ISSN / EISSN : 2352-7714 / 2352-7714
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 322
Latest articles in this journal
One Health; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100331
The World Health Organization (WHO) has been implementing antimicrobial surveillance with a “One Health” approach, known as the Global Surveillance ESBL E. coli Tricycle Project. We describe the implementation of the Tricycle Project (pilot) in Indonesia, focusing on its results, challenges and recommendations. ESBL E. coli was identified in 116 blood cultures of patients with bloodstream infections, with 100 rectal swabs collected from pregnant women, 240 cecums of broiler, and 119 environmental samples, using the standardized method according to the guidelines. ESBL-producing E. coli was found in 40 (40%) of the 100 pregnant women, while the proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli was 57.7% among the total E. coli-induced bloodstream infections. ESBL-producing E. coli was isolated from 161 (67.1%) out of 240 broilers. On the other hand, the average concentration of E. coli in the water samples was 2.0 × 108 CFU/100 ml, and the ratio of ESBL-producing E. coli was 12.8% of total E. coli. Unfortunately, 56.7% of questionnaires for patients were incomplete. The Tricycle Project (pilot) identified that the proportion of ESBL-producing E. coli was very high in all types of samples, and several challenges and obstacles were encountered during the implementation of the study in Indonesia. The finding of this study have implication to health/the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance. We recommend continuing this project and extending this study to other provinces to determine the AMR burden as the baseline in planning AMR control strategies in Indonesia. We also recommend improving the protocol of this study to minimize obstacles in the field.
One Health; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100332
The emerging coronavirus diseases such as COVID-19, MERS, and SARS indicated that animal coronaviruses (CoVs) spillover to humans are a huge threat to public health. Therefore, we needed to understand the CoVs carried by various animals. Wild hedgehogs were collected from rural areas in Wuhan and Xianning cities in Hubei Province for analysis of CoVs. PCR results showed that 5 out of 51 (9.8%) hedgehogs (Erinaceus amurensis) were positive to CoVs in Hubei Province with 3 samples from Wuhan City and 2 samples from Xianning City. Phylogenetic analysis based on the partial sequence of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase showed that the CoVs from hedgehogs are classified into Merbecovirus of the genus Betacoronavirus; the hedgehog CoVs formed a phylogenetic sister cluster with human MERS-CoVs and bat MERS-related CoVs. Among the 12 most critical residues of receptor binding domain in MERS-CoV for binding human Dipeptidyl peptidase 4, 3 residuals were conserved between the hedgehog MERS-related CoV obtained in this study and the human MERS-CoV. We concluded that hedgehogs from Hubei Province carried MERS-related CoVs, indicating that hedgehogs might be important in the evolution and transmission of MERS-CoVs, and continuous surveillance of CoVs in hedgehogs was important.
One Health; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100330
In this study, initial elements of a modelling framework aimed to become a spatial forecasting model for the transmission risk of West Nile virus (WNV) are presented. The model describes the dynamics of a WNV epidemic in population health states of mosquitoes, birds and humans and was applied to the case of Greece for the period 2010–2019. Calibration was performed with the available epidemiological data from the Hellenic Centre for Disease Control and Prevention and the environmental data from the European Union's earth observation program, Copernicus. Numerical results of the model for each municipality were evaluated against observations. Specifically, the occurrence of WNV, the number of infected humans and the week of incidence predicted from the model were compared to the corresponding numbers from observations. The results suggest that dynamic downscaling of a climate-dependent epidemiological model is feasible down-to roughly 80km2. This below nomenclature of territorial units for statistics (NUTS) 3 level represents the municipalities being the lowest level of administrative units, able to cope with WNV and take actions. The average detection probability in hindcast mode was 72%, improving strongly as the number of infected humans increased. Using the developed model, we were also able to show the fundamental importance of the May temperatures in shaping the WNV dynamics. The modeling framework couples epidemiological and environmental dynamical variables with surveillance data producing risk maps downscaled at a local level. The approach can be expanded to provide targeted early warning probabilistic forecasts that can be used to inform public health policy decision making.
One Health, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100328
We analyzed how the virus spreads to local communities, based on the results of an epidemiological investigation of a religious facility in which a large group of patients was infected. Furthermore, we report for the first time in South Korea that a domestic cat was infected with SARS-CoV-2.
One Health, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100327
RMBD (acronym of Raw Meat Based Diet) and BARF diets (acronym for Biologically Appropriate Raw Food or Bones and Raw Food) account dietary regimens based on raw ingredients (including raw meat), popular in pet feeding. Animal tissues and organs as well as other uncooked ingredients are more and more popularly used by pet owners to feed household pets. However, the increased risk of exposure to microbiological and parasitic agents poses the question as to whether such diets may be recommendable to be handled and offered to domestic cats and dogs co-living in domestic and urban environment. Above all, the threat of human and animal infections by parasites from raw meat fed to pets is not sufficiently explored and tracked, meanwhile deserving particular surveillance, instead. At this regard, raw meat feeding to pets may represent a route of exposure to the increased risk of environmental load. In fact, some parasites typically found in rural environment can be given the chance to complete their life-cycle, for the closeness between definitive and intermediate hosts. This is of particular concern, as potentially infected pets serving as definitive hosts can become a continuous source of environmental diffusion of parasites, both at domestic and urban level. The handling of raw meat requires adequate knowledge and awareness of the hygienic principles to prevent the onset of disorders related to both manipulation by pet owners and uncooked food consumption by the pet. This review aimed to shed a comprehensive overview of the hygienic aspects related to raw pet feeding, as to handling of raw meat in domestic environment, with special emphasis on parasitic agents and related zoonotic hazards.
One Health, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100329
Veterinary service is one of the pillars to restore One Health in Myanmar. In the immediate future, international support provided to Myanmar can relieve food shortage and some humanitarian crises. In the long run, societal trauma from the military coup and violence, infrastructure breakdown, and economic downturn complicated by the COVID-19 pandemic will make recovery of the nation harder. While the building blocks to achieve peace and humanitarianism are long and complicated, part of the interim solution is to restore Myanmar veterinary services. The restoration will ease food scarcity in the short-run, reduce sylvatic and zoonotic infection risks and re-capitalise societal infrastructure building in the long-run. Myanmar society cannot rebuild on its own—it needs international and national support to facilitate peace and humanitarianism.
One Health, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100325
One Health is transiting from multidisciplinary to transdisciplinary concepts and its viewpoints should move from ‘proxy for zoonoses’, to include other topics (climate change, nutrition and food safety, policy and planning, welfare and well-being, antimicrobial resistance (AMR), vector-borne diseases, toxicosis and pesticides issues) and thematic fields (social sciences, geography and economics). This work was conducted to map the One Health landscape in Africa.
One Health; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100326
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a major threat to humans and animals globally. Antimicrobial stewardship has been acknowledged as a primary strategy to tackle AMR. An important first step for antimicrobial stewardship is to quantify antimicrobial use (AMU). In Fiji, there are currently no data on AMU in livestock farms. This study aimed to quantify AMU in different livestock enterprises (beef, dairy, broiler, and layer) and farming systems (backyard, semi-commercial and commercial) in Central and Western divisions of Viti Levu, Fiji. A survey with 210 livestock farmers and 26 managers representing 276 enterprises was conducted between May and September 2019. The difference in AMU between different livestock enterprises and farming systems was investigated using ANOVA. In Fiji, the estimated annual antibiotic use in livestock was lower than the global average (44 compared with 118 mg/PCU). However, this use was concentrated in 56% of participant farms (the remaining 44% did not use antimicrobials). Total estimated quarterly anthelmintic use (20,797 mg) was not affected by farming systems but was highest (P< 0.001) in dairy enterprises (24,120 mg) and lowest in broiler enterprises (4 mg). Quarterly antibiotic use was different between the enterprises regardless of the metrics used to quantify the use (P< 0.05). Total estimated quarterly mg/PCU of antibiotic use was highest (P< 0.001) in broiler enterprises (12.4 mg/PCU) and lowest in beef enterprises (0.2 mg/PCU). For all other ESVAC metrics, total estimated antibiotic use was higher in poultry and lower in cattle enterprises. Backyard systems used less antibiotics (total mg) than commercial systems, but for other metrics, the trend was reverse. The use of both antibiotics and anthelmintics (rather than antibiotics or anthelmintics alone, or no AMU) was associated with dairy enterprises (Χ2 = 123, P< 0.001). Further studies should be conducted to quantify and evaluate the drivers of AMU in Fijian livestock farms. In addition, differences in AMU between different enterprises and farming systems suggest that strategies to reduce AMU should be tailored to specific settings.
One Health, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100324
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) can be highlighted as one of the most significant health concerns among the last decades, for which antimicrobial drug use in food-producing animals has contributed as one of the major drivers. Food-producing animals are one of the most important and rapidly expanding commercial agricultural sectors worldwide but there is currently limited knowledge on the temporal and geographical distribution of scientific research on antimicrobial resistance in food-producing animals. We provide a global overview of the spatial and temporal trends of scientific knowledge on AMR in food-producing animals. Peer-reviewed papers of AMR on food-producing animals were retrieved from the Web of Science, systemized and dissected. The final validated dataset contained 1341 occurrences observations covering the 1957–2018 period. There has been a shift of research efforts, both geographically and temporally, emphasizing regional differences in food animal production and changing practices in the food production industry. It becomes evident that many regions have been poorly surveyed, wherein intensified sampling and testing efforts should be most valuable. This systematization of knowledge will be crucial in helping to determine how to optimally allocate limited resources available for AMR monitor and control, aiding in the prediction where the threat of new resistant infections will be greatest. AMR research in food-producing animals in developing countries is markedly growing, reflecting changes in food animals production systems but also posing a particularly significant threat, not only due to intensive animal production, but also exacerbated by poor sanitation. We highlight that the use of antibiotics in food producing animals is pervasive, calling for urgent action. These findings raise the possibility to finetuning key priorities on AMR global issues.
One Health, Volume 13; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.onehlt.2021.100323
This paper compares the relative frequency of zoonotic disease emergence associated with food animals versus emergence from other animal sources and explores differences in disease characteristics and drivers of emergence between the two sources. It draws on a published compilation of 202 Emerging Infectious Zoonotic Disease (EIZD) events for the period 1940–2004. Of the 202 zoonotic EID events in the dataset, 74 (36.6%) were associated with animals kept for food production, which acted as reservoir for the zoonotic pathogen in 64 events and as intermediate / amplifying host in 8 events. Significant differences exist both in the characteristics of the causal agents and the drivers of emergence of zoonotic diseases from food animals and non-food animals. However, the prevailing policy debate on prevention, detection and control of EIZDs largely focuses on diseases of non-food animal origin (wildlife), neglecting the role of food animals. Policies and investments that ensure appropriate veterinary public health measures along and within food animal value chains are essential to mitigate the global risk of EIZDs, particularly in developing regions where the livestock sector is experiencing rapid growth and structural transformation.