with the threat of social assessment in the school environment in individuals without anxiety and anxious; H1a–c: Anxiety individuals will have higher cortisol levels in all monitored situations compared to adolescentswithout anxiety. We also focused on the possible links between an individual’s tendency to experience anxiety and the type of stress response; H2: Anxiety individuals will show a different development of cortisol levels between situations A, B and C compared to adolescents without anxiety. We also examined the relationships between cortisol levels and cognitive and emotional fear. H3: Anxiety individuals will show significant links between cortisol levels and cognitive and emotional fear in the achievement situation. Methods. The research group was comprised of 238 adolescents in the first phase of the study. The final sample for salivary cortisol analysis was comprised of 38 participants aged 12−14 years. The questionnaires battery contains Piers-Harris II, B-JEPI and TAI. Results. The results show that in both groups of adolescents without anxiety and anxious adolescents, cortisol has a demonstrably different development trend during the day. Furthermore, anxious adolescents showed demonstrably lower cortisol levels at school compared to adolescents without anxiety, in adolescents without anxiety, we observed higher cortisol levels and fall of cortisol level during the day. Our analyses showed that stronger relationships between cortisol and test anxiety are shown especially by anxiety adolescents compared to adolescents without anxiety. Limitations. The limitation is a smaller research sample and the selection of situations in which the level of salivary cortisol was evaluated. The important limitation is the fact that the first sampling was taken at different times after awakening, because the cortisol levels change more dynamically in this part of the day.
Jan Slavík, Tomáš Janík, Jiří Kohout, Tereza Češková, Pavel Mentlík, Petr Najvar
This theoretical study builds on Fisherman‘s view of active content as an agent of cognitive change and on Kvasz’s theorem that cognitive changes on the level of historical cultural epistemology and cognitive changes on the level of student’s personal epistemology can be explain through the same typology. The paper looks for the clarification of this agreement through concepts like “intentionality”, “content transformation” and the “instrumentalization of experience”. The educational potential of active content between the cultural and the personal level is explained with reference to the concept of “meme”, which represents the creation of active content in cultural history as well as the distribution of active content within society and its influence upon an individual. The tools for meme replication in educational environment are learning tasks; they generate cognitive changes in students insomuch as they have sound semantic and logical structure of cognitive schemata. Upon this explanatory basis authors interpret Kvasz’s typology of cognitive changes that stems from the analysis of scientific revolutions in the cultural history.
ORBIS SCHOLAE, Volume 14, pp 73-92; https://doi.org/10.14712/23363177.2021.5

A number of studies have shown the impact of teachers’ attitudes on student achievement. One of the concepts through which teachers’ attitudes can be operationalized is academic optimism. It includes perceptions of self-efficacy, trust in students and their parents, and an emphasis on academic outcomes. The influence of academic optimism on student achievement was demonstrated in the Czech Republic in lower secondary education. This study examines its application at the upper secondary level. The research seeks answer to the question of whether teachers’ academic optimism influences educational outcomes in mathematics and reading literacy, taking into account prior achievement, socioeconomic status, school composition and type of study (grammar vs. vocational). The analysis using multilevel structural equation modelling in the Mplus program was performed on data collected in 2016 and 2018 from 2320 students in the first and third years of grammar schools, and secondary technical and apprenticeship schools from 117 classes in 66 secondary schools and from 795 upper secondary teachers. Findings revealed that teachers’ attitudes differ between secondary school types. However, their influence on student outcomes could not be proven at the upper secondary school level.
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