Journal of Applied Life Sciences International

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EISSN : 2394-1103
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 520
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, Sani Danladi, Audu Mohammed
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i830251

Abstract:
Houseflies (Musa domestica) are common insects of the families muscidae, order Dipthera. They are synanthropic insects that are widely distributed worldwide. They enter several places, including contaminated premises due to their own biological habit of feeding. This study identifies the pathogenic parasites and bacteria associated with the houseflies in Lafia, Nigeria. A total of 215 flies were collected from 5 locations (New market, Neigbourhood market, Kasuwan Turmatur, Kasuwan Karo and Yanlemu market) within the Lafia metropolis, from September, 2019 to March 2020. The fly specimens were analyzed for the presence of pathogenic parasites and bacteria using standard laboratory procedures. The results showed that the parasites: Entamoeba hietolytic was most prevalence with (22.11%) Ascaris lumbricoides being (15.05%), Taenia species (14.70%) schistosoma mansoni (14.70%), Hookworm and Trichnris trichura recorded least prevalence accounting for (1.12%) respectively, pathogenic bacteria isolated and identify from the houseflies are; Staplyloccus sp (36.36%), Bacillus species (19.48%), Klebsiella sp (19.75%), Escherichia sp (6.49%), Protens sp (7.41%), Salmonella sp (6.49%) and Moraxella sp (2.47%). The result showed significant variation (P0.05) associated with the frequency of occurrence of bacteria species. It can be concluded that Musca domestica in Lafia harbor parasites and bacteria on their external and internal parts. The housefly have mechanical potential to transmit pathogens to man. Measures most be taken to control the fly population to avoid both present and future outbreaks of diseases condition emanating from the flies activities.
, C. A. Obafemi, E. M. Obuotor, I. J. Olawuni
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 8-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i830252

Abstract:
Some Sulfanoquinoxaline-2,3-diones hydrazone derivatives (1-8) were synthesized from the reactions of 2,3-dioxoquinoxaline-6-sulfonohydrazine with seven substituted benzaldehydes and acetophenone. All the synthesized compounds were biologically evaluated against cholinesterase’s (acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase). Compounds 1-8 were found to be a good selective inhibitor for acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase. Among the series, compounds 3 (IC50 = 75 ± 10 µg/mL) and 5 (IC50 = 80 ± 10 µg/mL) were found to be the most active inhibitors against acetylcholinesterase, while compounds 6 (IC50 = 110 ± 10 µg/mL), 8 (IC50 = 130 ± 10 µg/mL) and 7 (IC50 = 150 ± 10 µg/mL), were found to be most active inhibitor against butyryl cholinesterase. The IC50 values for all the synthesized compounds were lower than standard, eserine (IC50 = 70 ± 20 µg/mL). Their considerable acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitory activities make them a good candidate for the development of selective acetylcholinesterase and butyryl cholinesterase inhibitors.
, L. O. Amadi, E. O. Aguamah
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 36-48; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730250

Abstract:
Probiotics are live microorganisms that are very beneficial to human health when consumed in a sufficient amount. Screening and fingerprinting of isolates with probiotic potentials from indigenous food products were evaluated. Fresh palm wine, Ogi and Tiger nut drinks were bought from retailers in Obio-Akpor and Port Harcourt Local Government Area, Rivers State. These samples on getting to the lab in sterile containers were analysed using standard microbiological techniques for the enumeration and isolation of bacterial isolates. Identification of isolates relied on the biochemical and genomic techniques using standard methods. The probiotics were screened based on their ability to tolerate ethanol, bile salt, low pH, high salt concentration, lactose utilization and the production of biogenic amine. Antimicrobial susceptibility of the bacterial isolates (probiotics) was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion. Forty-two bacterial isolates which belonged to the genera: Lactobacillus sp, Pediococcus sp, Enterococcus sp and Streptococcus sp were identified. Genomic characterization of isolates showed that isolate NO2 has 83.4% pairwise identity with Bacillus firmus strain T1, Isolate NP2 has 86.5% pairwise identity with Bacillus cereus strain PKID1, NT8 has 80.3% pairwise identity with Bacillus cereus strain PV-G21. Results of screened probiotics showed that out of the forty-two bacterial isolates, only fifteen were non-spore producers and that they were tolerant to ethanol, low pH, NaCl and bile salt at all concentrations. Results of lactose utilization showed that only twelve out of the fifteen bacterial isolates utilized lactose. Results of biogenic amine production showed that only five out of fifteen bacterial isolates produced biogenic amine. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern of the screened bacterial isolates showed that they exhibited resistance to Pefloxacin, Gentamycin, Ampiclox, Amoxicillin, Rocephin, Ciprofloxacin; Streptomycin, Sceptrin and Erythromycin. They were highly resistant to Gentamycin and Zinnacef. Bacillus firmus strain T1, Bacillus cereus strain PKID1 and Bacillus cereus strain PV-G21 were identified as bacterial probiotics. Consumption of palm wine, Ogi and tiger nut drinks is highly recommended due to the availability of probiotics.
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 26-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730249

Abstract:
Aims: The study aims to predict in-silico the structural and functional annotation of Tomato Chocolate Spot Virus (TCSV) retrieved from Uniprotkb with the accession number C7EXM3. Study design: To use the In-silico approach for the structural and functional annotation of the Tomato Chocolate Spot Virus. Place and Duration of Study: The research was conducted at the Bioinformatics Unit, Chevron Biotechnology Centre, Modibbo Adama University Yola, Nigeria. Between August 2021 to September 2021. Methodology: The sequence of the Tomato Chocolate Spot Virus was retrieved from Uniprotkb with accession number C7EXM3, Physicochemical characteristics were computed using the ProtParam tool. The sever SOPMA was used for secondary structure analysis (Helix, Sheets and Coils). The tool CELLO v2.5 was used to predict the subcellular localization of the protein. Four different Homology Modelling tools (trRosetta, Lomet, RaptorX and IntFOLD5) were used to predict the 3D structure of the protein, the quality of the predicted proteins was assessed used PROCHECK. Three tools (InterProScan, NCBI conserved domains and Phobius) were used to get the possible function(s) of the protein. Results: ProtParam tool computed various Physical and Chemical properties such as Molecular weight (MW) 20396.96 Daltons, isoelectric point (pI) of 6.92. Instability Index 41.94, and Grand Average Hydropathy (GRAVY) -0.503. SOPMA was used for calculating the secondary structure parameters of the protein as Helices (Hh) 43.48%, Extended strands (Ee) 18.48%, Random coils (Cc) 38.04%. CELLO v2.5 was used for subcellular localization of the protein, it predicted that the protein can be both Nuclear and Cytoplasmic with the reliability of 1.653 and 1.504 respectively. Different Homology modelling tools were used to obtain the best 3D structure of the protein. Furthermore, PROCHECK was used to assess the quality of the models obtained. Model from trRosetta was found to be the best because of the quality of the Ramachandran Plot obtained from PROCHECK which has more than 90% of amino acid in the most favourable regions. NCBI-CDD and interproScan predicted that protein is a DNA double-strand break repair Rad50 ATPase, which is involved in the early steps of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Furthermore, the Phobius server predicted the protein to be non-cytoplasmic in its domain, which means they help target proteins to their final destinations. Conclusion: The study has helped in obtaining the 3D structure of the protein Tomato Chocolate Spot Virus from different Modelling tools, as well as the possible function of the protein.
J. O. Ed-Idoko, S. G. Solomon, P. A. Annune, S. I. Ikap, B. T. Iber,
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 17-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730248

Abstract:
200 fry of carp obtained from induced breeding by stripping were fed three times daily ad libitum with Artemia (DT1), commercial starter diet (DT2), and dried egg yolk (DT3)for 8 weeks. Each treatments were in triplicates in indoor hatchery. At the end of the experiment, the progenies mean weight gained (MWG) was highest in the treatments fed Artemia (3.490±0.015a) as compared to others with significant difference (P<0.05).Mean weight gained (MWG) was highest in the treatments fed Artemia. Percentage weight gain (%WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) had no significant differences (P<0.05). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was highest (P<0.05) in treatment fed with smashed egg yolk. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) was highest (P<0.05) in the treatment fed with composed feed. Mortality rate was highest in treatment fed with Artemia, and percentage survival was highest (P<0.05) in treatment fed with composed feed. Percentage jumpers per treatment were highest in Artemia diet. In conclusion, it is imperative that Artemia feed (amidst other starter diets researched on) is most preferable for the optimum growth and development of common carp fry.
H. B. Usman, K. M. Aljameel, B. M. Musa, I. Bata, S. Ibrahim
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 10-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730247

Abstract:
The study was conducted in poultry production unit of the Teaching and Research farm in the Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Usmanu Danfodiyo University to investigate the effect of graded levels of kapok seed meal on broiler bird’s performance. A total of 288 broiler chickens were being used. The broiler chickens randomly divided into four treatments groups (four experimental diets) T1 (control), T2 (0.5kg/100kg), T3 (1Kg/100kg) and T4 (1.5kg/100Kg). At the termination of the experiment (day 56), two birds from each pen (replicate) having representative weights for the group (6 birds per Treatment) were selected. The selected birds were bled, dressed and eviscerated. At starter phase the result shows no significant difference (P>0.05) between the treatments with regards to final body weight and average daily weight gain, birds in treatment 4 had higher (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio (FCR) compared to the other treatments. The result shows significant difference (P<0.05) between the treatments across all the parameters measured except FCR. Birds fed treatment 4 record higher values (P<0.05) of all the parameters measured compared to treatment 1 at finisher phase. The result on carcass shows significant difference (P<0.05) in terms of liver, lung, spleen and crop. Birds in treatment 2 have lower (P<0.05) liver compared to the other treatments. Higher (P<0.05) crop weight are recorded for birds in treatment 1 compared to the other treatments. The study concludes that ingredients of kapok (Bombax costatum) in poultry diet significantly (p<0.05) improved performance of broiler birds at starter and finisher phase at rate of 0.5kg/100kg inclusion of fed.
, Gopalakrishnan, P. Sanil Kumar, Lal Prashanth, Darly Jose
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i730246

Abstract:
Over the last 10 years several new viral pathogens have appeared in human populations in India. We have also seen the emergence of infectious diseases like COVID-19. It is time to reassess our current practice patterns and commit to a ‘NEW STANDARD’ for infection prevention and control. A two-tiered approach to precautions is used to interrupt the mode of transmission of infectious agents. Standard precautions to work practices that are applied to all patients receiving care in health facilities and Transmission-based precautions are precautions required to be taken based on the route of transmission of organisms like contact precautions, airborne precautions, etc. If successfully implemented, standard and transmission-based precautions prevent any infection from being transmitted.
, Pierre Ezoua, Ysidor N’Guessan Konan, Souleymane Doukoure, Daouda Sidibe, Godi Henri Marius Biego
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 36-47; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i630243

Abstract:
Aims: The aim of this study is to formulate cocktails based on ginger oleoresin, pineapple juice and bissap concentrate in order to contribute to the development of these agricultural products and improve the income of producers. Study Design: The biological material consists of pineapple juice, ginger oleoresin and bissap concentrate. The oleoresin and the bissap concentrate were supplied respectively by Gazignaire (France) and the Water Chemistry and Natural Substances Laboratory. Place and Duration of Study: The cocktails were formulated and then subjected to sensory analyzes, from July to October 2018, at the Biochemistry and Food Sciences laboratory at Félix Houphouët-Boigny University. Methodology: The cocktails were formulated through a composite central plan having as variables the proportions of the pineapple juice, the bissap concentrate and the ethanol composing the cocktail. Thus 15 cocktail formulations were developed, the sensory characteristics of which were estimated. Results: Hedonic analysis of the formulations indicates acceptance of 12 of them by more than 50% of tasters.In addition, 5 formulations F4; F6; F12; F13 and F15 are preferred in proportions varying between 62% and 77%.The descriptive analysis of these 5 formulations indicates that only the pineapple flavor makes it possible to distinguish them and the F13 formulation is less provided with them.However, these formulations according to their flavor, aroma and texture are classified into 3 groups according to a principal component analysis.Which could offer consumers more choice. Conclusion: Commercial production of these cocktails could improve the availability of ginger, bissap and pineapple year-round and help improve the income of producers.
, C. A. Obafemi, D. A. Akinpelu, T. O. Iyiola
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 48-61; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i630244

Abstract:
Aims: This aims of this study was to continue the effort to synthesis new quinoxaline-based heterocycles and study its antibacterial properties. Objective: This study was designed to reacts 3,6-dimethylquinoxaline-2-hydrazine with some substituted aromatic ketones and study their antibacterial properties on some locally and clinically isolated bacterial strains. Materials and Methods: Five 3,6-dimethylquinoxaline-2-hydrazone derivatives were synthesized from the reactions of 3,6-dimethylquinoxaline-2-hydrazine with various substituted aromatic ketones. The products were then tested for their potential antibacterial properties. Results: All the synthesized compounds were found to be active against all the bacterial strains investigated in this study. It was observed that the zones of inhibition observed for the synthesized compounds against the test organisms ranged between 15 mm and 38 mm. The MIC observed for the synthesized compounds ranged between 0.0313mg/mL and 0.125 mg/mL, while that of the standard antibiotic, streptomycin, varied between 0.0313 mg/mL and 0.500 mg/mL and those observed for tetracycline falls between 0.0313 mg/mL and 0.500 mg/mL. The minimum bactericidal concentrations exhibited by the synthesized compounds ranged between 0.0625 mg/mL and 0.250 mg/mL Discussion and conclusion: The study concluded that all the compounds exhibited appreciable bactericidal effects against all the bacterial strains, which is an indication that such synthetic compounds possessed broad spectrum activities and such compounds could be useful in formulation of antibacterial compounds which could be used to mitigates infections caused by pathogens that are now developing resistance against the available antibiotics.
, Aanuoluwapo Nifemi Olowu, Anyim Godwin, Joseph Tosin Apata, Bolajoko Ayinke Akinpelu
Journal of Applied Life Sciences International pp 25-35; https://doi.org/10.9734/jalsi/2021/v24i630242

Abstract:
This study examined the potential cytotoxicity of Mirabilis jalapa L. methanolic crude leaf extract and its fractions against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina L.) and Allium cepa L. roots. The leaf extraction was done according to standard technique and crude extract was partitioned using n-hexane, water, ethyl acetate and butanol to obtain their respective fractions. Allium cepa root growth inhibition of M. jalapa methanolic crude extract and fractions were evaluated as well as brine shrimp lethality of the fractions based on standard methods. Also, phytochemical screening of the methanolic crude leaf extract was carried out according to standard methods. The result showed that M. jalapa methanolic crude leaf extract caused a significant reduction in cell mitotic index (32.96%) compared with the control (52.13%). The butanol fraction produced the highest mitotic inhibitory activity on A. cepa cell division at 0.3 mg/ml. Moreover, the butanol fraction produced the highest percentage lethality (LC50 1.45 μg/ml) against brine shrimp nauplii. There was a strong correlation between brine shrimp lethality and mitotic cell inhibition with butanol fraction as the most potent in both models. The methanolic leaf crude extract tested positive for alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, tanins and triterpenes. The methanolic crude extract of M. jalapa leaf and its fractions exhibited effective cytotoxic effect on A. cepa and brine shrimps. Butanol fraction, with the most cytotoxic activity among the tested extracts, demonstrates a promising source for novel anticancer agents.
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