Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences
EISSN : 2394-1111
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 503
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 28 September 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 18-28; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i730246
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has inflicted real suffering in many parts of the world and is expected to impact different sectors. Lockdown is considered to be an effective measure in slowing the spread of coronavirus. The study expects to understand community and healthcare providers’ perspectives on COVID-19 and pandemic responses during and after the lockdown in Nepal. Methods and Materials: Data were collected through telephone interviews with six representatives of community-based organizations and nine healthcare providers, and the collation of information about COVID-19 from social media, news outlets and government announcements. Data were thematically coded and analyzed according to the themes. Results: Although rapid dissemination of educational information through various social media was found, people reported an information overload on COVID-19 while questioning the authenticity of their sources. Several misbeliefs on the COVID-19 virus are rooted in the Nepalese community. Lockdown for a longer period was deemed an unsustainable preventive measure that directly impacted the income source of daily-wage workers. The fear of contracting coronavirus among healthcare providers at their workplaces was further triggered by the poor working conditions and non-availability of personal protective equipment (PPE). In fighting the pandemic, screening and management of other health issues were ignored. Conclusion: The prevention measures against COVID-19 are important for the local context, however, the communities need access of basic commodities and access to reliable information to enable them to follow these measures. Availability of appropriate PPE for the healthcare providers is required to reduce the fear of contracting the virus from the patients and workplace. Essential health-care services must also be continued to help reduce excess mortality and morbidity.
Published: 27 September 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i730245
In the current pandemic, it is imperative to comprehend and advance a search forward to explore the pathogenesis of stroke in COVID-19 infected patients. In this review, we have discussed the prevalence of stroke in COVID-19 infected patients and different risk factors associated with the stroke in COVID-19. We also presented a comprehensive review on management of Stroke Patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. The COVID-19 positive patients with stroke should be treated in a designated COVID-19 health care center as per the guidelines. Study also showed that older patients with a history of cardiovascular diseases, prothrombotic state, smoking, and infection significantly had a higher likelihood of stroke incidence. The study revealed that effective treatment of COVID-19 and reduction of the inflammatory conditions may seem to be the way forward to minimize the symptomatic stroke associated with COVID-19 infection, and rehabilitation of Stroke patients should be optimal during a pandemic.
Published: 24 September 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i730244
Plants and their metabolites have been used in the treatment of various disease conditions from time immemorial. This study investigated the effect of hydro-ethanolic extract of pods of Xylopia aethiopica on reproductive hormone (follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone) in female Wistar rats. Thirty female wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups of six animals per group, per cage (n=6). Group A served as the normal control group and was administered distilled water while group B served as positive control and was administered 5 mg of standard drug (Clomid-Clomiphene Citrate). Groups C, D and E served as the treatment group and was administered 50 mg/kg, 100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg extract of X. aethiopica respectively for seven days. Administration of drugs and extract was done via oral route. The rats were thereafter copulated with their male counterparts for 72 hours and the female rats were observed throughout their gestation and the numbers of litters produced were recorded. The hormonal assay was carried out using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. Result showed a significant increase in FSH and Progesterone level (p0.05) was observed for the luteinizing hormone in the treated groups. The work thus showed that the plant could exert a positive effect on female fertility by enhancing levels of female reproductive hormones.
Published: 7 September 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 36-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630243
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant effects of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn. Stapf. Twigs in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. Study Design: The study is an experimental case-controlled study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was carried out at the Biochemistry Research Laboratory, University of Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria, between June, 2018 and April, 2019. Methodology: A total of 65 male albino rats that weighed between 150g to 200g were used for this research study. Three different extracted solvents; aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic twig extracts were administered to different groups of the rats. The male albino rats for this study were induced with a single dose of 40mg/kg b.wt, intraperitoneally of streptozotocin in 0.1M of citrate buffer, pH 4.5. The diabetic male rats were those whose fasting blood glucose (FBG) were from 250mg/dl or 13mmol/L and above. They were then divided into different groups and treated with different concentrations of aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of the plant material. At the end of treatment period, the rats were kept on fasting for 6 hours prior to the process of euthanasia, they were sacrificed and blood samples were collected through cardiac puncture for analysis into lithium heparin bottle for the estimation of oxidative stress markers, malondaldehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (TAS). Statistical analysis was done using GraphPad prism (version 6.1) software. Data generated were represented as mean and standard deviations (Mean ±S. D). Level of significant at Tukey’s Multiple Comparative Test was tested at p<0.0001. Charts were made possible with the application of Minitab version 2019. Results: The results showed that there were significant increases in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD, 414.2±1.30) ng/ml, total antioxidant status (TAS, 82.97±7.71) mU/ml, total oxidant status (TOS, 355.02± 14.02) mU/ml activity, a reduced oxidative stress index of 4.29±0.26 and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA of 18.67± 0.26mmol/L) when rats were treated with 400mg/kg of aqueous leaves of Morus mesozygia Linn. S. When compared with those of rats treated with 200mg/kg of aqueous leaf extracts of MMLS. there was a significant increases and decreases respectively. Other methods of extractions (methanolic and ethanolic), also improved the antioxidant statuses of the diabetes induced and treated rats after treatment of the extracts. Conclusion: The three extracts of Morus mesozygia Linn. S showed tremendous antioxidant effects against Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, with the methanolic extract showing the most potent effect.
Published: 26 August 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 27-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630242
This study was aimed at assessing the readiness for drug information service (DIS) provision at community pharmacies in Akwa Ibom state using a cross sectional, observational study approach. A pretested, validated questionnaire was adapted for the study. A total of 187 premises were enlisted for visits with questionnaires targeted at the superintendent pharmacists for desired responses. Response rate was 93.6%. Respondents were male (77, 44%) and female (98, 56%) with mean years of experience of respondents as 18.7 years. All respondents were aware of DIS terminologies and believed the concept to include enquiries on dosing (75%), side effects of drugs (99%), safety of drugs in cases such as pregnancy (79%), drug route of administration (80%), pill identification (66%) and substitutes to requested drugs (78%). Responses to limitations in discharging efficient DIS include non-trending service style (26%), premises requiring restructuring (26%), prohibitive setting up cost (17%) and non-availability of trained personnel (7%). At the time of this study, available resources for DIS in the premises included reference books (90%), periodicals (19%), and internet access through smart phones (60%). Secondary and tertiary sources of drug information were essentially relied on for DIS provision in the study area. There was significant association between socio-demographic characteristics such as age with readiness status (p 0.05) in the DIS approach across the state. There is need for improvement in facilities and resources for efficient discharge of DIS in the study area.
Published: 21 August 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 18-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630241
Aim: to study the antimicrobial effects of different leaves extracts of Azadirachta indica and Bryophyllum pinnatum on Staphylococcus aureus isolated from infected wound. Study Design: This study was done to determine inhibitory effects of extracts on S. aureus isolated from infected wounds. Place and Duration of Study: General hospital Onitsha, Anambra State, Nigeria, January to March 2020. Methodology: wound swabs were collected from 30 patients with infected wound. S. aureus were isolated and identified morphologically and biochemically. The leaves were collected, identified and grinded. Extraction of the leaves were done using soxhlet method with two solvents (ethanol and water). Phytochemical compositions were analyzed using standard methods. In vitro antimicrobial effect of extracts and their combination were evaluated. Results: Phytochemical analysis of extracts showed presence of saponins, flavonoids, steroids, alkaloids, tannins, cardiac glycosides and phenols except B. pinnatum aqueous extract that showed presence of flavonoids, saponins and alkaloids. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and Minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined. Among the extracts analysed, A. indica ethanol has highest zone of inhibition against S. aureus with 20.00±0.00 mm at 1000 mg/ml concentration. B. pinnatum ethanol 10.33±0.58 mm at 1000 mg/ml, A. indica aqueous extract 13.33±2.08 mm but B. pinnatum aqueous extract has no inhibitory effect. The combination of A. indica aqueous and B. pinnatum ethanol extracts, B. pinnatum and A. indica ethanol extracts and A. indica ethanol extract and B. pinnatum aqueous extracts have inhibitory effects on S. aureus except combination of A. indica aqueous and B. pinnatum aqueous which has no inhibitory effect. The result of MIC was 500 mg/ml and the MBC showed 1000 mg/ml. Conclusion: The extracts of B. pinnatum and A. indica possess antimicrobial properties for S. aureus and the plants are available and are planted worldwide. There is also need for research on other plants with antimicrobial effects.
Published: 17 August 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 10-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630240
Musa paradisiaca (plantain peel) is useful in prevention and control of numerous health problems in Ayurveda, an ancient system of medicine. The anti-ulcer activity and effects of varied dosages of its methanolic extract on gastrointestinal motility were investigated in this study. Fifteen (15) Wistar rats of 150 and 200 g were deprived of food for 24 hours; then divided into five groups (Groups I through V) of three rats each; while group I (control) received 5ml/kg of distilled water, groups II, III and IV received 100 mg/kg of indomethacin (ulceric), 5mg/kg of omeprazole (after inducing ulcer), and 200 mg/kg of M. paradisiaca respectively. After inducing ulcers with indomethacin, Group V animals were fed (orally) with 400mg/kg of extract. Oral administration of ethanol injured the mucosal lining, resulting in gastrointestinal bleeding with ulcer indexes of 13.30, 10.57, 10.62, and 9.01 in groups II to V respectively, after some time of administration of test substances. In addition, the test statistic (using ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc) on the Omeprazole and 400mg/kg extract treated groups showed a substantial protection of 8.60% and 21.27 % respectively; whereas, the Omeprazole and 400mg/kg extract treated groups had a substantial protection of 8.60% and 21.27%, respectively. Between the omeprazole, 200mg/kg and 400mg/kg of extract treated groups, there was a statistically insignificant increase (p 0.05) in gastro-protective activity. However, gastro-protective effect was statistically significant (p 0.05) at larger doses of the extract. The ulcer index decreased significantly (p 0.05) between the negative control and treatment groups, according to the findings. However, with 400mg/kg body weight of the extract, the percentage gastro-protective action was higher than in the omeprazole-treated group. We advocate using a similar extract on other platforms to back up this study's efforts.
Published: 16 August 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i630239
Background and Objective: Chronic or non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are rapidly emerging as leading causes of morbidity and premature mortalities globally, with greater effect being felt in low and middle income nations. As poor health behaviours practised in youthful years have been implicated in developing NCDs in later years in life, It is important to understand the level of awareness of young people regarding NCDs in order to remedy any knowledge gaps and encourage healthy practices among them that will reduce the burden of these diseases in later life. This study seeks to describe the knowledge of two groups of final year students of a tertiary institution in Nigeria on the awareness and knowledge of non-communicable diseases and their risk factors. Methods: The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey at the University of Lagos, Nigeria during the 2017/2018 academic session. A sample size of 422 final year students were used with convenient stratification. Self administered questionnaires was distributed to the class of students who consented to participating in the study. The questionnaires were used to assess the level of awareness of the students of non communicable diseases and their risk factors. Data obtained from the questionnaires was analyzed using SPSS version 21. Results: A result of 94.7% was obtained. The results show 89.5% versus 65% of students in health related discipline (college of medicine campus) and those in Akoka campus respectively had good knowledge of NCDs and their risk factors while 10.5% versus 35% had poor knowledge. Conclusion: Students in the campus of college of medicine had more knowledge of NCDs and their risk factors. Campus location of students had statistically significant relationship with awareness and knowledge on NCDs. (p, <0.05).
Published: 11 August 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 40-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i530238
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess thyroid hormone levels in among diabetics in Port- Harcourt of Rivers State in Nigeria Study Design: This study is a cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: This study was conducted at Chemical Pathology Department, Rivers State University Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria, between December, 2019 and February, 2020. Methodology: A total of 224 subjects were recruited for the study, diabetic parents (132 subjects), non-diabetic parents (112 subjects. Five (5) ml of blood sample was collected and used to analyse for serum thyroxine (T4), tri-iodothyronine (T3) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) using Enzyme-linked immunoasorbent assay. Data were analyzed statistically with SPSS version 22.0 and values considered significant at p< 0.05. Results: The mean ± S.D of serum TSH were 1.28± 0.6u/ml (control) and 1.84±1.05 u/ml (subject), (p=0.023). T4 value were 2.49 ± 0.86u/ml (control) (p=0.024) and 3.90 ±1,62u/ml (subjects) and T3 values were 1.89±0.41u/ml (p=0.0001). Conclusion: The evaluation of thyroid hormones (TSH, T4 and T3) among diabetes with the age ranges of population studied shows that there was altered thyroid hormone in diabetes mellitus individuals.
Published: 28 July 2021
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 15-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2021/v23i530235
Aim: The study aimed to investigate the relationship between some heavy metals and total antioxidant capacities, glutathione levels, fructose, and testosterone in seminal plasma of infertile azoospermic and oligospermic males in Akwa Ibom State of Nigeria. Study Design: A cross-sectional design with a total of 124 males included in the study of which 32 were azoospermic, 38, oligospermic, and 54, normospermic. Place and Duration of Study: Semen samples were collected from the urology or fertility clinic of UUTH, St. Luke’s Hospital, Anua, and Ibom specialist hospital of Akwa Ibom State. However, laboratory assays were performed at the Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Rivers State University, Port Harcourt between May, 2018 and January, 2021. Methodology: Semen specimens were collected after 3-5 days abstinence according to WHO criteria while seminal plasma were obtained from semen by spinning at 4500 rpm for 10 minutes and stored at -700C prior to laboratory analysis. Atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS) was used to determine the levels of heavy metals while ELISA methods were used to determine testosterone and GSH concentrations. TAC and fructose assays were carried out using spectrophotometric methods. Results: Results showed that non-essential heavy metals such as lead, mercury, and arsenic correlated negatively with testosterone, fructose, and antioxidant activities of the seminal plasma in azoospermic subjects. In addition, lead and mercury correlated positively in the azoospermic subjects. Meanwhile, selenium, an essential heavy metal, correlated positively with testosterone and antioxidant activities in oligospermic subjects with 11-19 x106cells/ml. Conclusion: The levels of non-essential heavy metals in azoospermic subjects precipitated poor anti-oxidant and testosterone activities inducing oxidative stress while in oligospermic subjects, selenium and antioxidant parameters and testosterone were in good association indicating improved antioxidant activities and testicular function.