Insurance Markets and Companies
ISSN / EISSN : 26163551 / 25229591
Current Publisher: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 23
Latest articles in this journal
Insurance Markets and Companies, Volume 11, pp 1-10; doi:10.21511/ins.11(1).2020.01
Loss portfolio transfer (LPT) is a reinsurance treaty in which an insurer cedes the policies that have already incurred losses to a reinsurer. This operation can be carried out by an insurance company in order to reduce reserving risk and consequently reduce its capital requirement calculated, according to Solvency II. From the viewpoint of the reinsurance company, being a very complex operation, importance must be given to the methodology used to determine the price of the treaty.Following the collective risk approach, the paper examines the risk profiles and the reinsurance pricing of LPT treaties, taking into account the insurance capital requirements established by European law. For this purpose, it is essential to calculate the capital need for the risk deriving from the LPT transaction. In the case analyzed, this requirement is calculated under Solvency II legislation, considering the measure of variability determined via simulation. This quantification was also carried out for different levels of the cost of capital rate, providing a range of possible loadings to be applied to the premium. In the case of the Cost of Capital (CoC) approach, the results obtained provide a lower level of premium compared to the percentile-based method with a range between 2.69% and 1.88%. Besides, the CoC approach also provides the advantage of having an explicit parameter, the CoC rate whose specific level can be chosen by the reinsurance company based on the risk appetite.
Insurance Markets and Companies, Volume 10, pp 49-60; doi:10.21511/ins.10(1).2019.05
Insurers’ understanding of reputation importance is a key factor of their successful performance at the market. It particularly concerns life insurance sector, which has a significant development potential in Ukraine.The article aims at deepening scientific and practical essentials concerning the formation of life insurance companies’ reputation in conditions of market competition aggravation and insurance market conjuncture volatility.Based on ranking assessments used in Ukraine (Insurance Top, Mind, “My insurance agent” and the ranking of the corporate reputation management quality “REPUTATIONAL ACTIVists”), the need for ensuring the insurers’ reputation stability in conditions of acute competition at the market was substantiated. The results of financial statements analysis and corporate governance reporting of insurance companies ASKA-LIFE, TAS, KD Life, PZU Ukraine, UNIQA Life, MetLife were presented. It was substantiated that, within studying the life insurance companies’ reputation, along with main financial indicators, there is a need to analyze in details such indicators as insurance premiums and investment income for one insured from savings life insurance, average payments, current accounts payable, etc.It was proved that for reputation capital development, it is worth strengthening the role of corporate social responsibility, and to consider insurance companies’ assessment on the part of clients and employees who are brand advocates and affect the companies’ reputation formation.
Insurance Markets and Companies, Volume 10, pp 36-48; doi:10.21511/ins.10(1).2019.04
This study seeks to explore the possibility of adopting parametric insurance to manage disaster risk in Zimbabwe. The background of the research is caused by recurrent natural disasters and the failure of the government to offer disaster relief after such events. The main objective of the research is to come up with the success factors of adopting parametric insurance to manage disaster risk and its effectiveness in African countries. The study population consists of 32 employees from seven reinsurance companies and 5 from a regulatory body. Self-administered questionnaires and interviews were used to collect the data. The study assumes that Zimbabwe does not have sufficient infrastructure to establish parametric insurance, and the lack of financial capacity is another major problem. 61% of respondents confirmed that they were underwriting natural disasters and the remaining 39% were not. The natural disasters that are being covered in insurance market and under which insurance products are used were at 61%. About 39% of the reinsurance companies that are not underwriting natural disasters cited the major reasons why they do not. Most of respondents confirmed that there was no support from the government to underwrite catastrophic risks. 57% of the respondents indicated that it is not possible to adopt parametric insurance, whilst 43% of the respondents agreed that it was practical. Recommendations are made for the government and insurance providers, which include use of catastrophe bonds, government incentives and support, the creation of a clearing house and the involvement of international organizations and developing countries in adopting parametric insurance.
Insurance Markets and Companies, Volume 10, pp 26-35; doi:10.21511/ins.10(1).2019.03
The Ukrainian stock market is rated as an emerging market, which is characterized by high profitability and higher risk level as compared to developed economies. Securities transactions on the Ukrainian stock market are accompanied by stable uncertainties. Moreover, insurance is the most effective way to reduce financial risks and their negative effects. Given the current economic and political instability, financial risk insurance can ensure the economic performance of business entities and stimulate their further economic development. Financial risk insurance is the liability insurance in its nature, but its terms are often included in property insurance. This insurance sector has considerable facilities, which require activation of new insurance products that will be able to protect individual and institutional investors. Insurance and stock markets are direct competitors for limited investor resources, including strategic sources such as temporarily free institutional investor funds and household savings. In general, although there is a significant interaction between the insurance and other financial markets in Ukraine, it is hardly realized at all, unlike foreign economies, where it is used to its maximum. With the development of the insurance culture of the population and insurance in general, the relevance of insurance services in a high-risk segment like the stock market increases. The article harmonizes types of financial risks arising on the stock market with the methods of their leveling (insurance, hedging, diversification, etc.), determines the risk factors of the investor in the stock market, and specifies the professional risks of financial institutions. For the Ukrainian stock market participants, the use of two types of insurance coverage, namely, Bankers Blanket Bond and Financial Institution Professional Indemnity, is proposed.
Insurance Markets and Companies, Volume 10, pp 9-25; doi:10.21511/ins.10(1).2019.02
The aim of this article is to analyze the role of insurance for the coverage of damages deriving from natural disasters, focusing on the specific case of the Italian cathedrals. In this sense, a survey was conducted among the Italian Dioceses asking them to complete a questionnaire, through which the data useful for the analysis of the spread of insurance contracts and for other qualitative and quantitative elements linked to the decisional process of being insured were collected. The achieved coverage is equal to 29.02% of the Italian Dioceses, corresponding to 65 answers of a total of 224 contacts. In particular, the questionnaires investigate insurance presence, perception and awareness, willingness to pay and future prospects. An in-depth analysis about all the data deriving from the survey is provided, trying to compare some results and finally some considerations are presented on future research perspectives. What emerges is in some aspects surprising, because it allows to identify a significant financial culture and knowledge of the importance covered by insurance in the governance of disaster risk: for 62% of the cases analyzed, they have already underwritten this type of contract.
Insurance Markets and Companies, Volume 10, pp 1-8; doi:10.21511/ins.10(1).2019.01
Insurance Markets and Companies, Volume 9, pp 70-78; doi:10.21511/ins.09(1).2018.06
The research is aimed to evaluate the internet marketing strategies in of life insurance companies in Ukraine. The insurance service in the time of digitalization faces scenarios of implementation in the marketing strategy on-line component. The main challenge for Ukrainian life insurance companies comparatively with the world practice is non-obligatory status of such kind of insurance contracts. So, on the one hand, costs of operation, regulatory pressures and inflexible technology infrastructure are increasing, and, on the other hand, economic recession does not allow to increase the number of insured persons, premiums and profit growth.Sector of financial services is characterized by an increase in the level of competition, life insurance compelled to compete with pensions funds, banks and other financial institutions in order to defend their market share. Insurance companies marketing strategy determines how an insurer can best achieve its goals and objectives, keep existing customers and attract new ones with minimal costs.Keeping all the above problems around the study would attempt to study all the factors that contributed to the effective marketing strategies. This paper presents different marketing strategies that are taken up in life insurance services keeping in view external and internal environment of the company.
Insurance Markets and Companies, Volume 9, pp 41-69; doi:10.21511/ins.09(1).2018.05
Guaranteed Minimum Income benefit are variable annuities contract, which offer the policyholder the possibility to con- vert the guarantee level into an annuities income for life. This paper focuses on the optimal customer behavior assuming the maximization of the discounted expected future cash flows over the full life of the contract duration. Using convenient scaling properties of the contract value enables to reduce the complexity (dimension) of the problem and to characterize the policyholder’s decision as a function of the contract moneyness across four main choices: zero withdrawals, guaranteed withdrawals, lapse and the income period election. Sensitivities to key drivers such as the market volatility, the interest rate and the roll-up rate illustrate how crucial are not only the environment, but also the product design features, in order to ensure a fair and robust pricing for both customer and life insurer. In particular, the authors find that most empirical contracts are usually underpriced compared to mean optimal behavior pricing, which empirically translated into multiple updates of behavior assumptions and re-reserving by life insurers in the recent years.
Insurance Markets and Companies; doi:10.21511/ins
Insurance Markets and Companies, Volume 9, pp 32-40; doi:10.21511/ins.09(1).2018.04
This paper compares the weather insurance, weather index insurance and index futures and focuses on why China needs to develop weather indexes and adopt and trade weather index futures. It further discusses how to construct the indexes and futures and how to price them. Different from the Heating Degree Days (HDDs) and Cooling Degree Days (CDDs) used at Chicago Mercantile Exchange (CME), it develops the Extremely Heating Days (EHDs) and Extremely Cooling Days (ECDs) to derive relevant temperature-based weather index futures. Recently China has started using weather index insurance to cover farmers’ risk. Through comparisons of weather index futures with index insurance, this study shows the necessity and importance of using the weather index futures to better protect farmers and better develop China’s financial markets.