Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0094-4289 / 1528-8889
Published by: ASME International (10.1115)
Total articles ≅ 3,181
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Heramb Mahajan, ,
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology pp 1-29; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052825

Abstract:
Very high temperature reactors (VHTRs) are planned to be operated between 550 to 950°C, and demand a thermally efficient intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) in the heat transport system (HTS). The current technological development of compact heat exchangers (CHXs) for VHTRs is at the ‘proof of concept’ level. A significant development in the CHX technologies is essential for the VHTRs to be efficient, cost-effective, and safe. CHXs have very high thermal efficiency and compactness, making them a prime candidate for IHXs in VHTRs. Photochemically etched plates with the desired channel pattern are stacked and diffusion bonded to fabricate CHXs. All plates are compressed at an elevated temperature over a specified period in the diffusion bonding process, promoting atomic diffusion and grain growth across bond surfaces resulting in a monolithic block. The diffusion bonding process changes the base metal properties, which are unknown for Alloy 800H, a candidate alloy for CHX construction. Hence, developing mechanical response data and understanding failure mechanisms of diffusion bonded Alloy 800H at elevated temperatures is a key step for advancing the technology of IHXs in VHTRs. The ultimate goal of this study is to develop ASME BPVC Section III, Division 5 design rules for CHXs in nuclear service. Towards this goal, mechanical performance and microstructures of diffusion bonded Alloy 800H is investigated through a series of tensile, fatigue, creep, and creep-fatigue tests at temperatures 550 to 760°C. The test results, failure mechanisms, and microstructures of diffusion bonded Alloy 800H is scrutinized and presented.
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Volume 144, pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052557

Abstract:
The forming limit diagram (FLD) of high-purity niobium sheets used for the manufacturing of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) cavities is presented. The Marciniak (in-plane) test was used with niobium blanks with a thickness of 1 mm and blank carriers of annealed oxygen-free electronic (OFE) copper. A high formability was measured, with an approximate true major strain at necking for plane strain of 0.44. The high formability of high-purity niobium is likely caused by its high strain rate sensitivity of 0.112. Plastic strain anisotropies (r-values) of 1.66, 1.00, and 2.30 were measured in the 0 deg, 45 deg, and 90 deg directions. However, stress–strain curves at a nominal strain rate of ∼10−3 s−1 showed similar mechanical properties in the three directions. Theoretical calculations of the forming limit curves (FLCs) were conducted using an analytical two-zone model. The obtained results indicate that the anisotropy and strain rate sensitivity of niobium affect its formability. The model was used to investigate the influence of strain rate on strains at necking. The obtained results suggest that the use of high-speed sheet forming should further increase the formability of niobium.
B. A. Abd-El-Nabey, M Ashour, A. M. Aly,
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology pp 1-27; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052768

Abstract:
Superhydrophobic films were successfully grafted on a steel substrate using potentiostatic electrodeposition of nickel followed by treatment with myristic acid (MA). A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the surface topography of the prepared superhydrophobic films. The results revealed that the prepared Ni films modified by myristic acid have micro-nano structures. FTIR and XRD measurements showed that the steel substrate was coated with nickel film modified with myristic acid. Three different nickel films were prepared; the Ni-MA (I) deposited from pure sulfate bath (1.0 M NiSO4), Ni-MA (II) deposited from pure nickel chloride bath (1.0 M NiCl2. 6H2O), and the third Ni-MA (III) film deposited from Watts bath (0.2M NiCl2. 6H2O and 0.8M NiSO4). The superhydrophobic Ni-MA (I) film has the highest corrosion resistance, chemical stability, and mechanical abrasion resistance, while Ni-MA (II) film has the lowest properties.
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Volume 144, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052487

Abstract:
This special issue of the Journal of the Engineering Materials and Technology is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague Professor Hussein Zbib who passed away in February 2020. Hussein was a past editor of this journal and was an internationally recognized research leader and innovator in numerous aspects of mechanics of materials, such as dislocation dynamics, plasticity, and irradiated materials. The papers in this special issue, through the different contributions of his collaborators, colleagues, students, and friends, truly reflect the different research areas he impacted. Furthermore, these contributions underscore how his research interests, collaborations, and achievements fundamentally influenced the experimental and modeling accomplishment.
Sergey Grigoriev, Igor Kondratsky, , , Varvara Medvetskova, Natalia Morozova, Igor Suminov, , Ruizhi Wu
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052718

Abstract:
Magnesium alloys are now widely used for various purposes due to their unique properties despite the significant disadvantage associated with low corrosion resistance. The plasma-electrolytic oxidation (PEO), which allows the formation of ceramic coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys, is the most advanced and effective method for their protection. But firstly, PEO process of magnesium alloys has some difficulties, and secondly, PEO coatings affect the thermophysical characteristics of the modified materials, in particular they reduce thermal diffusivity. The presented work is devoted to the development of the technological parameters for formation of protective coating on the ultra-light alloy Mg-8Li-1Al-0.6Ce-0.3Y by the PEO method. The results analyses of electrolytes acidity and specific electrical conductivity before and after PEO process and also investigation data of the coatings structure and surface morphology are presented. An integral assessment of the ability of thermal diffusivity and corrosion resistance of the modified alloy was made. Studying of protective and thermophysical characteristics of the obtained coating showed that it provides a sufficiently high corrosion protection, despite the relatively small thickness, and the presence of pores and slightly (not more than 5%) reduces the thermal diffusivity of the magnesium ultra-light alloy.
Logan Rowe, Alexander J. Kaczkowski, , , Harley Johnson
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology pp 1-40; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052673

Abstract:
A nondestructive photoelastic method is presented for characterizing surface microcracks in monocrystalline silicon wafers, calculating the strength of the wafers, and predicting Weibull parameters under various loading conditions. Defects are first classified from through thickness infrared photoelastic images using a support vector machine learning algorithm. Characteristic wafer strength is shown to vary with the angle of applied uniaxial tensile load, showing greater strength when loaded perpendicular to the direction of wire motion than when loaded along the direction of wire motion. Observed variations in characteristic strength and Weibull shape modulus with applied tensile loading direction stem from the distribution of crack orientations and the bulk stress field acting on the microcracks. Using this method it is possible to improve manufacturing processes for silicon wafers by rapidly, accurately, and nondestructively characterizing large batches in an automated way.
Noha M. Hassan, May Antar, Natalie Saleem, Sara Aboukhelil, Lina Ghonim
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology pp 1-26; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052631

Abstract:
Fabrication of Functionally Graded Metal Matrix Composites (FGMMC) especially with high ceramic reinforcement's volume fraction is highly challenging. Depending on the processing technique and process parameters various defects may arise. This research aims to find the best procedure to make FGMMCs with the highest quality and minimum cost. A new method is proposed that incorporates lost-foam and melt infiltration with semicentrifugal casting to produce FGMMC. Experiments were performed to in-situ fabricate 6061-Aluminum alloy reinforced with gradient distributed Silicon carbide particles (Al/SiC FGMMC). Effect of SiC %, Al pouring temperature and rotational speed on the fabricated specimens hardness and reinforcement gradient were investigated using design of experiments and regression analysis. Results reveal the optimum procedure and process settings based on desired properties/gradient required. Mathematical model formulated captures the effect of these process parameters on process cost, and cost of poor quality. Improper selection of those parameters may lead to extensive losses due cost of poor quality which is 12 times higher than the material cost. The proposed manufacturing process proved satisfactory in ensuring proper dispersion. A desirability function can by used to determine the process parameters and volume fraction that minimizes the defects and gives superior properties for a specific application.
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Volume 144, pp 1-44; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052238

Abstract:
This study presents an irradiation-dependent internal state variable (ISV) elastoviscoplasticity-damage constitutive model that accounts for nuclear irradiation hardening and embrittlement of the irradiated polycrystalline materials. The irradiation effects were added to the coupled plasticity-damage kinetics with consideration of the structure–property relationships. The present irradiation-dependent elastoviscoplasticity-damage model was compared with the lab deformation experimental data of irradiated oxygen-free high conductivity (OFHC) copper, modified 9Cr-1Mo steel, and Ti-5Al-2.5Sn. The results show excellent agreement over the entire stress–strain curves at various irradiation doses. Because the ISV model, before the irradiation plasticity-damage addition, had been used on over 80 different metal alloys, it is anticipated that this nuclear irradiation supplement will also allow for application to many more irradiated metal alloys.
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Volume 144, pp 1-36; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052256

Abstract:
Radiation-induced embrittlement of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels can potentially limit the operating life of nuclear power plants. Over extended exposure to radiation doses, these body-centered cubic (BCC) irons demonstrate irradiation damage. Here, we present a continuum dislocation density (CDD) crystal plasticity model to capture the interaction among dislocations and self-interstitial atom (SIA) loops in α-iron. We demonstrate the importance of modeling cross slip using a combined stochastic Monte Carlo approach and the role of slip system strength anisotropy in capturing stochastic cross slip interactions. Through these captured interactions, the CDD crystal plasticity model can capture both the stress response and the physical evolution of dislocations on different slip system planes. Single-crystal verification experiments are used to calibrate the CDD crystal plasticity model, and a set of simplified polycrystalline simulations demonstrates the model’s ability to capture the stress response from tensile experiments on α-iron.
Journal of Engineering Materials and Technology, Volume 144, pp 1-25; https://doi.org/10.1115/1.4052251

Abstract:
A novel patterned-void structure is developed to improve the fatigue life compared with conventional circular cooling holes typically used in gas turbine components exposed to high temperatures. The distinctive S-shape of the voids and their specific arrangement enable manipulation of the structure's macroscopic stiffness and Poisson's ratio. An investigation of the isothermal and thermomechanical fatigue (TMF) properties of the proposed structure is carried out in strain-controlled conditions. The testing is performed on tubular specimens machined from a Nickel-based superalloy commonly used in gas turbine combustion systems (HAYNES 230®). The isothermal fatigue tests, performed at 300 °C, 600 °C, and 800 °C, demonstrated an increase in crack-initiation life of the proposed structure by a factor of up to 28 compared with the standard circular holes. The thermomechanical fatigue tests, performed across temperature ranges 300 °C–750 °C and 300 °C–850 °C, and using in-phase (IP) and out-of-phase (OP) strain ratios, demonstrated an increase in crack-initiation life by a factor of up to 16. The life after crack initiation (crack-propagation mode) was also shown to be longer for the proposed structure, which is attributed to a crack-arresting behavior inherent to the structure.
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