Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International

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EISSN : 2394-1073
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 460
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, Lopez-Coba Ermilo, Pacheco-Sierra Gualberto, May-Cruz Christian, Sierra-Gomez Andrés Iii
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 38-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i530201

Abstract:
Aims: Estimate the population density of deer in the municipality of Tzucacab, Yucatán in the periods of 2003-2004, 2007-2008 and 2008-2009, determine the use of the habitat by these populations and the sustainability of the deer harvest from the estimated population densities. Study Design: A descriptive and vertical free-living deer population study was carried out in southern Yucatan, Mexico over a three-year period. Methodology: The map of the municipality of Tuzcacab was zoned in quadrants of 36 km2, completing a total of 36 quadrants; Unrestricted random sampling was applied to select seven quadrants in the period from 2003 to 2004 and 18 in each annual period between 2007 and 2009. Population samplings were carried out by applying three population estimation methods: direct sighting in a linear transect of 5 km in length, count of tracks in transect except period 2003-2004 and faecal pellets group count in plots. The evaluation of the use of habitat was carried out using the Bonferroni intervals, from the data of faecal pellets count. The evaluation of the deer harvest was carried out using the sustainable harvest model. Results: The population densities were different in each method, the density by the excreta count was 4.63 ± 2.49 deer / km2 in 2003-2004, 0.294 ± 0.198 deer / km2 in 2007-2008, and in the year 2008-2009 was 0.419 ± 0.0000085 deer / km2. Habitat use in 2007-08 and 2008-2009 was higher in the tropical forest, lower in agriculture and similar to that expected in secondary succession forest (acahual). The values of sustainable harvest, taking as a value the density per count of excreta in the plot because it showed the highest statistical precision, in the period 2003-04 it is sustainable, but in the period from 2007 to 2009 it is not sustainable. Conclusion: The population densities of deer (O. virginianus and M. americana) in Tuzcacab by means of the excreta count method, have decreased significantly. The habitat use preference is the tropical forest. The deer harvest in the period from 2007 to 2009 is not sustainable.
, Huynh Minh Sang, Hua Thai An
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 28-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i530200

Abstract:
The development of aquaculture, especially in mariculture, contributes to satisfy the increasing demand for aquatic food, but it also faces serious socio-economic and environmental issues. This is also consistent with aquaculture in the Southern Central Region (SCR), Vietnam. The paper conducted to evaluate the mariculture status and activities by questionnaire interviews of 255 mariculture stakeholders (cages/rafts owners) and their challenges by in-depth interviews of 16 aquaculture managing officers at eight provinces in SCR, 2018-2019. The results showed an assessment of the current status of mariculture, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis, and orientation strategies of mariculture development. For a long time, the aquaculture area has not varied considerably, and mainly distributed in inland, coastal and off-coastal waters, almost it is not implemented in the open sea yet. Mariculture was also challenged by various concerned issues: various types of mariculture and species, small scale, outdated traditional technology, and labor force with fair practices in mariculture. Almost them are made the challenge for aquaculture expansion and implementation in open seas. Moreover, capital sources and credit access of stakeholders, and enterprise's investment are key factors to develop offshore mariculture. Based on the results of SWOT analysis, five strategies are proposed for sustainable development of mariculture in the SCR, as well as to meet the objectives of Vietnam's mariculture strategy. It is noted that when developing mariculture on an industrial scale to increase commercial products, the small- and medium-scale ones are vulnerable, so expansion and development of mariculture should be combined with the creation of job opportunities, reduction of poverty alleviation and economic growth and sustainability.
, N. P. Udeh, J. J. Okeke, O. A. Okeke, K. P. Okafor, C. C. Egwuagu, M. Ogbozor
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 19-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i530199

Abstract:
In poultry, feed costs represent a major part of total production costs. Accordingly, improvement of feed conversion ratio; feed intake: weight gain should be a major objective in most breeding programmes. Growth performance of three commercial broiler hybrids in Nigeria were investigated using a total of 60 unsexed day old chicks consisting of 15 each of Rhode Island White, Plymouth Rock and Rhode Island Red; and 15 of the purebred, the Nigerian Southern light ecotype used as control. The breeds were maintained separately in wooden cages of dimension 120cm × 80cm × 40cm at stocking density of 15 birds per m2 and fed for six weeks using broiler starter feed for first four weeks and finisher feed for next two weeks. The broiler starter feed was composed of broiler concentrate (energy Keauka) 2950Kcal, crude protein 2.1%, crude fibre 4.0%, calcium 1.0%, Available phosphorus 0.48%, cysine 1.2% and methionine 0.5%. The finisher’s diet consisted of 1:1.8 mixtures of broiler concentrate and maize meal. No medication was provided during the study. The result showed Rhode Island White had highest maximum weight gain (2874.43% initial weight), Plymouth Rock (1053.14% initial weight) intermediate and Rhode Island Red (986.12% initial weight) lowest. The pure breed weight gain (441.50% initial weight) was lower than the hybrids. Average feed conversion ratio was highest for Rhode Island White (0.394±0.0047), intermediate for Plymouth Rock (0.373± 0.0051) and Rhode Island Red (0.366± 0.0048) next. The difference was significant (P< 0.05). The purebred had the lowest feed conversion ratio (0.346± 0.0047). Rhode Island Red had the lowest mortality (0%), Rhode Island White (6.67%) intermediate and Plymouth Rock next (20%). The purebred had the highest mortality (33.33%). The study showed Rhode Island White was the most economically viable breed due to its higher growth rate, feed conversion ratio and low mortality rate.
, Fotso, Tene Tayo Martial, Djocgoue Pierre-François
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i530198

Abstract:
Abelmoschus esculentus, a plant cultivated in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world, is highly appreciated for its various uses. Its culture encounters difficulties, particularly in Cameroon, due to soil infertility. In order to overcome this difficulty, the use of biological fertilizers in order to regenerate agricultural soils for more production is suggested. Three types of formulations were prepared after in vitro compatibilities tests, T1 (B. amyloliquefaciens and T. harzianum); T2 (B. velezensis and B. amyloliquefaciens) and T3 (B. velezensis and T. harzianum) with the aim of improving soil physicochemical; agromorphological and nutritional profile of okra. The plants were cultivated in 4.5 m² plots, arranged in complete randomized blocks design. ANOVA revealed significant differences between T1treatment and the other treatments and with the T0 control in plant height with the growth rate of 1.144cm/day, fruit length (11.53±0.49cm) and the average weight of fruits per treatment (1868.00±279.45g) at the significance level of P<0.05 (Tukey test). The productivity of treatment T1 per hectare (16.604±2.48t/ha) was highly significant compared to the other treatments and the control (8.53±1.49t/ha). Parameters such as disease resistance, leaf area and number of leaves were not significant between treatments but with the control. The values obtained with T1 treatment were high compared to the others. Regarding nutritional properties, the Na, K, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, carbohydrates and proteins contents were significantly increased compared to the control with contents values above the same okra variety. These different results may suggest the use of bioformulation with B. amyloliquefaciens and T. harzianum in order to improve soil fertility and to produce a sufficient quantity and quality of biofortified okra.
, G. O. Mekuleyi, V. Kusemiju, A. A. Adu, O. O. Babalola
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 58-69; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430197

Abstract:
The present study focused on impact of climate change on livelihood of Ganyingbo fishing community in Badagry, from June to September, 2020. Data were collected through administration of 58 structured questionnaires to artisanal fishermen while test of significance of research hypotheses was conducted using chi-square and t-test at 95% confidence interval. The results showed that the fisher folks composed of 83% male and 17% female. The most common age group among fishermen was 30-39 years (27.58%) and 57% do not have other job apart from fishing. Majority (37.93%) of the fishermen did not attain beyond secondary school education while only 3.45% had tertiary education. Calculated coefficient of marketing efficiency indicated that 54.8% and 72.26% of their sales revenue were taken up by costs before and after the effect of climate change respectively. Total expenditure of fishermen increased by 24.9% while income decreased by 5.26%. The t-test analysis indicated significant (p<0.05) difference between the total cost associated with fishing in Ganyingbo before (N17850.0± 2015.22) and after (N22300.0 ± 6297.40) effect of the climate change. Fishermen (87.93%) believed that adopting coping strategies to mitigate the climate change is germane for artisanal fisheries systems. A significant (p<0.05) difference was observed (X2 = 30.56: 9.49) between expected and observed perspective of fishermen based on viability of artisanal fisheries in Ganyingbo community. As noted in this study, fishing business in Ganyingbo is still viable however more effective mitigation measures are required to ensure its sustainability.
, Norbert Adum Atego, Paul Sifuna Oshule, Job Mapesa, Suliman Essuman, John Huria Nderitu, Micah Nyabiba Asamba, Chris Ngeny
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 26-36; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430195

Abstract:
The study objective was to provide baseline and reference data on status and use of acaricides based on type or active ingredients by individual farmers and in public cattle dip maintained by county governments. The survey was conducted through a cross-sectional study in three counties (Kilifi, Kajiado and Nakuru), based on livestock farming intensive (low, medium and high) respectively. A total of 72 farmers were sampled where Questionnaire and informal interview were used to collect data on acaricides use, grazing method, herd characteristics, production and marketing. Data obtained was stored in excel spread sheets coded and analyzed using Statistical Package for social Scientists (SPSS). Grazing systems were conventional grazing (31), zero grazing (10) and fenced pastures (41). Collapse of county governments maintained cattle dips was observed. Hence use of alternative methods by farmers; spray race (22) and mechanical (hand) spray (31). Chemicals used included TRIATIX (12), DUODIP (11), STELADONE (7) among others with majority of the farmers (32) spraying once a week. Water sources for use were tap (piped) water (8), Borehole (54), community dams (3), river water (4) and harvested rain water (1). Majority of farmers (43) used manual methods of milking while 29 farmers used automated machines. Nakuru had highest number of lactating cattle (1422) and milk production (22,480 litres), followed by Kajiado (247) with low milk production (371 litres) compared to production Kilifi production (1470 litres) herd (150). Milk was sold to KCC, Brookside and vendors with farmers adding little value (Yoghurt and Mala). In conclusion, extensive use of chemicals may accumulate in the ecosystem thus a public health problem with little productivity. Data forms basis for further research and policy formulation on acaricides use. Analysis of hydro-chemical parameters and acaricides in the water source is recommended to ascertain its suitability for Agricultural and domestic use.
, M. Y. Rafii, T. M. M. Mahmud, M. M. Hanafi
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 37-57; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430196

Abstract:
Aims: The main objective of this study is to quantify the genetic variability and relationship among the quantitative traits of the torch ginger germplasm collected across Peninsular Malaysia. Study design: Initially, the experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) but there were unequal number of replications due to limited planting materials. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI) Research Station, Jerangau, Terengganu, Malaysia on latitude 04°57.704’N and longitude 103°11.007’E. Data on agro-morphological characterization were collected for three years from June 2010 until May 2013. Methodology: A total of 57 torch ginger accessions were collected from various wild/ cultivated sources from seven states of Peninsular Malaysia namely Terengganu (19), Perak (15), Kedah (7), Johor (6), Pahang (5), Kelantan (3) and Melaka (2). The collection was planted in 2009 and maintained as living collection. At three months old torch ginger plantlets were transplanted into 20 cm × 20 cm × 20 cm holes spaced at 100 cm diameter of culvert. The spacing of culvert between rows and within rows were 2 m respectively. Initially, the experimental design was randomized complete block design (RCBD) but there were unequal number of replications due to limited planting materials. Data on agro-morphological characterization were collected for three years from June 2010 until May 2013. All the 57 accessions were characterized according to descriptors list of genera under Zingiberaceae family with some modifications. A total of 6 qualitative and 16 quantitative descriptors were used. The mean values of each quantitative trait data were computed and subjected to statistical analysis to assess the amount of genetic variation using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The ANOVA was using PROC GLM of SAS 9.4 software (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA). Genotypic coefficients of variation and error variance were estimated using PROC VARCOMP method Type I of SAS 9.4 software. Phenotypic coefficients of variation, heritability and genetic advance were calculated. Pearson correlation coefficient was determined using SAS 9.4 for comparing the relationship among the different traits. The morphological traits were analyzed by numerical taxonomic methods via cluster analysis and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) which was done using NTSYS-PC Version 2.1. PCA based on 16 quantitative and six qualitative traits was performed to determine the genetic variation in the torch ginger accessions. The cluster and PCA were performed to reveal clustering and grouping pattern of torch ginger accessions. Euclidean distance coefficients were estimated for all pairs of accessions, which was then used to present cluster analysis. Results: Analysis of variance indicated that highly significant variation exists among the 57 accessions for most of the traits. The 57 accessions of torch ginger showed high variability for both qualitative and quantitative traits. Among the quantitative traits, the highest CV was observed from number of spikes with the value of 44.25%. The genetic coefficient of variation for 16 morphological traits ranged from 9.76 to 45.86%. Broad sense heritability estimates varied from low to high. Maximum estimates of broad sense heritability were recorded in bract length (80.16%), bud peduncle length (78.74%), number of leaves (75.66%), number of stems per clump (67.99%), inflorescence peduncle length (67.60%) and bud width (65.11%). The genetic advance (GA) in percent of mean was recorded from 11.82 to 67.97%. Besides that, positive correlation coefficient was obtained between some traits. Generally, the genotypes groups were related with morphological characteristics among the accessions. Conclusion: Considering the distribution pattern, vegetative and yield performance of accessions, it is suggested that accessions from cluster VII (KAN022, KAN047 and KAN048) should be selected for future breeding program. These accessions possessed the highest peduncle length that could influence the yield in terms of bud size. Furthermore, the classification and divergence between torch ginger accessions analyzed in this study may assist in conserving plant materials both in-situ and ex-situ.
F. E. Awosanmi, M. Ogunleye, G. O. Awosanmi, B. S. Olisa, S. A. Ajayi
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 20-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430194

Abstract:
The production environment plays a significant role in the production of high-quality seeds. Therefore, the knowledge of the relative contributions of the different factors that impact seed quality will be important for the management of seed production. The objective of this study was to assess the relative contribution of location and variety to the physiological quality of the cowpea seeds. Seeds of two varieties of cowpea, IT97K-918-118 and 977K-1499-35 were produced at three locations: Ikenne, Ilora, and Ballah. Hundred seed weight, seed moisture content, standard germination, accelerated ageing germination and electrical conductivity tests were carried out on the seeds. The results indicated that the location effect was highly significant (P<0.05) for hundred seed weight, germination percentage, germination rate index, accelerated ageing germination percentage and accelerated ageing germination rate index, while the varietal effect was highly significant for only hundred seed weight. However, location alone contributed more than 50% to the observed variability in hundred seed weight, germination percentage, germination rate index and accelerated ageing germination percentage. Seeds from Ballah had the highest viability (germination percentage = 84.67%) but also the lowest vigour (accelerated ageing germination = 11%; electrical conductivity = 64.10µscm-1g-1). Thus, the modulating effect of the environment on the quality of cowpea seeds is not the same for the different components of quality and the choice of location for the production of cowpea seeds should be given a higher priority than a choice of variety per se.
Bridgits Inyangala, , Paul Sifuna Oshule, Suliman Essuman, Mwangome Muye Chongomwa, Norbert Adum Atego
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i430193

Abstract:
Water has economic and ecological significance. However, quality deterioration due to salinity causes significant decrease in agricultural productivity and a public health problem. This study focuses on hydro-chemical and microbial quality of water sources in Kilifi County. Water samples were collected from 25 different locations within Kilifi County and indicators of salinity and microbial load analyzed. Temperature, pH, EC and TDS were determined using portable pH meter. Anions; F-, Br-, Cl-, SO42-, PO43-, NO2-, NO3-, CO32-, HCO3- and NH4+ were determined using Ion Exchange Chromatography. Cations; Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Zn2+, Fe2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Al3+ and Ag+ were determined using flame photometry. Standard methods were used to determine Microbial loads. Results were pH (7.42±0.52), Temperature (24.61±0.21oC), EC (3.44±0.75 dscm-1), TDS (1672.53±122.87 mgL-1) and Turbidity (152.29±41.20 NTU). Anions; F- (2.90±0.24 mg/L), Cl- (1756.68±900.50 mg/L), NO2- (4.47±0.49 mg/L), Br- (11.72±1.20 mg/L), NO3- (4.67±0.38 mg/L), HCO3- (200.54±25.58 mg/L) PO43- (0.94±0.10 mg/L), CO32- (29.94±2.32 mg/L), and SO42- (300.64±42.47 mg/L). Cations; K+ (8751.80±214.04 mgL-1), Na+ (59.43±1.98 mgL-1), Ca2+ (4.00±0.16 mgL-1), Mg2+ (59.43±1.98 mgL-1), Zn2+ (0.76±0.30 mgL-1), Cu2+ (0.18±0.01 mgL-1), Ag+ (0.03±0.01 mg/L), Cd2+ (0.07±0.01 mg/L), Cr3+ (0.35±0.01 mg/L), Al3+ (0.33±0.01 mg/L) and NH4+ (2.01±1.96 mg/L). Microbial load; MPN (20811.00±402.00), Total coliforms (2970.00±60.00 CFU 100 mL-1), E. coli (26.00±3.00 CFU 100mL-1), S. aureus (411.00±12.00 CFU 100mL-1), Shegela (24.00±2.00 CFU 100mL-1) and S. typhi (67.00±2.00 CFU 100mL-1). Temperature, pH, EC, TDS, Turbidity, F-, Cl-, Br-, PO43-, Na+, Zn2+, Fe2+ and microbial load were above WHO limits whereas SO42-, NO2-, NO3-, CO32-, HCO3-, NH4+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Cd2+, Cr3+, Al3+ and Ag+ were below WHO limits. The study concludes that water sources in Kilifi County are unsuitable for domestic and agricultural uses. It’s recommended that a continuous water quality monitoring program be put in place and development of effective management practices for utilization of the surface water resources be instituted.
Journal of Agriculture and Ecology Research International pp 72-81; https://doi.org/10.9734/jaeri/2021/v22i330192

Abstract:
Aim: To assess the impacts of rodent pests on Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) production and productivity. Rodents belong to the mammalian order that is widely distributed globally. Their adaptive potential and capability to face changing environments even when instigated by anthropogenic activities is quite amazing. Also, their importance as vital links in food chain between species of plants and the predators thereby playing crucial roles within the ecosystem cannot be overemphasized. Rodents have been noted to cause ubiquitous damage to agricultural crops including cocoa. They can cause damage in crop fields from planting throughout harvest and storage. The damages caused by rodent pests mostly occur during the sensitive young seedling stage and just prior to harvesting. The pattern and the extent of damage by pest rodents depend upon the species, the intensity of infestation, the type and the growth stage of the crop, and the nature of the surrounding habitat. These damages caused by rodent pests could be direct through the consumption of cocoa beans or indirect through the biting, gnawing or scratching of pods which could range from slight to severe. The stern impacts caused as a result of rodent pest activities are not only felt in the quantity and quality of cocoa pods but also on the social maintenance as well as survival of those growing the crop. Despite the paucity of documented data as regards the kind, form as well as ferocity of rodent damage, it is highly expedient to re-evaluate the rodent pests’ impacts on the production of cocoa so as to update the very scarce available information whilst providing a basis for additional investigation.
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