ISSN / EISSN : 0102-7077 / 2318-7115
Published by: Revista de Cultura Teologica (10.23925)
Total articles ≅ 130
Latest articles in this journal
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i3a9
For security reasons, quantity and constant updates, it is impracticable to translate documents related to the operation and maintenance of aircraft. However, most professionals in this field are not native English speakers and are in contact with this English written documentation on a daily basis so they can do their job. Therefore, it is important that aviation professionals have materials of reference, especially for technical terms, that are reliable sources of information. However, in addition to the lack of this type of material, there is a challenge for its development. The objective of this article is, based on theoretical references and examples from the practice of researching and teaching English for specific purposes, to encourage the discussion about the teamwork of the language teacher and the professional of aircraft maintenance in the production of reference materials, such as technical glossaries. Based on the arguments presented, it is concluded that this partnership has benefits for both areas, languages and technical.
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i4a6
The precision and effectiveness of the communication between air traffic controllers and pilots is quite literally a matter of life or death. Speakers of aeronautical English, the language of communication in the realm of aviation, are required by the ICAO to meet a minimum standard of language performance across the communication skills of listening and speaking, yet miscommunication and misunderstandings across channels persist, potentially resulting in catastrophic collisions and incidents. This English for Specific Purposes (ESP) paper reports on the creation of an aeronautical English training unit guided by principles of the ADDIE (analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation) model of instructional design developed to assist Korean army enlisted soldiers and noncommissioned officers who are serving as air traffic controllers in the improvement of integral aeronautical English skills. Designed materials were assessed with the assistance of four subject-matter experts (SMEs) as a pilot test, and results of the evaluation demonstrate the potential for application of the ADDIE model of instructional design for future ESP instructional units.
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i4a8
This article makes the case for an aviation English test which screens and assesses incoming non-native English-speaking flight students to US flight training organizations. The need for such a test arises from the lack of standardization in flight students’ aviation English proficiency assessments throughout their flight training and the potential negative consequences of inadequate proficiency for students, training centers, and other stakeholders. Looking into proficiency tests that are used as screening measures in other domains, it becomes clear that an adequate screening test for flight training candidates is needed. An existing proficiency test specifically designed for flight and ATC training candidates is also discussed. Results of this investigation point to two main conclusions: first, there is a need for a deeper understanding of the flight training domain through observation, collection and analysis of written and spoken texts in a variety of genres and registers that are typical of the flight training context; second, the necessity remains for a screening tool that takes into account the specificities of the flight training domain.
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i4a5
This article reports the results of a study, conducted by the EPLIS (the SISCEAB Aeronautical English Language Proficiency Exam) development team, which consisted, among other things, of an analysis followed by discussion of the language tasks listed in Appendix B of the Manual on the Implementation of Language Proficiency Requirements (Doc 9835, ICAO, 2010). Although those language tasks supposedly represented language used by air traffic controllers, they were considered too vague to be used to improve the exam or to develop teaching and assessment materials. The study was carried out by a team of five experienced and proficient air traffic controllers from different facilities and a language expert with experience in teaching and assessing English for specific purposes using a focus group methodology. The results have shown that the most frequently used language tasks are related to traffic management, mostly covered by phraseology. On the other hand, language tasks involving explanation and clarifications, which are highly recurrent in radiotelephony communications, require the use of plain language. Additionally, the analysis has revealed that although some language tasks might not be so complex in terms of language, nor so frequently used, they play an important role in the safety of operation.
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i4a9
The purpose of this paper is to reveal and discuss evidence that the safety and efficiency of international aviation continues to be adversely impacted by poor English language proficiency over the radio. In 2011, all members of the International Civil Aviation Organisation (ICAO) were declared to be compliant with regards to the English language testing of all pilots and air traffic controllers (ATCOs). However, language experts have continued to raise concerns about the regulatory framework of Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs) and about whether an international standard of English language proficiency has truly been established. This paper describes the analysis of responses given by pilots and ATCOs to a survey which addressed the nature and frequency of poor language proficiency that they experience during flights. The data show evidence that there continues to be a problem of language proficiency among pilots and ATCOs, that this problem is encountered relatively frequently and that some regions of the world are experiencing it more acutely than others.
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i3a7
This study investigated the washback effect of the Aeronautical English Language Proficiency Exam for the Brazilian Airspace Control System(EPLIS) on teachers’ perceptions and actions in an Air Traffic Control Initial Training Program. EPLIS has been administered to Brazilian in-service air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators every year since 2007, in compliance with the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) language proficiency requirements, published in 2003. These requirements set that all professionals involved in international flight operations shall demonstrate a minimum level of proficiency in the English language. In 2014, Brazilian air traffic control authorities decided to extend EPLIS application to pre-service air traffic controllers to supposedly improve learners’ proficiency in the training program. However, the consequences of this decision, whether intended or unintended, positive or negative, had not been appraised yet. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected through questionnaires, interviews and class observations. The results showed that the decision to introduce EPLIS in that educational context actually increased its impact. However, some teachers’ deficiencies in understanding the exam and its demands, along with an underrepresentation of air traffic control tasks in the test, compromised to some extent the intended effects and need to be handled so that ICAO language policy in Brazil can be entirely implemented.
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i4a1
This text is the Editorial for the second volume of the The Especialist Aviation English special edition. For a contextualization of ICAOLanguage Proficiency Requirements and for the conceptualization and theoretical background of Aviation and Aeronautical English, please consult the Editorial - Volume 1. There you will also find information about how this special edition was conceived and a list of other compilations related to Aviation English. International Civil Aviation Organization.
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i4a3
Communications between pilot and air traffic controller (ATCO) are carried out via radiotelephony, without visual contact between the interlocutors. ICAO, a specialized agency of the United Nations, is responsible for the security of international civil aviation. ICAO’s official documents (ICAO, 2004, 2009, 2010) mention the importance of English pronunciation in the intelligibility of pilot-ATCO communication. In 2017, Brazilian researchers analyzed the extent to which two international Aeronautical English (AE) textbooks, used in an ATCO training course in Brazil, address the pronunciation difficulties considered typical among Brazilians (CRISTÓFARO-SILVA, 2012). The analysis, based on the concepts of intelligibility, English as a Lingua Franca and the ‘Lingua Franca Core’ (JENKINS, 2000, 2002, 2005), showed that the analyzed books do not portray several of these difficulties. In this article, we first point out international air accidents and incidents in which pronunciation was one of the contributing factors, then, based on the Lingua Franca Core, we discuss the causes of some Brazilian pronunciation difficulties, aiming to increase teachers’ and students’ awareness and to contribute to pronunciation teaching in the field of AE. In addition, we problematize the non-critical use of textbooks by teachers and the inadequate training in English Language Phonology.
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i4a7
This paper revisits discussions on needs assessment of language courses for non-native English speakers (NNES) prior to ab initio flight training, or initial flight training, in English-speaking environments. The growing need for pilots in areas of the world where English is traditionally not the native language of the population and the fact that many of them attend flight school in English-speaking countries have increased the demand for such courses. Important questions are what communicative competencies the future flight students need and how current research on English as a lingua Franca (ELF) can inform the design of English for flight training courses. The paper presents the results of a study based on semi-structured interviews with six non-native speaking professional pilots who received ab initio training in English-speaking countries. The analysis suggests that NNES ab initio flight students need to be equipped with the right mix of communicative strategies often summarized as ELF awareness and a sufficient amount of English language proficiency.
The ESPecialist, Volume 41; https://doi.org/10.23925/2318-7115.2020v41i3a3
Aviation English has been used globally and now is regarded as lingua franca of aviation communication. Communication in any foreign language entails cultural connotations. Moreover, reactions caused by perceived potential misconceptions of one’s cultural or ethnic identity are context-dependent. Aeronautical communication in global context by definition does not belong to any specific culture, so it should be devoid of any cultural elements being effective at the same time. Participants of different cultural groups take part in this type of communication on a regular basis. On the one hand, they are equipped with the tool such as standard phraseology binding in so called routine situations in order to avoid communication breakdown as this specific code seems to go beyond the borders of culture. There is no time for an analysis of who is who, but only for the completion of the mechanical operational tasks. On the other hand, according to the conducted research, it has been observed that the operational interlocutors cannot efficiently escape from their own cultural backgrounds when communicating in both routine and non-routine situations. Therefore, still some differences in cultural perception of conversation partners do exist and influence the aeronautical communication. The article describes the current situation and presents common culture indicators in a selected context. The research shows that without any doubt, and in order to be effective communicators, the airline pilots and air traffic controllers should adopt positive orientation towards their interlocutor’s culture.