Optics and Photonics Journal
ISSN / EISSN : 2160-8881 / 2160-889X
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 534
Latest articles in this journal
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 402-411; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.118029
Currently, coupled mode theory (CMT) is widely used for calculating the coupling coefficient of twin-core fibers (TCFs) that are used in a broad range of important applications. This approach is highly accurate for scenarios with weak coupling between the cores but shows significant errors in the strong coupling scenarios, necessitating the use of a more accurate method for coupling coefficient calculations. Therefore, in this work, we calculate the coupling coefficients of TCFs using the supermode theory with finite element method (FEM) that has higher accuracy than CMT, particularly for the strong coupling TCF. To investigate the origin of the differences between the results obtained by these two methods, the modal field distributions of the supermodes of TCF are simulated and analyzed in detail.
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 341-350; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.118024
The effects of the main parameters of argon flux, oxygen flux and beam voltage on the surface morphology, transmittance spectrum and laser damage of the HfO2 single layers prepared by ion beam sputtering are studied. The HfO2 amorphous single layers have porous surface morphologies. Different processes will cause differences in coatings absorption and surface morphology, which in turn will cause changes in the spectral transmittance curve. The ion beam sputtering HfO2 single layers have high content of argon (4.5% - 8%). The laser damage of HfO2 single layers is related to argon inclusions and non-stoichiometric defects. The changes of argon flux and beam voltage have a greater impact on argon content and O/Hf ratio. When the argon content in the coatings is lower and the O/Hf ratio is higher, the laser damage thresholds of the HfO2 single layers are higher.
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 265-272; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.118016
In this work, a design of a compact optical MEMS-based lidar scanning system with a large field of view (FOV) and small distortion is presented. The scanning system applies an off-axis structure and the length of the system can be reduced to about 10 cm in an optimized way. Simulation results show that a large FOV is achieved under a uniform scanning scheme. In addition, the spot size less than 20 cm at distance of 100 m is also realized. The optical scanning system can be used for the vehicle-mounted Lidar.
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 351-359; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.118025
We have designed an optical separation device called dual-area mirror for the data link of orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing. Experiments show that the OAM multiplexed beams can be switched by using dual-area mirrors, using OOK to modulate four channels separately to form two inputs, channel A and channel B. There are two OAM beams that are multiplexed in each of channel A and channel B, using a spatial light modulator (SLM) to convert the OAM multiplexed beams in each channel. One of the beams is converted into a Gaussian beam, and then separated by a dual-area mirror, so as to realize the switch of a beam carrying different data in the two channels. Then these channels are detected. The waveform indicates that the switch is successful, and the measured optical power indicates that the dual-area mirror can reduce the bit error rate in the communication links. In addition, the device reduces the experimental cost, is easy to implement, is easy to integrate, and increases the angle between the separated beams.
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 387-393; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.118027
The large aperture mirror surface test is the basis of optical processing and alignment, and is also the key to the development of remote sensing device. The simulation results show that the RMS values of 1.07 m primary mirror with multi-point support and sling support are 1.86 nm and 3.28 nm respectively. Using 36 point unloading device, sponge 36 point free support and sling support to test the mirror surface, the results are basically consistent, RMS is better than 0.02λ (λ = 632.8 nm).
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 430-440; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.119031
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) or cold laser has been used in medicine for several decades. However, the method utilizes a direct contact of the light beam with a patient. Further research resulted in development of another method that enables remote transmission of the pharmacological properties of a medicament into a human body with the application of low-level laser radiation as the light source. 18 patients with different viral diseases were treated with the antiviral drugs placed into the field formed by the unexplained properties of low-level laser radiation of the “device for transfer of the pharmacological properties of a drug into the patient’s body”. This resulted in improvement of the patient’s condition, the absence of side effects and adverse reactions when using drugs in the proposed device and shortened therapy period for patients with chronic hepatitis C infection and Covid-19 patients. The long-term follow-up of the patients with chronic hepatitis B infection showed that hepatitis B virus remained at low replication levels under the influence of the therapy, which made it possible to avoid such formidable complications of the disease as cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 197-209; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.117014
The design mentality of an optimal metalens model, based on the electromagnetic susceptibility, a synthesis of subwavelength-thick metasurfaces (MSs) is presented in this paper. First, based on the finite difference method of generalized sheet transition conditions, the surface susceptibility function of the MS with spatial discontinuities can be determined. Then, the paper analyzed the remaining corresponding physical field conditions for the scale of metalens. In order to adapt to the physical limitations encountered in the near-field focusing of the metalens, a standard parabolic phase design is proposed in this paper, and its upsides and downsides of the two-phase processing in different aspects are compared. Using COMSOL software with numerical simulation, it can be seen that the standard design can easily obtain high resolution in the near field, while the focusing effect is more stable when the focal length is small by the parabolic phase design.
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 152-196; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.116013
The PeTa (Perelman-Tatartchenko) effect is the radiation of the energy of a first-order phase transition during the transition from a less condensed phase to a more condensed one. The effect was independently discovered by M. Perelman and the author of this paper. Six papers on the PeTa effect have been published in this journal over the past nine years. They are devoted to the development of PeTa models to explain the following phenomena: IR radiation from cold surfaces, cavitation luminescence/sonoluminescence (CL/SL), laser-induced bubble luminescence (LIBL), and vapor bubble luminescence (VBL) in underwater geysers. This paper describes the sources of PeTa radiation in the Earth’s atmosphere. These sources of infrared radiation have been investigated by numerous research groups, but their interpretation either does not exist at all, or it is erroneous. The following phenomena are specifically considered: PeTa radiation during the formation of clouds and fog; a pulse laser based on the PeTa radiation; condensation explosions as sources of PaTa radiation; measurement of the concentration of water vapor in the atmosphere using PeTa radiation; atmospheric scintillation of infrared radiation in the atmosphere due to the PeTa effect; PeTa radiation as a source of comfort for the igloo; the influence of PeTa radiation on living organisms; PeTa radiation due to characteristics of tropical storms; PeTa radiation as a possible precursor to earthquakes. The problem of global warming, which worries everyone, as it turns out, is also associated with the PeTa effect.
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 140-151; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.116012
A dielectric transmittance filter composed of subwavelength grating sandwiched between two few-layers distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs) is proposed with the aim of being compatible with CMOS technology and to be tunable by lithographic means of the grating pattern without the need of thickness changes, in the broad spirit of metamaterials. The DBR mirrors form a Fabry-Perot (FP) cavity whose resonant frequency can be tuned by changing the effective refractive index of the cavity, here, by tailoring the in-plane filling factor of the grating. The structure has been studied and designed by performing numerical simulations using Fourier Modal Method (FMM). This filter proves to have high broad angular tolerance up to ±30˚. This feature is crucial for evaluating the spectral performance of narrow-band filters especially the so-called Ambient light sensors (ALS). By analyzing the transmittance spectral distributions in the band diagram, it is found that the angular tolerance is due to coupling between the FP and the guided mode inside the cavity in analogy to resonances occurring within multimode periodic waveguides in a different context.
Optics and Photonics Journal, Volume 11, pp 121-131; https://doi.org/10.4236/opj.2021.115010
This paper begins by exploring a useful and neglected detail of a photon—its physical size perpendicular to the direction of propagation in the same way as an atom or neutron has a physical size. Such a photon size would be quite separate from the cross-section of a photonic interaction, which depends on the material interacting. Such a perpendicular dimension of a photon will be invariant under Lorentz transform parallel to the light propagation direction and will thus be the same for all frequencies of light. This study also leads to new details about how a photon interacts, offering an explanation for the familiar physics where light slightly above and below the mean frequency of an excited state can still excite the same state without violation of conservation of energy—a mystery explored thoroughly in a previous paper without finding the solution offered here. As usual, a better elucidation of the details of light interaction also leads to new insights—especially about the vacuum field. The Appendix summarizes some previous research relevant to this discussion