Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2164-2745 / 2164-2753
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 135
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Gunat J. Lekduhur, Peter O. Onuwa, Ishaq S. Eneji, Sha’Ato Rufus
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Volume 11, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.4236/jasmi.2021.111001

Abstract:
Honey bees derive their nutrients from nectars and other plant materials. These naturally available materials are affected by the residual presence of pesticides. The concentration of pesticides in honey comb then reflects the leftover after degradation. In this study, samples of honey were collected from five different farms in Plateau State and analyzed for pesticide residues (atrazine, cypermethrin) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Cr, Fe and Mn) using GC-MS and AAS techniques. Results of the analysis indicated that atrazine and cypermethrin were found in the range (0.01 - 0.36 and 0.11 - 0.26) mg/kg, respectively in all the samples. Mn and Fe were found across the samples while Cd was detected only in the sample obtained from Maraban Jos (0.0013 mg/kg). Except Bokkos and Maraban Jos, Pb was detected in other samples. This study revealed that all samples contained the selected pesticide residues above the maximum residue limits recommended by European Union, while concentration of heavy metals in all the samples except Mn was below the maximum concentration limits recommended by Food and Agriculture Organization. The high concentration of pesticide residues in the samples indicates contaminated environment in which the bees fed; therefore intermittent monitoring of the quality of honeys produced would be necessary as this calls for urgent attention.
Onyinyechi Rita Chinedu, Chikaodili Benedine Nwizuzu
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Volume 11, pp 15-22; https://doi.org/10.4236/jasmi.2021.112002

Abstract:
The study intended to determine the relationship between locus of control and academic achievement of secondary school students. Some students have been observed to achieve higher while some achieve lower even after being exposed to the same subject matter by the same instructor. The objective of the study was to determine if locus of control correlated with academic achievement of students as moderated by gender and school-type. The study was anchored on attribution theory. The study adopted a correlational research design. A total of 388 SS3 students in Aba Education zone were selected using purposive and simple random sampling techniques. Instruments for data collection were an adopted LOC scale and students’ exam scores in Mathematics, English and CRS. To determine the reliability of the instrument, Kuder-Richardson reliability test (KR-20) was employed and an overall coefficient of 0.76 was obtained for LOC scale. Data were analyzed using Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient. Results showed significant relationship between locus of control and academic achievement of male students. Results also showed significant relationship between locus of control and academic achievement of public school students. Based on the findings, it was recommended that school authority should encourage good performance by rewarding students with excellent performance, because when good behaviour is rewarded, the individual is motivated to do better. Also, government should also provide the schools with necessary infrastructures that would make teaching and learning very interesting.
Abdou-Salam Ganame, Kondia Honore Ouoba, François Zougmore
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Volume 10, pp 104-112; https://doi.org/10.4236/jasmi.2020.104008

Abstract:
This work is interested in solving the complex problem of understanding mass transfers in biological media. The contribution of the initial sample size is taken into account. Transfers are established more efficiently in small samples. Thus, from the first 50 minutes, the cubic sample at 1 cm stop is already at 50% while the sample at 4 cm edge is at about 90% of its initial water content. Likewise the shape is combined with the size. But it is revealed that if we fix similar characteristic dimensions, we can bypass the notion of initial shape. Thus the cubic samples 4 cm of edges. 4 cm diameter of spherical shape, 4 cm × 4 cm height-diameter cylindrical one, all dry identically.
Saud M. Alajmi, Wadha N. Almarri
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Volume 10, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.4236/jasmi.2020.101001

Abstract:
An Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASP) is established to promote cost effective and safe use of antimicrobial agents. Basically, this approach directs the management of antimicrobials in terms of selection of appropriate drugs, determination of administration routes and standardization of both medication dosage and treatment duration. The program involves, but is not limited to, Hospital Staff Education, Pharmacodynamics Dose Optimization, Computer-Assisted Decision Support Programs, Pharmacist-Driven Intravenous to Oral Switch Programs, Pharmacy Dosing Programs and Antibiotic Cycling. A study was conducted to determine effectiveness of the ASP in significantly improving patient outcomes (e.g. decrease morbidity and mortality from infection). This was undertaken by collecting restrospective data on patient length of hospital stay, bed turnover rate and antibiotic consumption over a period of 2 years since the ASP was initiated. Periodic data were then compared and interpreted based on its clinical, quality and financial implications in order to measure effectiveness of the program implementation.
Kunto Wibowo Agung Prodjonoto
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Volume 10, pp 43-57; https://doi.org/10.4236/jasmi.2020.102004

Abstract:
Mastery of theory, analysis, approach models and decision making, is increasingly important, so finding analytical methods to achieve something better is a logical consequence. For this reason, adaptive analysis method is introduced, which is a method of dynamizing SWOT analysis using commutative properties with the operation of the cross-axis coordinate (X; Y), based on the theory of lines and rules of a sword, phenomenal, natural and relevant, to obtain a grand strategy chosen as a unified strategy like two sides of a coin. The method used is the theoretical and empirical study of adaptive analysis on one of the global issues, namely phenomenal terrorism until now. It is hoped that this method can be used in a variety of problems and is highly determined how a talent plays a role and is not intended to criticize existing analytical methods that have been used.
Mércia De Sousa Galvão, Karen Leticia de Santana, Juliete Pedreira Nogueira, Maria Terezinha Santos Leite Neta, Narendra Narain
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Volume 10, pp 59-77; https://doi.org/10.4236/jasmi.2020.103005

Abstract:
Aroma is an important quality parameter, which can help in delaying degradative processes and hence understanding the volatile compounds that are part of an aroma is extremely important. Thus, the aim of this study was to isolate the volatile compounds present in custard apple (Annona squamosa L.) pulp by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) technique using 3 different fibers (DVB/CAR/PDMS, PDMS and PDMS/DVB). An experimental design was set up to evaluate the best extraction conditions wherein the variables were extraction temperature (minimum 28°C, maximum 62°C), ionic strength (minimum 0, maximum 30.0%) and sample concentration (min 1, max 99.0%). The separation of volatiles was achieved in chromatographic columns of different polarity (polar and non-polar) while identification of volatile compounds was performed by high resolution gas chromatography system coupled with mass spectrometry. The results obtained using 3 different fibers revealed the isolation of 71 compounds with fiber DVB/CAR/PDMS, while only 30 and 21 compounds were isolated using fibers PDMS/DVB and PDMS, respectively. The major classes of compounds identified were terpenes, esters, alcohols and aldehydes. Optimum conditions for obtaining higher number of volatiles for non-polar column were 45°C for extraction temperature, 15% of sodium chloride and 50% of pulp amount which resulted in isolation of a maximum of 78 peaks.
Michael Gronow
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Volume 10, pp 36-42; https://doi.org/10.4236/jasmi.2020.101003

Abstract:
The thiol components of the nonhistone proteins prepared from isolated nuclei from rat liver, regenerating liver and hepatoma 223 cells have been investigated after reaction with radio labelled N-ethylmaleimide and 5-5’-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB). The labelled adducts formed were examined by isoelectric focusing analysis in polyacrylamide gel and the distribution of the radiolabels within sliced portions of the gels determined. In the case of the 14C labelled NEM adduct the label was found to be spread amongst numerous protein components within the gel however, in the case of the 35S labelled DTNB adducts, only a small proportion of the label was found in the protein material which was retained in the acidic isoelectric point (pI) region of the gel. The bulk of the 35S labelled adduct (56% - 60%) was found to have migrated into the anode solution (10 mM phosphoric acid). This could be adsorbed onto a hydrophobic resin (XAD2) resin and eluted with methanol. Gel filtration chromatographic analysis of this adduct material on BioGel P2, (exclusion limit 1500 daltons) showed low molecular weight components to be present. Slightly different patterns were obtained for these nuclei, each containing several 35S components with molecular weights greater than the Ellman reagent itself. These 35S labelled thiol components did not contain any protein, peptide or amino acid components indicating strongly that a novel species of thiols could be present in these nuclei bound within the non-histone protein matrices.
Nurida Mohd Yusop, Voon Chang Hong, Chan Zhe Phak, Zaimi Naim
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Volume 10, pp 78-95; https://doi.org/10.4236/jasmi.2020.103006

Abstract:
The degradation of the alkanolamine solvent used in the removal of acid gases from natural gas streams due to exposure to contaminants, thermal degradation and presence of oxygen or oxygen containing compounds will change the solvent properties, such as heat transfer coefficient, diffusion coefficient, and mass transfer coefficient of the solvent. Therefore, characterization and quantification of amine degradation product becomes one of the important analyses to determine alkanolamine solvent’s health. In order to identify degradation products of alkanolamine solvent, analytical strategies by using mass spectrometry (MS) as detector have been studied extensively. In this work, due to the low concentration of the amine degradation product, a method was developed for identification of alkanolamine degradation products using LCMS-QTOF technique. A strategy for identification of trace degradation products has been identified. Six (6) alkanolamine degradation products had been identified by using LCMS-QTOF targeted analysis in the blended alkanolamine solvent used in natural gas processing plant. Another fifteen (15) molecular formulas having similarity in chemical structure to alkanolamine degradation products were identified using untargeted analysis strategy, as possible compounds related to degradation products. Using LCMS-QTOF via targeted and untargeted analysis strategy, without tedious column separation and reference standard, enables laboratory to provide a quick and indicative information for alkanolamine solvent’s organic degradation compounds identification in CO2 adsorption, within reasonable analysis time.
Kamal Shaiyad Miya, Vinay Kumar Jha
Journal of Analytical Sciences, Methods and Instrumentation, Volume 10, pp 97-103; https://doi.org/10.4236/jasmi.2020.104007

Abstract:
Fluoride is widespread in the environment, water, air, vegetation and Earth’s crust which can entre ground and surface water by natural process. Fluoride in minute quantities is essential component for human health and help in normal mineralization of bone and formation of dental enamel. The determination of fluoride in some species was performed by using fluoride ion-selective electrode by direct measurement and standard addition method. The concentration of fluoride ion was determined in drinking water (from different place at Kathmandu), toothpaste, various brand of tea and coffees. The range of fluoride concentration in water sample was 0.16 to 0.39 mg/l, tea and coffee samples were 0.011 to 0.084 mg/l and its value of toothpaste was 0.026 to 0.75 mg/l. The concentration of fluoride ion obtain from different sample was compared with the legitimate value given by the world health organization.
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