Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International

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EISSN : 2394-1073
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 477
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Vital Kwizera, Nimet Sema Gençer, Kemal Sulhi Gündoğdu, Jean Bosco Ndagijimana
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 60-71; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i330224

Abstract:
Insects are found in almost all ecosystems and are responsible for several essential functions. They aerate the soil, pollinate blossoms, and control plant diseases. The ecological importance of insects cannot be underestimated: they form the basement of the food pyramid and affect agricultural ecosystems and human health. All organisms are co-evolved and are dependent each other. Human activities cause adverse effects in the insect´s environments. Opening forests and other natural areas for agricultural activities affect the insect ecosystems. Land, which is the foundation of human activities, is also the home of insects. Insects have been competing with humans for the products of our labor ever since the soil cultivation began. In this research, we evaluated the impact of rural land use on insect ecology. Firstly, we conducted survey (interviews) in order to discover the area and its main economic. As a complement field analysis and GIS mapping were conducted. Different land uses, types and composition of vegetation cover, and insect composition were analyzed. The most important land occupation is agriculture, followed by settlement, and artificial forestry. We evaluated the effects of elevation, cropland, settlement, road, and nighttime light on insect ecology. We named the analysis “insect ecological sensibility” and considered it in our study area. The presence or not of protected and/or ecological corridors was also analyzed. Cropland, settlement, and artificial forestry and pastures, especially the absence of protected areas and ecological corridors, are the main points that negatively affect insect ecology in the study area. Elevation, road and nighttime light are not affecting significantly insect ecology.
, Esther M. Muindi, Elisha Otieno Gogo, Simon Muti
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 45-59; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i330223

Abstract:
Cabbages are important for income generation, human nutrition, and health promotion. Its production in the tropics is constrained by soil moisture stress and high temperatures. Sustainable production requires the adoption of technologies that modify growth environment. A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of Brassica rapa and Brassica oleracea under shade nets within coastal environments. Randomized complete block design, with three replications, was used. Treatments were: 0%, 50% and 70% shading, using black shade net. Data collected include plant height, stem diameter, crown diameter, leaf chlorophyll, number of open leaves and quality heads, and fresh head weight. Data obtained were subjected to ANOVA and means separated using Tukey’s test at 5%. 70%, and 50% shading significantly increased plant height than open field by 7.1cm and 5.3cm respectively. Number of open leaves and leaf chlorophyll content in both cabbages decreased with increase in shading intensity. Brassica rapa under 70% and 50% shading had 55% and 47.5% more yield than open field respectively, while Brassica oleracea under 70% and 50% shading had 62.5% and 53% more yield than open field respectively. Brassica rapa under 70% shading had 0.8 kg more fresh weight per plant than open field while 50% had 1 kg. Brassica oleracea had 1 kg more fresh weight per plant than open field in both 70% and 50% shading. Therefore, black shade net of 50% and 70% shading favoured cabbage production in a coastal environment and they can be used in areas with similar ecological conditions.
, Fajardo Montiel Aida Lucia, Ortiz Bañuelos Alma Delia, De la Torre Villaseñor Odila
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 19-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i330222

Abstract:
Introduction: The agricultural sector is extremely vulnerable to climate change. Rising temperatures and changes in precipitation patterns would reduce crop production and lead to the proliferation of weeds, diseases and pests on crops. Changes in rainfall patterns increase the likelihood of short-term crop failure and long-term production reduction. Although some crops in certain regions of the world may benefit, the impacts of climate change are generally expected to be negative for agriculture. Likewise, the low availability of feed for livestock uses and the decrease in the availability of water will affect the productivity of milk and meat of the different breeds of cattle. Both low agricultural and livestock productivity threaten global food security. Objective: This research aims to highlight the impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector in Mexico. The present analysis uses regional modeling of climate variables under climate change conditions that impact crop growth and livestock development, using two scenarios to simulate future climate. Materials and Methods: the methodology is to present a set of regional projections of humidity, temperature, rainfall and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Indices (SPEI) for Mexico under the IPCC AR6 climate change scenarios, improving the projections of the Ocean-Atmospheric General Circulation Models and estimating the possible impacts of climate change on the agricultural sector of Mexico. Results and Discussion: Regional models for Mexico show temperature increases ranging from 0.5 to 5 °C, while the % change in rainfall will range from -20.3% to 13.5% depending on the scenario and analysis period. The low soil moisture (mm), the negative changes of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and SPEI 12 show that the North, West and Bajío areas presented reductions in precipitation and increase in temperature that caused a severe deficit of soil moisture and water stress in the plants, considering these areas with scarce vegetation and presence of semi-permanent meteorological drought. Under these scenarios it is expected that practically the entire country will be subjected to moderate droughts (Center and South) to extremely strong (North) that will continue and sharpen between now and the end of the century. In Mexico, climate change will have various effects on crop yields, livestock reproduction and production of meat and its derivatives in all regions of the country in a differentiated way according to soil and climatic conditions. This will lead to additional price increases for major crops for both human and animal consumption. It will also cause not enough land suitable for cultivation and grazing; and availability of surface and groundwater demanded by the agricultural sector by the end of the 21st century. Conclusions: Finally, climate change will put Mexico's food security at risk during the present century.
R. Abhilash, B. Venkatesh, C. V. Srinivasa, Mohansing Rajaput
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i330221

Abstract:
Water demands have been exacerbated by the uncertainty in rainfall occurrences and distribution due to various factors in a changing climate and growing population. The irrigation sector has the highest water demand, accounting for 85 percent of total water use in Karnataka. Rainfall plays a critical part in meeting irrigation needs. To effectively allocate and manage water resources for command area management, examining rainfall patterns, distribution of rainfall trends, both regional and temporal variations is necessary. Hence, the primary focus of this research is to investigate the impact of rainfall trends on agricultural water requirements for a typical study area in semi-arid region. To assess the rainfall trend, time-series statistical trend tests called Mann–Kendall (MK) test and the Innovative Trend Analysis (ITA) approach are used to examine the spatio-temporal distributions of long-term rainfall patterns for the Narayanapura command region. The results are then geo-processed to examine the spatial distribution of trends using the isohyetal concept. The findings illustrate the spatial distribution of rainfall trend for the command in a semi-arid region on a monthly, monsoon, and annual basis. Spatio-temporal analyses from both methodologies indicates the trend in rainfall pattern is decreasing annually and in monsoon months, with a rising trend for pre-monsoon showers. The trend variation pattern also reveals periodic oscillation alignment in the direction of south-west monsoon movement. According to MK test results, monsoon rainfall is anticipated to decrease by 12 percent by 2047, and by 21 percent from ITA results. Further, impact analysis indicates that, for every unit millimeter of rainfall deficit, there would be a 62 Ha-m increase in irrigation water demand.
A. Mamman, I. Umar, M. B. Aji, N. E. Simon
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 54-60; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i230220

Abstract:
As the unseen enemy, nematodes have caused untold damage to crops and farmers’ income across the world. A study was conducted in 2019 and 2020 to determine the effect of leaf extract and powder of Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult. On root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) (Treub, 1885) on okra in the laboratory and pot experiment. Juvenile mortality and egg hatch inhibition tests were conducted in the laboratory. Result of the juvenile mortality test showed that the crude extract (100 % extract) cause the highest mortality (95.33 %) of juveniles while the same crude extract inhibited the hatching of more M. javanica eggs (89.67 %) than the dilutions and control. For the pot experiment, results show that the 60 g powder treatment gave the least galling index (1.0), nematode population (146.96), reproduction factor (0.25) and the highest yield (1568.3 Kg/ha) in 2019. The same trend was observed in 2020. Based on these findings, I. asarifolia leaf extract and powder (60 g) have the potential to put in check the menace posed by M. javanica on okra.
Milca Banda Medison, Rudoviko Galileya Medison, Jingrong Hu, Yi Zhou
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 46-53; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i230219

Abstract:
One major challenge that agricultural production faces is the presence of plant-parasitic nematodes in crop fields. Plant-parasitic nematodes cause serious plant physical injuries, the inability of plants to acquire nutrients from the soil, and weaken the plant immune system. However, plants respond in several ways by producing hormones, anti-nematocidal proteins, repellents, nemastatic compounds, or inhibiting the feeding cell formation and development that minimize attack and injuries by the nematodes. Sometimes these mechanisms fail and therefore plant growers have to use plant management practices to prevent and suppress the presence of parasitic nematodes. The development and use of synthetic nematicides have limitations associated with costs and environmental pollution. Therefore, the use of plant extracts that contains anthelmintic compounds has proved to be successful in suppressing parasitic nematodes while maintaining environmental safety for living organisms. However, the relationship between plant immunity and the applications of plant extracts has not been well documented. It is against this background that this minireview explains the mechanism of plant immunity and the potential of plant extracts in enhancing plants to resist and suppress parasitic nematodes. The research progress and challenges of using the plant extracts have also been discussed thus creating potential areas of future research on applications of plant extracts in parasitic nematodes management. Furthermore, this minireview has recommended the use of sustainable integrated management of plant-parasitic nematodes approach.
, Tchindebe Alexandre, Awe Djongmo Victor, Witanou Nathalie, Megueni Clautilde, Mapongmetsem Pierre-Marie
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 27-45; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i230218

Abstract:
Aims: Moringa oleifera is a species with multivariate uses. Despite its socio-economic importance in the northern part of Cameroon, it remains undervalued. Understanding its contribution to the fight against climate change requires precise quantification of its biomass. However, there is a lack of site-specific allometric equations for estimating this biomass. The development of site-specific allometric equations of M.oleifera is therefore imperative to facilitate this effort. Study Design: To achieve this objective, a sample of fourteen trees of M.oleifera was taken in from the two areas and divided into diameter classes between 5 and 13 cm. Place and Duration of Study: Sample: Agroecological zones of High guinean savannahs and Sudano-sahelian zone of Cameroon between April and July 2021. Methodology: The diameter at breast height of these trees and their height were measured. After tree cutting, biomass of compartments of leaves, branches, trunks and roots were determined after drying and weighing. Various allometric equations between biomasses and two parameters of the tree (the diameter and the height) were tested. The adjusted coefficient of determination (R2adj), the residual standard error (RSE) and the Akaike Information Criteria were used for choosing the best models. Results: The different analyses showed that diameter at breast height (DBH) is the variable that offers the best correlation for global above-ground (AGB) and below-ground (BGB) biomass in contrast to the other compartments. Thus, the best models for predicting total above-ground biomass of M. oleifera are -3.653-0.250lnD+5.119lnH (Sudano-Sahelian), -3.916 + 2.982lnD (High guinean Savannahs), -2.340 + 2.117lnD (Global) and finally for roots -6.426 + 2.182lnD. Conclusion: These mathematical models could help in estimating the biomass of Moringa oleifera in agroforestry systems under the ecological conditions of Cameroon.
, Vilani Sachitra
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 10-26; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i230217

Abstract:
The United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are not specific to one industry; they help every industry achieve a sustainable future. This study aims to investigate the contribution of Sri Lankan tea plantation companies towards the SDGs and how tea plantation companies enhance a sustainable future for their organizations. The qualitative research approach is employed under an exploratory research design. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect data from ten factory managers using a semi-structured interview protocol. And thematic analysis is employed to analyze the data. The findings revealed that SDGs provide a universal and visionary framework for contributing to economic, social, and environmental factors and lead to achieving a sustainable future for tea plantation companies. The SDGs are relevant to tea plantation companies because those SDGs assign different weights to business practices. Goals such as no poverty, good health and wellbeing, zero hunger, gender equality, sustainable cities and communities, quality education, peace and justice, and strong institutions are important in the social dimensions. And also, affordable and clean energy, climate action, responsible consumption and production, life below water, life on land, clean water and sanitation are important SDGs in the environmental model. And decent work and economic growth, industry/innovation and infrastructure, reduced inequality, and partnerships are the SDGs for the economy. Further, the majority of the SDGs contribute to enhancing society and the environment. Intriguingly, it was revealed that the willingness of the shareholders to implement socially-oriented projects is a major problem in the tea plantation sector. There is a scarcity of literature grades in SDGs in tea plantation companies in the agriculture sector. As a result, this research has delved deeper into tea plantation companies in the agricultural industry.
, Longonje Simon Ngomba, Mokam Eva
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i230216

Abstract:
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) are an integral part of development and survival of people living in and around forests areas which constitutes a major livelihood activity for them. This study was carried out from April to July 2017, with main objective to know the harvesting and marketing pattern of Monodora myristica and Afrostyrax kamerunensis in six selected villages namely Babong, Banteng, Bechati, Mbechoh, Talung and Tabot of Wabane Sub-division. Monodora myristica and Afrostyrax kamerunensis are popular aromatic spices widely used in traditional system of medicines and also in preparation of traditional dishes in Cameroon. In order to meet the set objectives, participatory rural appraisal (PRA) tools were used to source information on the harvesting and marketing pattern of selected species in the study area. A questionnaire survey was conducted to investigate the harvesting pattern, marketing channels and price of Monodora myristica and Afrostyrax kamerunensis. The results showed that 50.05 tons and 25.7 tons of Monodora myristica and Afrostyrax kamerunensis were harvested, respectively while 45 tons and 24.98 tons of Monodora myristica and Afrostyrax kamerunensis were sold, respectively. The annual trade value of Monodora myristica was observed to be 40,228,600 FCFA and 44,378,000 FCFA for harvesters and retailers, respectively. While, the values for Afrostyrax kamerunensis were 22,375,160 FCFA and 25,788,000 FCFA, respectively. It has been observed that men were actively engaged in production while women in trading process of selected NTFP’s yielding tree species. A bucket of 15litres (25kg) of Monodora myristica on an average costs 22,000 FCFA while that of Afrostyrax kamerunensis costs 25,000 FCFA. Market prices were found to be determined by the forces of demand and supply, rate of production and seasonal variations. The study concluded that Monodora myristica and Afrostyrax kamerunensis are important sources of income to the local communities and making an important contribution to their livelihoods.
, Nelson N. Ntonifor
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 30-42; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2022/v23i130214

Abstract:
Aims: This study sought to assess farmers’ awareness and knowledge about bean postharvest constraints and their indigenous methods to mitigate them. Cameroon. Study Design: Random interviewing of bean farmers. Place and Duration of study: Interviewed farmers of the highland savanna and humid rainforest ecological zones which are two agro-ecological zones of Cameroon respectively from January 2017 to October 2018.Methodology: A structured questionnaire was randomly distributed to 519 bean farmers in order to document their perceptions on various constraints hampering beans postharvest handling/storage and their indigenous methods of mitigating these constraints. Of these, 356 were from the highland savanna and 163 from the humid rainforest ecozones Results: Most postharvest losses in beans are caused by insects and mold/rot. Insect pests were reported by 251 (69.5%) of farmers in the highland savanna and 134 (84.8%) in the humid rain forest, while mold/rot was reported by 108 (29.9%) of the farmers in the highland savanna and 11 (6.9%) in the humid rainforest. Farmers in both agro-ecological zones lacked adequate storage facilities, as reported by 147 (40.7%) in the highland savanna and 43% (275) in the humid rainforest. Most farmers in the highland savanna 118 (39.20%) and humid rainforest 67 (43.22%) stored bean grains for 1-3 months, though farmers in the highland savanna generally stored beans longer than those in the humid rainforest. The insect infestations were controlled mainly by using conventional pesticides and local plant materials while mold was mainly managed by proper drying of the produce. Conclusions: To mitigate these constraints, an integrated approach of storing appropriately dried insect-free grains in moisture proof storage containers/facilities and judicious use of synthetic pesticides and/or proven effective botanicals should be adopted. Thus, farmers should be trained on good bean preservation methods and effective plant-based products.
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