Journal of Clinical Medicine
ISSN / EISSN : 2077-0383 / 2077-0383
Current Publisher: MDPI AG (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 10,130
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122729
Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) is a postoperative complication that may cause graft failure and mortality after liver transplantation. The objective of this study was to examine whether the preoperative serum uric acid (SUA) level may predict EAD. We performed a prospective observational study, including 61 donor/recipient pairs who underwent living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). In the univariate and multivariate analysis, SUA ≤4.4 mg/dL was related to a five-fold (odds ratio (OR): 5.16, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41–18.83; OR: 5.39, 95% CI: 1.29–22.49, respectively) increased risk for EAD. A lower preoperative SUA was related to a higher incidence of and risk for EAD. Our study provides a new predictor for evaluating EAD and may exert a protective effect against EAD development.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122732
Incidence and mortality of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (iCCA) have been increasing continuously. Recent studies suggest that the combination of palliative chemotherapy (pCTX) and transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) improves overall survival (OS). This study aimed to evaluate the outcome of patients treated with TACE and pCTX in unresectable iCCA at our tertiary care center. A group of 14 patients was treated with both pCTX and TACE. The non-randomized control group of 59 patients received pCTX alone. Patients received a median of two pCTX lines in both groups. Those treated with TACE underwent a median number of 3.5 sessions. Median OS from the time of unresectability was 26.2 months in the pCTX + TACE group versus 13.1 months in the pCTX group (p = 0.008). Controlling for albumin, bilirubin, ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) performance status, and UICC (Union for International Cancer Control) stage, the addition of TACE still conferred an OS benefit of 12.95 months (p = 0.014). A propensity score matching analysis yielded an OS benefit of 14 months from the time of unresectability for the pCTX + TACE group (p = 0.020). The addition of TACE to pCTX may provide an OS benefit for patients with unresectable iCCA. Thus, patients with liver-dominant iCCA undergoing standard-of-care pCTX should be considered for additional treatment with TACE.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122735
Objective: We aimed to investigate the likelihood of vaginal colonization with Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in pregnant and non-pregnant women with Coronavrus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Materials and Methods: Vaginal swabs were taken from women diagnosed with mild to moderately acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, at Wolfson Medical Center, Israel, from March 2020 through October 2020. COVID-19 was diagnosed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) performed on nasopharyngeal swabs. Vaginal swabs were tested for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: In total, 51 women diagnosed with COVID-19 were included in the study. Of the 51 women with COVID-19 enrolled in this study, 16 (31.4%) were pregnant at enrollment and 35 (68.6%) were non-pregnant. Mean age was 43.5 ± 15.3 years (range 21–74 years). Compared to the non-pregnant group, the pregnant group was characterized by a higher white blood cell and absolute neutrophil count (p =0.02 and p =0.027, respectively). The non-pregnant patients were more likely to have chronic diseases (p =0.035) and to be hospitalized (p <0.001). Only one patient (1.9%) aged 60 years tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in vaginal secretions. Mean gestational age at the diagnosis of COVID-19 of the pregnant group was 32.3 ± 7.8 weeks. Thirteen patients delivered during the study period; all delivered at term without obstetric complications and all neonates were healthy. Conclusions: Detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the vaginal secretions of patients diagnosed with COVID-19 is rare. Vaginal colonization may occur during the viremia phase of the disease, although infectivity from vaginal colonization needs to be proven.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122739
Objective: to estimate the association between preoperative hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels below and above 7%, and the rate of all-cause mortality (ACM) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients after coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) within a ten-year follow-up period. Methods: we collected data on patient HbA1c levels that were measured up to 3 months prior to isolated CABG in consecutive patients with DM, and analyzed the rates of ACM over a median of a 5.9-year post-operative period. Results: preoperative HbA1c levels were collected in 579 DM patients. The mean HbA1c was 8.0 ± 1.7%, where 206 (35.6%) patients had an HbA1c ≤ 7% and 373 (64.4%) had an HbA1c > 7%. During the follow-up period, mortality rates were 20.4% and 28.7% in the HbA1c ≤ 7% and HbA1c > 7% groups, respectively (Kaplan-Meier estimates, log-rank p = 0.01). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for age, gender, smoking status, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension, chronic renal failure, old myocardial infarction, number of coronary artery bypass surgeries, and post-operative glycemic control, showed a hazard ratio of 2.67 for long-term ACM (p = 0.001) in patients with HbA1c > 7%. Conclusions: DM patients with high HbA1c levels prior to CABG are at higher risk for long-term complications, especially late ACM.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122740
The success of a colonoscopy in detecting and removing pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions depends heavily on the quality of bowel preparation. Despite efforts, 20–44% of colonoscopy participants have an inadequate bowel preparation. We aimed to assess and compare risk factors for inadequate bowel preparation and for the presence of advanced colorectal neoplasms in routine screening practice. In this cross-sectional study, among 8125 participants of screening colonoscopy in Germany with a comprehensive assessment of sociodemographic factors, lifestyle and medical history, we examined factors associated with inadequate bowel preparation and with findings of advanced neoplasms using adjusted log-binomial regression models. Among the identified risk factors assessed, three factors were identified that were significantly associated with inadequate bowel preparation: age ≥ 70 years (adjusted prevalence ratios, aPR, 1.50 95%CI 1.31–1.71), smoking (aPR 1.29 95%CI 1.11–1.50) and abdominal symptoms (aPR 1.14 95%CI 1.02–1.27). The same risk factors were also associated with the prevalence of advanced neoplasms in our study (aPR 1.72, 1.62 and 1.44, respectively). The risk factors associated with inadequate bowel preparation in this study were also associated with a higher risk for advanced neoplasms. Inadequate bowel preparation for colonoscopy might lead to missed colorectal cancer (CRC) precursors and the late diagnosis of CRC. People at high risk of advanced neoplasms are in particular need of enhanced bowel preparation.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122726
Increased concentrations of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and high-sensitivity troponin I (HsTnI) in COVID-19 patients have already been reported. The aim of this study is to evaluate which of these common markers of cardiac disease is the most useful predictor of fatal outcome in COVID-19 patients. One hundred and seventy-four patients affected with COVID-19 were recruited, and markers of cardiac disease and the clinical history of the patients were collected at admission in the infectious disease unit or intensive care unit. NT-proBNP, BNP and HsTnI values were higher in in-hospital non-surviving patients. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis of NT-proBNP, BNP and HsTnI was performed, with NT-proBNP (AUC = 0.951) and HsTnI (AUC = 0.947) being better performers (p = 0.01) than BNP (AUC = 0.777). Logistic regression was performed assessing the relation of HsTnI and NT-proBNP to fatal outcome adjusting for age and gender, with only NT-proBNP being significant. The population was then divided into two groups, one with higher NT-proBNP values at admission than the cut-off resulted from the ROC curve (511 ng/L) and a second one with lower values. The Kaplan–Meier analysis showed an absence of fatal outcome in the group of patients with NT-proBNP values lower than the cut-off (p< 0.001). NT-proBNP proved to be the best prognostic tool for fatal outcome among markers of cardiac disease in COVID-19 patients.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122730
Erectile dysfunction (ED) seems to be a widespread sexual issue in men affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Multiple causes appear to be involved such as hormonal imbalance, smoking habit, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, chronic hypoxia, psychiatric disorders (depression and anxiety), and medications. ED can have a significant impact on COPD men and consequently on their quality of life, which is usually already compromised. Given this situation, however, pneumologists usually do not properly care for the sexuality of COPD patients especially because men can be reluctant to talk about their intimate issues. The aim of this narrative review is to briefly summarize the evidence emerging from literature and to provide a wide point of view about sexual dysfunction in COPD men.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122731
Carboxyhemoglobinemia is a common but a serious disorder, defined as an increase in carboxyhemoglobin level. Unfortunately, there are few data on carboxyhemoglobinemia in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. Therefore, our study aimed to evaluate the incidence and etiologies of carboxyhemoglobinemia in COVID-19 patients and determine any association between carboxyhemoglobinemia and novel coronavirus infection. A retrospective chart review was performed at an academic medical center for all inpatient COVID-19 cases with either single or serial carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels from March 2020 through August 2020.Our study demonstrates that carboxyhemoglobinemia in COVID-19 patients is due to sepsis, hemolysis, and cytokine storm, triggered by the novel coronavirus infection sequela and is not directly from the virulence of novel coronavirus. Given the coexisting illnesses in critically ill COVID-19 patients, it is impossible to establish if coronavirus virulence was the culprit of elevated COHb levels. Moreover, our study found a high incidence of carboxyhemoglobinemia in critically ill COVID-19 patients. The oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry can be inaccurate and unreliable; however, our study could not demonstrate any uniform results on the discrepancy between oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry and arterial blood gas. In this study, COHb levels were measured using a CO-oximeter. Therefore, we recommend monitoring the COHb level routinely in critically ill COVID-19 patients to allow more effective and prompt treatment.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122733
Background: Fat embolism (FE) continues to be mentioned as a substantial complication following acute femur fractures. The aim of this systematic review was to test the hypotheses that the incidence of fat embolism syndrome (FES) has decreased since its description and that specific injury patterns predispose to its development. Materials and Methods: Data Sources: MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched for articles from 1 January 1960 to 31 December 2019. Study Selection: Original articles that provide information on the rate of FES, associated femoral injury patterns, and therapeutic and diagnostic recommendations were included. Data Extraction: Two authors independently extracted data using a predesigned form. Statistics: Three different periods were separated based on the diagnostic and treatment changes: Group 1: 1 January 1960–12 December 1979, Group 2: 1 January 1980–1 December 1999, and Group 3: 1 January 2000–31 December 2019, chi-square test, χ2 test for group comparisons of categorical variables, p-value < 0.05. Results: Fifteen articles were included (n = 3095 patients). The incidence of FES decreased over time (Group 1: 7.9%, Group 2: 4.8%, and Group 3: 1.7% (p< 0.001)). FES rate according to injury pattern: unilateral high-energy fractures (2.9%) had a significantly lower FES rate than pathological fractures (3.3%) and bilateral high-energy fractures (4.6%) (p< 0.001). Conclusions: There has been a significant decrease in the incidence of FES over time. The injury pattern impacts the frequency of FES. The diagnostic and therapeutic approach to FES remains highly heterogenic to this day.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 10; doi:10.3390/jcm10122725
This study aimed to evaluate the in vitro performance of collagen-based sponges as a drug delivery system for intracanal antimicrobial administration. Four groups of loaded collagen-based sponges (A, 0.3% w/v amoxicillin trihydrate: potassium clavulanate (4:1); B, 0.03% w/v chlorhexidine gluconate [CHX]; C, 0.3% w/v amoxicillin trihydrate: potassium clavulanate (4:1) and 0.03% w/v CHX; D, 1% w/v amoxicillin trihydrate: potassium clavulanate (4:1) and 0.03% w/v CHX) were designed. Release kinetics were tested in vitro on cultures in Petri dishes, and the effect on bacterial biofilms was studied ex vivo on 114 extracted human single-rooted teeth. Biofilm formation was tested by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Collagen sponges containing amoxicillin and chlorhexidine showed a time-sustained antimicrobial effect in vitro and were also able to destroy mature biofilms ex vivo. This datum was validated by means of SEM-based study of E. faecalis and S. aureus biofilms.