Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal

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EISSN : 2321-7227
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 315
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Latest articles in this journal

, Hemant Uttamrao Rathod, Arushi Kumar, Virendra K. Pal
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 30-34; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i330216

Angular dermoid cysts are common periorbital tumours in children. They are tumours of embryonic origin that arise along bony sutures as a result of abnormal ectodermal sequestration during development. Angular dermoid cysts usually present in early childhood, are characteristically small benign and slow growing lesion. External angular dermoid present in the superotemporal quadrant is more common compared to internal angular dermoid in the superonasal quadrant. Early surgical excision is recommended and performed in the majority of cases, particularly to restore facial cosmesis. Here we report an unusual case of a large internal angular dermoid cyst indenting the globe in a 3-year-old girl presented with left upper eyelid mass at medial angle since one year of age. The cyst was excised completely by anterior orbitotomy through a small superior lid crease incision.
Ahmed El-Shehawy, Ahmed El-Massry, Mohamed El- Shorbagy, Mohamed Atef, Moataz Sabry
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 24-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i330215

Objective: To evaluate safety and efficacy of using spherical intraocular lens followed by wavefront guided surface ablation in correction of preexisting regular corneal astigmatism. Methods: This retrospective case series study included 20 eyes of 16 patients having visually significant cataracts and co-existing regular corneal astigmatism. The patients underwent phacoemulsification with spherical intraocular lens and wavefront guided PRK three months later. Results: There was a statistically significant difference for Uncorrected Visual Acuity UCVA, Best Corrected Visual Acuity BCVA, Manifest Refraction Spherical Equivalent MRSE, and refractive astigmatism postoperatively regarding all these parameters (P˂0.05). Conclusion: Astigmatism correction during or even after cataract surgery is a safe and effective method to improve visual outcomes. Longer period of follow up are required to evaluate stability of this technique and possibility of regression.
Thiago Sande Miguel, Vinicius Sande Miguel, Tais Cristina Rossett, , Maurício Bastos Pereira
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 19-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i330214

Aims: To describe the importance of optical coherence tomography and autofluorescence in the documentation of papillary colobomatous fossette. Presentation of Case: F.D.O. A 14-year-old male student is referred for evaluation of the fundus of the eye due to an alteration in the optic disc noticed by another professional who did not feel safe in the follow-up. The patient was completely asymptomatic at the time of the consultation and did not claim previous visual complaints. She denied systemic and ocular comorbidities and did not use any systemic and topical medication. Discussion: The congenital optic disc pit is a rare and typically unilateral congenital anomaly, consisting of a retinal herniation that extends into the subarachnoid space through a lamina cribrosa defect. 8,13,15,16 Although this condition, in most cases, does not present complications and remains asymptomatic, it can sometimes worsen with a significant decrease in visual acuity. This more serious condition can be characterized by important macular alterations, such as serous retinal detachment, cystic degenerations and degenerative pigmentary alterations. 14,16,17,18 The patient in the present report did not have any visual complaints and did not present severe structural and functional retinal damage, which highlights the importance of early diagnosis. Conclusions: The colobomatous papilla pit is characterized by the presence of isolated cavities in the optic disc head secondary to a developmental disorder of the primitive epithelial papilla. Its incidence is 1:10,000 people without sexual or racial predilection. It presents, in most cases, asymptomatic, unilateral in 85-95% of cases and rarely with more than one pit per disc.
I. M. Kornilovskiy
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 7-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i330213

Purpose: To consider new possibilities of refractive modeling of the cornea by the radiation of an argon-fluorine excimer laser in ablative and subablative modes after saturation of the stroma with riboflavin. Materials and Methods: Experimental (20 pork, 90 rabbit eyes) and clinical studies on photorefractive and phototherapeutic operations with saturation of the corneal stroma with riboflavin (610 operations) were analyzed. To activate riboflavin, secondary radiation induced by exposure to ablative and subablative energy densities was used. A quick transition to energy densities below the ablation threshold without additional calibrations was carried out using a “Microscan Visum-500” excimer laser (Optosystems, Russia). An objective assessment of the refractive keratomodelling effect and visual results was carried out according to the data of complex optometric studies. Results: Experimental and clinical studies have shown the advantages of refractive keratomodeling by theradiation of an argon-fluorine excimer laser in ablative and subablative modes after saturation of the stroma with riboflavin. Isotonic 0.25% riboflavin solution did not affect the accuracy of refractive ablation and blocked the negative effect of induced secondary radiation on keratocytes and corneal nerves. This reduced the aseptic inflammatory response and the risk of developing an irreversible form of fibroplasia. Ablation with riboflavin initiated a damped crosslinking effect, which increased the photoprotective and strength properties of the thinned cornea. A refractive keratomodelling effect was found when energy densities were applied below the stromal ablation threshold. The magnitude of this refractive effect depended on the total radiation dose and the topography of the affected area. This approach made it possible to implement laser-induced refractive keratomodeling without ablation of the corneal stroma. Conclusion: Refractive modeling of the cornea by the radiation of an argon-fluorine excimer laser in ablative and subablative modes after saturation of the stroma with riboflavin opens up new possibilities in laser correction of ametropia.
Kishan A. Makvana,
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i330212

Background and Aim: Despite considerable progress made in the treatment of Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), it is still a common cause of reduced vision in children in developed countries, and its prevalence is increasing. This is a preventable disease and responds to treatments appropriately if diagnosed at early stages, but in case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, it may lead to blindness. The aim of the present study is to describe the incidence, severity, and risk factors of ROP in a tertiary healthcare center. Material and Methods: This was a prospective, observational, nonrandomized study conducted in a tertiary-level neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a teaching hospital in Gujarat. A total of 130 preterm neonates admitted in the NICU during the study period were screened for ROP as per the guidelines of NNF of India. Screening was done under topical anesthesia, and findings were documented according to the International Classification for Retinopathy of Prematurity recommendations. The data were analyzed for gestational age, birth weight, and systemic factors predisposing to ROP. Results: Of the 130 neonates, 37 neonates were found to have ROP, with the incidence of ROP being 28.4%. The mean birth weight (1388 ± 312 g) and the mean gestational age (32.21 ± 2.50 wk) Out of the 37 neonates with ROP, 14 had a gestational age of > 32 weeks and/or birth weight of > 1500 g. ROP was classified into type 1 and type 2 as per the ETROP study, 14 (39.39%) neonates had type 1 or treatable ROP; there were no cases of APROP in our study; ROP regressed without any intervention in 13 neonates; 7 neonates were defaulters; and 11 neonates were treated with laser. Conclusion: ROP is strongly associated with smaller, more immature, and sicker neonates. However, in our study, about 40% of neonates who developed ROP were of higher gestation (> 32 wk) and birth weight (> 1500 g). The analysis of risk factors for ROP development will help to understand and predict it in severe preterm infants.
Adunola Ogunro, Godswill Inye Nathaniel
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i230211

Aims: To evaluate the surgical outcome of combined phacoemulsification cataract surgery plus posterior chamber intraocular and trabeculectomy with adjunctive 5-Fluorouracil versus trabeculectomy with 5-Fluorouracil in the management of Primary open angle glaucoma. Study Design: it was retrospective comparative interventional study Place and Duration of Study: Glaucoma Unit, Eye foundation Hospital Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria between January 2015, and December 2017 Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of consecutive 29 eyes (29 patients) who had trabeculectomy with 5-Fluorouracil compared with 26 eyes (26 patients) who had combined phacotrabeculectomy with 5-Fluorouracil from 2015 to 2017. All patients had a minimum follow up of 3 months. Results: The mean age of 54.48±14.42 years in Trabeculectomy group was significantly (p>0.001) lower than 70.76±7.22 years for the Phacotrabeculectomy group. The mean preoperative intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medication were similar for the two groups (19.86±9.63mmHg versus 22.23±8.99mmHg; 2.66±1.20 versus 2.73±0.72 medication, trabeculectomy versus phacotrabeculectomy respectively). The postoperative IOP and glaucoma medication after a mean follow up period of 17.11±9.81 months was not significantly different between the two groups (11.55±2.71mmHg versus 12.31±4.33mmHg, p=0.436 for trabeculectomy versus phacotrabeculectomy respectively). Both groups significantly required fewer number of antiglaucoma medication at final follow-up (1.14±0.92 vs 1.46±1.10, trabeculectomy vs phacotrabeculectomy. In the trabeculectomy group, 25 (86.2%) had IOP of ≤15mmHg with or without topical antiglaucoma drops. In the phacotrabeculectomy, 21 (80.76%) had IOP of ≤15mmHg with or without topical antiglaucoma medication (Qualified success). On the other hand, 8 (27.58%) had IOP of ≤15mmHg without topical antiglaucoma medication at the end of the follow-up in the trabeculectomy (Complete success). In the phacotrabeculectomy group, 5 (19.23%) had final IOP of ≤15mmHg without topical antiglaucoma medication. Few complications occurred in both groups. Conclusion: Phacotrabeculectomy augmented with 5-Fluorouracil gave comparable surgical success to 5-Fluorouracil augmented trabeculectomy alone.
Thiago Sande Miguel, Ana Luiza Mansur Souto, Fernanda Bekman Diniz Mitleg Rocha, Tais Cristina Rossett, Felipe Bekman Diniz Mitleg Rocha, Eduardo De França Damasceno,
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 25-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i230210

Aims: To describe a solar retinopathy. Presentation of Case: ALPN, 29 years old, male, with cognitive deficit that started after a car accident that occurred at the age of 6 years, attends the ophthalmology clinic of the University Hospital Antônio Pedro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil with complaints of decreased visual acuity and metamorphopsia in both eyes (AO) started approximately 8 months ago. Family members reported that after the accident, the patient had the habit of spending mornings and afternoons looking at the sun. Discussion: Solar retinopathy is caused by the photochemical and thermal effects of ultraviolet radiation on retinal cells, especially in the outer retina and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Symptoms can start a few hours after direct observation of the sun, and in most cases a bilateral involvement, although asymmetrically with variable visual acuity. Conclusions: A Solar retinopathy has a multifactorial origin, as it is related to the exposure time and the susceptibility of each individual. The use of hats and sunglasses with protection against ultraviolet rays and anti-reflection are effective preventive measures to be adopted if there is a need for exposure and observation of sunlight.
Aécio Cunha Hora, Thiago Sande Miguel, Tais Cristina Rossett, Victor Roisman,
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 19-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i230209

Aims: To describe a Fabry disease, that it’s diagnosis was only possible through the molecular test Presentation of Case: L.A.P. female, 42 years old, lawyer, seen by the ophthalmology department for routine consultation only with refractive complaints. Fundus of the eye: Mild narrowing with increased vascular brightness and presence of pathological arteriovenous crossings. The rest of the exam was within normal limits. Therefore, a genetic test with the dosage of the α-Gal enzyme was requested, which evidenced the alteration in it, confirming the diagnosis of Fabry disease. Discussion: A Fabry Disease (FD) is an inborn error of glycosphingolipid (GL) metabolism, resulting from deficient activity of the enzyme alpha-galactosidase A (α -Gal). It has X-chromosome-linked inheritance, affecting mainly males, with an estimated prevalence of 1:40,000 males. The expression of the disease in heterozygous female patients can vary from an asymptomatic condition to a severe systemic disease, like that which occurs in men. Conclusions: The ophthalmological examination played an important role in the diagnosis, as this change is highly suggestive of the disease, in order to avoid erroneous and late diagnoses that can cause consequences for patients with this condition.
George Karetsos, Aristeidis Chandrinos
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 7-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i230208

Contrast is a measure of the amount of lightness or darkness an object has in relationship to its background. Usually, it is described as Contrast Sensitivity (CS), which actually is the inverse of the contrast threshold. More often than not, stimulus set includes grating patterns of various sizes that are presented in a stationary manner or are dynamically presented by reversing the contrast at different rates. A variety of tests were developed, in order to asses and evaluate contrast sensitivity, in many different ways. A classical method, to check for contrast sensitivity, is the Pelli-Robson contrast sensitivity chart. The Bailey-Lovie contrast sensitivity chart is another letter chart that deals with differences in the number of letters read on the high and low contrast charts, with a main drawback, the necessity to follow the size of the letters. The Functional Acuity Contrast Test is designed to identify vision loss from a variety of disorders, many of which are not detected by high or low contrast Snellen Acuity tests. The MARS Letter Contrast Sensitivity Test shows good agreement with the Pelli-Robson test and possibly it may be the alternative to the Pelli-Robson chart, in clinical practice and research.
, Neha Chhabra
Ophthalmology Research: An International Journal pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.9734/or/2021/v15i230207

Aim: To find the prevalence of choroidal tubercles in tuberculosis patients. Introduction: Tuberculosis is the most common cause of infectious cause of death especially in endemic countries. Tuberculosis infection spreads hematogenously from primary infection site to rest of the body. Ocular presentation manifests in the form of choroidal tubercles being the most common fundus change. Materials and Methods: It was a retrospective, observational hospital-based study. Total 100 tuberculosis patients were studied and their data were collected from Hospital record system from February 2020 to March 2021. Fundus examinations were reviewed and most common ocular presentation was found to be choroidal tubercles. Observations and Results: During the study period, out of 100 patients, 60% were females and 40% were males. Fundus changes were present in 14% patients and these were choroidal tubercles in 12% patients and papillitis in 2%. Choroidal tubercles were present in 7 females and 5 males. Conclusion: We concluded that choroidal tubercles is one of the most common form of ocular tuberculosis. Detection of choroidal inflammation can prevent visual loss as the ocular lesion resolves fully with timely management.
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