Journal of Clinical Medicine
ISSN / EISSN : 20770383 / 20770383
Current Publisher: MDPI (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 6,304
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093033
Antisynthetase syndrome (ASSD) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by serologic positivity for antisynthetase antibodies. Anti-Jo1 is the most frequent, followed by anti PL-7, anti PL-12, anti EJ, and anti OJ antibodies. The lung is the most frequently affected organ, usually manifesting with an interstitial lung disease (ILD), which is considered the main determinant of prognosis. Some evidences suggest that non-anti-Jo-1 antibodies may be associated with more severe lung involvement and possibly with poorer outcomes, while other authors do not highlight differences between anti-Jo1 and other antisynthetase antibodies. In a multicenter, retrospective, “real life” study, we compared lung function tests (LFTs) progression in patients with ILD associated with anti-Jo1 and non-anti-Jo1 anti-synthetase antibodies to assess differences in lung function decline between these two groups. Therefore, we analyzed a population of 57 patients (56% anti-Jo1 positive), referred to the outpatient Clinic of four referral Centers in Italy (Modena, Monza, Siena, and Trieste) from 2008 to 2019, with a median follow-up of 36 months. At diagnosis, patients showed a mild ventilatory impairment and experienced an improvement of respiratory function during treatment. We did not observe statistically significant differences in LFTs at baseline or during follow-up between the two groups. Moreover, there were no differences in demographic data, respiratory symptoms onset (acute vs. chronic), extrapulmonary involvement, treatment (steroid and/or another immunosuppressant), or oxygen supplementation. Our study highlights the absence of differences in pulmonary functional progression between patients positive to anti-Jo-1 vs. non anti-Jo-1 antibodies, suggesting that the type of autoantibody detected in the framework of ASSD does not affect lung function decline.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093042
At the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) outbreak in Italy, the cluster of Vò Euganeo was managed by the University Hospital of Padova. The Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI) conceived an organizational approach based on three different pathways for low-risk, high-risk, and confirmed Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) patients to accomplish three main targets: guarantee a safe pathway for non-COVID-19 patients, ensure health personnel safety, and maintain an efficient workload. Thus, an additional pathway was created with the aid of a trailer-mounted Computed Tomography (CT) scanner devoted to positive patients. We evaluated the performance of our approach from February 21 through April 12 in terms of workload (e.g., number of CT examinations) and safety (COVID-19-positive healthcare workers). There was an average of 72.2 and 17.8 COVID-19 patients per day in wards and the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), respectively. A total of 176 high-risk and positive patients were examined. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) was one of the most common exams, and 24 pulmonary embolism scans were performed. No in-hospital transmission occurred in the DDI neither among patients nor among health personnel. The weekly number of in-patient CT examinations decreased by 27.4%, and the surgical procedures decreased by 29.5%. Patient screening and dedicated diagnostic pathways allowed the maintenance of high standards of care while working in safety.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093034
Background: To evaluate the clinical course of pseudophakic cystoid macular edema (PCME) treated with topical non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Methods: An analysis of the clinical course of PCME consisting of 536 eyes of 536 patients from five consecutive randomized clinical trials aimed at the optimization of anti-inflammatory medication in patients undergoing routine cataract surgery. PCME was classified as (i) grade 0a; no macular thickening, (ii) grade 0b; macular thickening (central subfield macular thickness (CSMT) increase of at least 10%) without signs of macular edema, (iii) grade I; subclinical PCME, (iv) grade II; acute PCME, (v) grade III; long-standing PCME. Eyes with PCME classification from grade I onwards were treated with nepafenac 1 mg/mL t.i.d. for two months. Results: CSMT increase of at least 10% at any postoperative timepoint with cystoid changes—a criterion for PCME—was found in 19 of 536 eyes (total incidence 3.5%). Of these 19 eyes, 13 eyes (total incidence 2.4%) had clinically significant PCME. PCME was considered clinically significant when both of the following visual acuity criteria were fulfilled. At any timepoint after the cataract surgery both the corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) gain was less than 0.4 decimals from that of preoperative CDVA, and the absolute CDVA level remained below 0.8 decimals. Only one of the 19 eyes with criteria for PCME (total incidence 0.2%, incidence of PCME eyes 5.3%) showed no macular edema resolution within 2 months after topical nepafenac administration. Conclusions: PCME in most cases is self-limiting using topical nepafenac without any further need for intravitreal treatment.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093036
No proper treatment option for peri-implantitis exists yet. Based on previous studies showing the in vitro effectiveness of electrochemical disinfection using boron-doped diamond electrodes, novel double diamond electrodes (DDE) were tested here. Using a ceramic carrier and a laser structuring process, a clinically applicable electrode array was manufactured. Roughened metal discs (n = 24) made from Ti-Zr alloy were exposed to the oral cavities of six volunteers for 24 h in order to generate biofilm. Then, biofilm removal was carried out either using plastic curettes and chlorhexidine digluconate or electrochemical disinfection. In addition, dental implants were contaminated with ex vivo multispecies biofilm and disinfected using DDE treatment. Bacterial growth and the formation of biofilm polymer were determined as outcome measures. Chemo-mechanical treatment could not eliminate bacteria from roughened surfaces, while in most cases, a massive reduction of bacteria and biofilm polymer was observed following DDE treatment. Electrochemical disinfection was charge- and time-dependent and could also not reach complete disinfection in all instances. Implant threads had no negative effect on DDE treatment. Bacteria exhibit varying resistance to electrochemical disinfection with Bacillus subtilis, Neisseria sp., Rothia mucilaginosa, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, and Streptococcus mitis surviving 5 min of DDE application at 6 V. Electrochemical disinfection is promising but requires further optimization with respect to charge quantity and application time in order to achieve disinfection without harming host tissue.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093037
Our purpose was to assess a possible association of inflammatory, lipid and mineral metabolism biomarkers with coronary artery ectasia (CAE) and to determine a possible association of this with acute atherotrombotic events (AAT). We studied 270 patients who underwent coronary angiography during an acute coronary syndrome 6 months before. Plasma levels of several biomarkers were assessed, and patients were followed during a median of 5.35 (3.88–6.65) years. Two interventional cardiologists reviewed the coronary angiograms, diagnosing CAE according to previously published criteria in 23 patients (8.5%). Multivariate binary logistic regression analysis was used to search for independent predictors of CAE. Multivariate analysis revealed that, aside from gender and a diagnosis of dyslipidemia, only monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) (OR = 2.25, 95%CI = (1.35–3.76) for each increase of 100 pg/mL, p = 0.001) was independent predictor of CAE, whereas mineral metabolism markers or proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 were not. Moreover, CAE was a strong predictor of AAT during follow-up after adjustment for other clinically relevant variables (HR = 2.67, 95%CI = (1.22–5.82), p = 0.013). This is the first report showing that MCP-1 is an independent predictor of CAE, suggesting that CAE and coronary artery disease may share pathogenic mechanisms. Furthermore, CAE was associated with an increased incidence of AAT.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093046
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is highly prevalent among pregnant women. In the present study, a neurological–obstetrical sample of 561 postpartum women was retrospectively screened for RLS symptoms during pregnancy and in the first 12 weeks postpartum. The first screening took place within 1 to 6 days of delivery (T0) and the second 12 weeks after childbirth (T1). The pregnancy-related RLS prevalence rate was found to be 21% (n = 119), with the women suffering from RLS being more often affected by psychiatric history and having been more exposed to stressful life events. They were also found to have experienced baby blues more frequently shortly after childbirth. However, RLS in pregnancy did not appear to have any effect on the development of postpartum depression. Additionally, a positive trend was observed toward an association between pregnancy-related RLS and gestational diabetes and hypertension. Of the 119 women, 23 (19.3%) remained affected by RLS 12 weeks postpartum. Body mass index (BMI), weight gain, parity, childbearing history, or chronic stress exposure in pregnancy as measured by hair cortisol were not found to be linked to RLS. In summary, a comprehensive understanding of the interaction of clinical, environmental, and anamnestic factors can help shed valuable light on this pregnancy-related condition.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093040
We developed a new magnetic resonance indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (MRINEC) algorithm for differentiating necrotizing fasciitis (NF) from severe cellulitis (SC). All adults with suspected NF between 2010 and 2018 in a tertiary hospital in South Korea were enrolled. Sixty-one patients were diagnosed with NF and 28 with SC. Among them, 34 with NF and 15 with SC underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The MRINEC algorithm, a two-step decision tree including T2 hyperintensity of intermuscular deep fascia and diffuse T2 hyperintensity of deep peripheral fascia, diagnosed NF with 94% sensitivity (95% confidence interval (CI), 80–99%) and 60% specificity (95% CI, 32–84%). The algorithm accurately diagnosed all 15 NF patients with a high (≥8) laboratory risk indicator for necrotizing fasciitis (LRINEC) score. Among the five patients with an intermediate (6–7) LRINEC score, sensitivity and specificity were 100% (95% CI, 78–100%) and 0% (95% CI, 0–84%), respectively. Finally, among the 29 patients with a low (≤5) LRINEC score, the algorithm had a sensitivity and specificity of 88% (95% CI, 62–98%) and 69% (95% CI, 39–91%), respectively. The MRINEC algorithm may be a useful adjuvant method for diagnosing NF, especially when NF is suspected in patients with a low LRINEC score.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093035
The causes of endometriosis (EMS) remain unknown; however, a number of immunological abnormalities contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. The cluster of differentiation-200 (CD200) and its receptor (CD200R) maintain peripheral self-tolerance by negatively regulating immune responses. In this comparative cross-sectional study, we investigated the expression of CD200 and CD200R on T and B lymphocytes and the serum level of soluble CD200 (sCD200) using flow cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 54 female patients and 20 healthy, age-matched controls. Results were tested for correlation with disease severity and selected clinical parameters. We demonstrated that the differences in sCD200 levels (p = 0.001), the frequencies of CD200-positive T and B lymphocytes (p < 0.001 and p = 0.004, respectively), and the frequencies of CD200R-positive T and B lymphocytes (p < 0.001 for all comparisons) in the study group correlated positively with disease severity. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that aberrant expression of CD200/CD200R might serve as a marker to distinguish between EMS cases. Finally, negative co-stimulatory factors may contribute to the induction and persistence of inflammation associated with EMS. It seems that it is essential to determine whether alteration in the CD200/CD200R pathway can be therapeutically targeted in EMS.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093031
Despite increasing numbers of primary hip arthroplasties performed through the direct anterior approach (DAA), there is a lack of literature on DAA revision arthroplasty. The present study was performed in order to evaluate outcomes and revision rates after revision through the DAA using an asymmetric acetabular component with optional intra- and extramedullary fixation. In a retrospective cohort study, we analyzed prospectively collected data of 57 patients (61 hips, 43 female, 18 male) who underwent aseptic acetabular component revision through the DAA with the abovementioned implant system between January 2015 and December 2017. The mean follow-up was 40 months (12–56). Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. All complications were documented and functional outcomes were assessed pre- and postoperatively. Kaplan–Meier analysis revealed an estimated five-year implant survival of 97% (confidence interval CI 87–99%). The estimated five-year survival with revision for any cause was 93% (CI 83–98%). The overall revision rate was 6.6% (n = 4). Two patients had to undergo revision due to periprosthetic infection (3.3%). In one patient, the acetabular component was revised due to aseptic loosening four months postoperatively. Another patient suffered from postoperative iliopsoas impingement and was treated successfully by arthroscopic iliopsoas tenotomy. Two (3.3%) of the revised hips dislocated postoperatively. The mean Harris Hip Score improved from 35 (2–66) preoperatively to 86 (38–100) postoperatively (p < 0.001). The hip joint’s anatomical center of rotation was restored at a high degree of accuracy. Our findings demonstrate that acetabular revision arthroplasty through the DAA using an asymmetric acetabular component with optional intra- and extramedullary fixation is safe and practicable, resulting in good radiographic and clinical midterm results.
Journal of Clinical Medicine, Volume 9; doi:10.3390/jcm9093038
Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune condition characterized by demyelinating lesions and axonal degradation. Even though the cause of MS is heterogeneous, it is known that peripheral immune invasion in the central nervous system (CNS) drives pathology at least in the most common form of MS, relapse-remitting MS (RRMS). The more progressive forms’ mechanisms of action remain more elusive yet an innate immune dysfunction combined with neurodegeneration are likely drivers. Recently, increasing studies have focused on the influence of metabolism in regulating immune cell function. In this regard, exercise has long been known to regulate metabolism, and has emerged as a promising therapy for management of autoimmune disorders. Hence, in this review, we inspect the role of key immunometabolic pathways specifically dysregulated in MS and highlight potential therapeutic benefits of exercise in modulating those pathways to harness an anti-inflammatory state. Finally, we touch upon current challenges and future directions for the field of exercise and immunometabolism in MS.