Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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EISSN : 2394-1111
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 568
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A. B. Kunyima, P. D. M. D. Kunyima, J. C. Kuburhanwa
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i8569

Abstract:
Background: Cardiovascular diseases, cancers and diabetes that are the main cause of mortality in the world have as principal origine the lack of food (life) hygiene and environmental pollution at which it should be added the synthesis chemical products and the poisons playing a prominent and active role in this human drama. In this paper it is shown that with spicy blend rationally performed on the basis of their natural properties, prostate and myocardial infarction can be healed. Also this mixture can treat some poisons when detected before. Aim and Objective: The laboratory of physical organic chemistry, food and physical cardiochemistry, Lacopa-CCP in acronym, has just developed a powerful blend of spices based on Turmeric called PdeluxeKK (Paulin Deluxe KUNYIMA KUNYIMA), conceived at the beginning to treat a myocardial infarction caused by poisoning clinically established and after become unexpectedly efficient in the treatment of a prostate and other poisons. Methodology: This mixture contains in order turmeric in large quantity, ginger, black pepper, garlic and red onion, original pure honey and the variant of PdeluxeKK incorporates at the end before the honey the red beetroot to make this mixture more reliable against cyanide poisons through its betacyanin and to prevent eventual anemic problems during the treatment. The order of the mixture is of great importance because it has been observed that its effectiveness changes not only with the proportions of the components involved but also according to the order of addition of the components which constitute this mixture. The mixture pastry should be kept between - 5°C and 0°C. Results: Prostate and myocardial infarction clinically established have been satisfactorily treated by PdeluxeKK. Also many poisons detected in human body are successfully treated by PdeluxeKK. Conclusion: This mighty spicy miscellany successfully treats prostate, myocardial infarction and certain poisons.
Amit Gosar, Chetana Parange, Suyog Narvankar, Shivaji Jadhav, Vikram Patil
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 40-47; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i730316

Abstract:
This paper described a rugged and precise particle size determination method that has been developed and validated for the determination of particle size distribution of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride by a dry method using Malvern Mastersizer 2000. The Method of the particle size distribution of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride was precisely developed and validated successfully. By using parameters like Precision, Intermediate precision, and Robustness the method was validated. All the particle size data has been compiled and found to be satisfactory, Hence the method is suitably used for the analysis of the Particle size analyzer of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride active pharmaceutical ingredients.
Nnaemeka Okorie, Olayinka Catherine Adeniran, Okafor Patrick Adimabua, , Ebere Anastasia Ezaka
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 30-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i730314

Abstract:
Background: This research titled; Pathology changes among Norvegicus Rattus exposed on novel smoked Bambusa vulgaris: Cigarette substitute during COVID 19 lockdown in Nigeria is stimulated following increase use of the aforementioned substances as a substitute to drugs during covid -19 lock down in Nigeria where a number of psychoactive substances were limited and restricted for months, both known addicts to cannabis and cigarette smoking and frustration induced initial smokers engaged massively on the use of bamboo leaf and that had continued after years of the lockdown. Methods: The experimental subjects were grouped into acute and chronic for both smoked and the control. Norvegicus rattus subjects were exposed to the 0.01g/g bamboo vulgaris dry leaf smoke twice daily for 21 and 42 days (acute and chronic) exposure respectively. The Animals were sacrificed and the organs harvested following ethical procedures for animal killing. The brain and lungs were divided and parts subjected into histopathological examination using formalin fixed paraffin processed methods stained with both routine and special stains, and the other parts were homogenized to investigate the oxidative stress biomarkers. Results: Histopathology results first revealed a severe cellular injury in both lungs and brain compare to the normal control; significance (p<0.5) elevation found in MDA and reduced SOD, Gpx, GSH and catalase correlate the histology results with oxidative stress biomarkers. Conclusion: Smoking Bambusa vulgaris dry leaf is been found in this study to be more harmful to the respiratory system and brain in more rapid manner compared to conventional abused substances and should be discourage using state agency and enlightenment campaign
, Rachel Vincent
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 24-29; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i730313

Abstract:
Alzheimer's disease (AD) continues to remain a public health concern especially for seniors globally. Increased life expectancy owing to improvement in medical advances may have increased AD's prevalence. It remains a matter of concern for stakeholders to look at progress made over the years and to fill the numerous gaps targeted at preventing the onset of AD and/or treating existing condition. In recent times, funding for AD research has increased in the United States (U.S) but the economic burden isn't left out. Controversies on gene modification still exist. The search for a definitive treatment still continues since recently approved drug-Aducanumab still has uncertainty concerning safety and efficacy. Newer therapies hold promise but we are still uncertain as we await their approval and real world evidence for safety and efficacy.
, Donatus Gabriel Edem, Iboro Efiong Edet, Iberi Patrick Amagwu, Francis Nkem Odinukaeze, Abasikponke Ralphael Godwin
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i730311

Abstract:
This study aims to determine the effect of Moringa oleifera seed extract on ileum histoarchitecture following aspartame consumption. Twenty-seven adult male Albino Wistar rats were used for the study. They were divided into nine groups comprising of: group A (control), administered distilled water; group B, given 0.4 ml (low dose) aspartame; group C, given 1.5 ml (high dose) aspartame; group D1, given 0.6 ml (low dose) aspartame for the first three weeks followed by 1.5 ml (low dose) ethanolic extract of M. oleifera seed on the fourth week; group D2 given 0.5 ml (low dose) aspartame for the first three weeks followed by 1.30 ml (low dose) n-hexane extract of M. oleifera seed on the fourth week; group E1, given 1.5 ml (high dose) aspartame for the first three weeks and on the fourth week 2.5 ml (high dose) ethanolic extract of M. oleifera seed; group E2, given 1.5(high dose) aspartame for the first three weeks and on the fourth week 3.0 ml (high dose) n-hexane extract of M. oleifera seed; group F1 given 1.4ml (high dose) aspartame followed by 2.8ml (high dose) ethanolic extract of M. oleifera seed for four weeks; group F2, given 1.3 ml (high dose) aspartame followed by 2.5 ml (high dose) n-hexane extract of M. oleifera seed for four weeks. Weight measurement of rats was taken once a week throughout the twenty eight days duration of the study. Following anaesthetization, their ileum were harvested and fixed in 10 % buffered formalin. Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining technique was adopted for routine histological procedure. Data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean (M ± SEM) and subjected to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). At 95 % confidence interval, P is significant (P< 0.05). There was a significant increase (P= 0.05) in body weight of both the control and the experimental groups as the experiment progressed. Histological findings revealed that aspartame both in low and high doses has disruptive effects on the histoarchitecture of ileum and high dose ethanolic extract of M. oleiferia seed has the capacity to ameliorate the effects. Hence, caution is needed in aspartame consumption.
Nnamdi Markben Adione, , Chika Christiana. Abba, Nkeoma Nkasi Okoye, Peter Maduabuchi Eze, Blessing Ogechukwu. Umeokoli, OgechI Ozioma. Anyanwu, Festus Basden Chiedu Okoye
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 11-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i730312

Abstract:
Introduction: Fungal endophytes of medicinal plants origin are gaining increasing interest as sources of novel bioactive agents with therapeutic capacity. This study was designed to identify and evaluate secondary metabolites isolated from Fusarium equiseti; an endophytic fungus isolated from leaves of Ocimum gratissimum for their antimicrobial potentials. Methods: The isolation and molecular identification of the endophytic fungus, as well as fermentation, and extraction of secondary metabolites were carried out following standard laboratory procedures. The crude extract was partially purified by partitioning into different fractions using column chromatographic techniques and the fractions were tested for antimicrobial activity. The phytoconstituents in the bioactive fractions were detected by dereplication using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography linked with Diode Array Detection (HPLC-DAD). Results:  Our findings showed that fraction 4 (DCM/ Methanol fraction 95:5) exhibited moderate to strong inhibition against the test micro-organisms namely, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans with MIC values in the range of 0.03 to 1 mg/mL but had no inhibition against Aspergillus niger and Salmonella typhi. The compounds detected in the HPLC assay include Phomoxanthone A, Scalarolide, equisetin, epi-equisetin an episomer of equisetin, Naamine A, Carbonarone A, destruxin B, cytosporin G, and WLIP (β-hydroxydecanoyl-Leu1-D Glu-De-Thr-Dval-DLeu3 DSer-Leu-Dser-Ile). These compounds have been reported to possess antimicrobial activity. Conclusion: The detection of these metabolites further confirms the potential of the endophytic fungus, Fusarium equiseti isolated from leaves of Ocimum gratissimum as a potential source of bioactive molecules for treatment of infectious diseases.
Estella Achick Tembe-Fokunang, Banin Andrew Nyuki, Joseph Fokam, Dobgima John Fonmboh, Kristen Nubia Kaba, Lovet Benyella Fokunang, François-Xavier Mbopi-Keou, Ondoua Obama Marie Therese Abena, Ralf Duerr, Charles Ntungwen Fokunang
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 24-41; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i630308

Abstract:
Once a drug is approved in phase III of clinical trials, pharmacovigilance (PV) becomes very important for the surveillance of drug, vaccine or medical devices. PV constitutes part of the phase IV approval, which involves a study for collecting, detecting, and monitoring adverse events in any population that the drug is used. The adverse events that are reported must be assessed to ascertain the causal effects and prevent or avoid unanticipated side effects on the population. With the advent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, vaccination has been the motor for the management of the pandemic, and through intensive health sensitization, more people are vaccinated in a short period leading to greater challenges to the PV taskforce and the PV operating centrers. Global partnerships including the international society of pharmacovigilance (ISOP), the French national agency for medicines and health products safety (ANSM), and a multitude of others are working in synergy towards putting in place a continuous collaboration work package with many sensitization, education, capacity building, and research initiatives. This is within the framework of identifying the safety and efficacy of vaccines in order to provide solutions to emerging challenging ethical questions. Through PV, signal detection is in progress for the identification of adverse events. The unanticipated emergence and negative impact of COVID-19, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has significantly compelled global pharmacists and drug actors to collectively play an important role in the management of COVID-19. This has to be done within the framework of therapeutic strategies and guaranteed safety, efficacy and quality of new and old xenobiotics. In the current treatment COVID-19 has created health-related challenges and a shift in paradigm in drug discovery and development of new chemical entities (NCE), for vaccine or drug repurposing for different levels of treatment interventions. The accelerated interest in dynamic research and innovation have led to different approaches of treatment and this has come with potential side effects, which has led to the call for post marketing surveillance and monitory. PV is therefore a key component for phase IV study for the drugs and vaccines approved for global use. This paper gives an insight into the global PV monitoring and surveillance of new chemical entities (drugs and vaccines) and new technologies targeting the management of COVID-19.
, Orevaoghene Evelyn Onosakponome, Asikiya Huldah Hanson, Jonathan Nyebuchi
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 42-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i630309

Abstract:
Background: The COVID-19 pandemic began while improvement in malaria control and elimination had reached a peak. COVID-19 affected routine services particularly those for other killer infectious diseases including, HIV/AIDS and Malaria. This resulted in slowing progress in achieving control programs targets. Aim: The study was aimed at evaluating malaria and HIV coinfection among COVID-19 cohort in selected healthcare facilities in Rivers State of Nigeria. Methodology: The observational study showed a snapshot sampled only patients within the COVID-19 approved centers who consented to participate within the selected study area otherwise excluded. Simple random sampling technique was used to select 400 participants, giving subjects equal opportunity of participation. The majority of the data came from primary sources, but secondary sources were also used. Malaria testing was perform using microscopic method. Result outputs were presented on tables and charts. Results: The study showed high prevalence of malaria infection among COVID-19 patients -327 (81.8%) but low rate of HIV co-infection- 2 (0.5%). Conclusion: Much consideration should be channeled towards malaria endemicity and coinfection with COVID-19 unless it confers protective advantage as postulated by some studies however, a large scale and more in-depth study is suggested.
, Chinecherem Cynthia Anierobi, Gloria Chizoba Eze, Chidimma Maureen Chukwueze, Rutendo Denise Makonyonga, Nkiruka Millicent Amadi, Rifkatu Hassan
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 18-23; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i630307

Abstract:
To determine the levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) and iron status of volleyball players in Madonna University, Elele, Rivers State, Nigeria. A total number of 80 subjects were recruited for the study, comprising of 40 subjects before playing volleyball (20 males and 20 females) and 40 subjects after playing volleyball (20 males, 20 females) from Madonna University Nigeria, Elele Campus, Rivers State, Nigeria. The data obtained from the study were presented as Mean ± SD in tables and analysed using student t-test for parametric data using SPSS version 20. The level of significance was set at p<0.05. The results of Table 1 showed that there was increase (p=0.003) in interleukin 6 (IL-6) after playing volleyball compared to before playing volleyball and no significant change (0.079) in iron after playing volleyball compared to before playing volleyball. Table 2 showed that there was no significant increase (p=0.164) in interleukin 6 (IL-6) of males compared to females and no significant change (p=0.589) in iron of males compared to females. Table 3 showed that there was no significant increase (p=0.921) in interleukin 6 (IL-6) of volleyball players aged 15-25 Years compared to volleyball players aged 26-35 Years and no significant change (p=0.503) in iron of volleyball players aged 15-25 Years compared to volleyball players aged 26-35 Years respectively. The study found an increase in interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in volleyball players after games as opposed to levels before games, demonstrating that physical exercise raises interleukin 6 levels while having no impact on iron levels.
, C. R. Kalu, E. O. Anyalebechi, O. N. Briggs, E. S. Bartimaeus
Journal of Advances in Medical and Pharmaceutical Sciences pp 5-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/jamps/2022/v24i630306

Abstract:
AIM: This study investigated the concentration of heavy metal (Arsenic), taken up by waterleaf plant cultivated in three contaminated soil type namely; sandy, loamy and clay. The health risk associated in exposing the waterleaf plants was accessed from the different soil types at different treatment levels of 40mg/kg (low) and 80mg/kg (high) of arsenic. Methods: Three soil types namely; sandy, loamy and clay were spiked with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg of arsenic. The waterleaf plant was grown on the spiked soil samples for the period of 2, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Each soil sample was taken before the spiking of the soil to serve as the basal control soil sample. This will determine the content of arsenic in the soil. After the stipulated growth period, the soil sample was collected into a clean sample bottle likewise the waterleaf plant which was harvested, washed, oven dried and ground into a powdered form which was acid digested. The heavy metal content in both the plant and soils were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Results: The results of arsenic concentration in waterleaf from loamy soil at 40 mg/kg were 0.118 mg/kg, 0.189 mg/kg, 0.295 mg/kg, and 0.332 mg/kg at weeks 2, 4, 6, and 8 respectively. At 80 mg/kg, arsenic concentrations in loamy soil were 0.200 mg/kg, 0.388 mg/kg, 0.612 mg/kg and 0.693 mg/kg respectively. For sandy soil, the concentration of arsenic in the waterleaf plant treated at 40 mg/kg were 0.083 mg/kg, 0.219 mg/kg, 0.279 mg/kg, and 0.310 mg/kg for weeks 2, 4, 6 and 8 respectively and 0.159 mg/kg, 0.400mg/kg, 0.572 mg/kg, 0.632 mg/kg at 80 mg/kg respectively while in clay soil, the arsenic concentration was 0.079 mg/kg and 0.167 mg/kg for weeks 2 and 4 at 40 mg/kg and 0.190 mg/kg and 0.320mg/kg for 80 mg/kg for weeks 2 and 4 respectively. No growth was recorded in weeks 6 and 8. The mean values of the arsenic concentration in the plant spiked with 40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg respectively were significantly different (p0.05).The Estimated Daily Intake for arsenic was <1, Target Hazard Quotient was < 1 and the Health Risk Index for adults that would be exposed to arsenic was <1 except for the loamy soil which was ≥ 1 at week 4 and 6 for treatment level 80 mg/kg. Conclusion: Arsenic concentration increases in the plant with increasing period of growth, while in the soil, the reverse occurs. The result shows that the waterleaf plant absorbed heavy metal (Arsenic) from the contaminated soils but at concentrations that do not pose any health risk within the experimental period of exposure. However, it is possible that with extended duration of exposure, consumption of plants exposed to contaminated soils with heavy metals could be hazardous.
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