International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2278-1005 / 2278-1005
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,148
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, Mohamed Abd-Elrazik Sharaf-Eldin, Samah Mosaad Soliman, Reham Abd-Elkader Elkhouly
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 12-24; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1530518

Abstract:
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic liver disease. Chronic HCV infection is associated with development of insulin resistance and therefore type 2 Diabetes mellitus (T2DM), it is also associated with hepatic steatosis and hypocholesterolemia. The treatment by Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) leads to sustained virological response (SVR) in almost all infected patients and decreases liver-related as well as all-cause mortality in these patients. The evidence for the effect of DAAs therapy on T2DM is quite conflicting. Some studies agreed with the glucometabolic amelioration induced by the Sustained Virological Response (SVR) but other studies disagreed with this hypothesis. The aim of the work was to evaluate glucose and Lipid Profile changes in hepatitis C patients at 12 weeks post treatment (SVR12) by Direct Acting Antivirals Therapy. Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 80 chronic HCV infected patients who are treatment naïve and subjected to HCV DAAs treatment (Daclatasvir + Sofosbuvir for 12 weeks +/- Ribavirin or any DAA available) with 100% SVR rate at 12 weeks with no relapse. All patients are subjected to assessment of Fasting blood glucose, HbA1C and assessment of Lipid profile; Total cholesterol, Triglycerides, HDL, LDL at baseline (pretreatment) and at end of treatment then they are followed up at SVR12. Results: Average HbA1C, fasting blood glucose has significantly decreased in group A diabetic patients from baseline to end of treatment and to SVR12, Average Total Cholesterol, LDL has significantly increased in group A and B from baseline to end of treatment and to SVR12 respectively. Average Triglycerides has significantly decreased from baseline to end of treatment in group A and B and to SVR12 in group A only. Average HDL has significantly increased only in group B non-diabetics from baseline to end of treatment and to SVR12. Conclusions: Successful clearance of HCV viremia (SVR12) with DAAs treatment has been associated with significant Improvement or decrease of HbA1c and Fasting plasma glucose levels in diabetic chronic HCV infected patients, and has been associated with Rise in the Lipid profile; Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL (non-diabetics only) while it decreases Triglycerides in both diabetic and non-diabetic chronic HCV infected patients.
U. C. Maduakor, N. F. Onyemelukwe, S.N. Maduakor, I. P. Udoh, M. B. C. Chukwubuike
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1530517

Abstract:
Dental caries is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases that are a challenge to health care providers. There is limited data on the bacterial profile and risks associated with dental caries in Nigeria. The study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria and risk factors associated with dental caries in Enugu. It was a case-controlled study. A total of 336 samples were randomly collected comprising of 125 healthy subjects and 211 patients with dental caries attending various hospitals and dental clinics in Enugu, Nigeria. Samples were subjected to standard microbiological and biochemical techniques. Standardized questionnaires were used to record demographic variables and risk factors. A total of 635 and 254 microorganisms were isolated from carious lesions and healthy subjects respectively. Of these 635 isolates, 218 (34.4%) Gram-positive bacilli, 210 (33.0%) Gram-positive cocci, 46 (7.2%) Gram-negative cocci, and 43 (6.8%) yeasts were recovered. Two hundred and seven samples were (98.1%) polymicrobial while 4 samples (1.9%) were monomicrobial. Among the organisms recovered, anaerobic Lactobacillus spp (141, 66.8%) was the most prevalent followed by Streptococcus mutans (104, 49.2%), and the least were Actinomyces israelii and Capnocytophaga spp (1, 0.05%) respectively. Of the 254 isolates from apparently healthy subjects, Streptococcus sanguis ranked highest and the least was Porphyromonas gingivalis. The factors that were found to be significantly associated with dental caries were level of education P=0.005, feeding habit P= 0.001, Favourite snack P=0.004, sweet consumption P< 0.0001, type of gum P < 0.0001, history of toothache P < 0.0001, visit dentist P< 0.0001, and the bleeding gum P < 0.0001. This research highlighted the polymicrobial nature of carious lesions and associated predictors of dental caries. Hence public enlightenment and the implementation of oral health education in schools are crucial.
Tagwa A. M. Salih,
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 26-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430515

Abstract:
Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (CL) is an endemic parasitic infection caused by various Leishmania species, with a specific predisposition of each species into a particular geographical area. Cutaneous lesions can either be a single, limited skin lesion or multiple, large, locally destructions skin lesions. Several therapies are proposed for CL, but severe side effects, high costs, and incomplete efficacy make researchers find replaceable therapies. Since the usage of zinc sulfate as a therapeutic agent has a long history in treating of various dermatological diseases, Zinc plays an essential role in the development and function of innate immunity cells (neutrophils and natural killer cells), which play significant roles in killing parasites. It also has a significant inhibitory effect on key enzymes involved in the carbohydrate metabolism and virulence of L. major and L.tropica. Therefore, its use as an oral therapy for CL might represent a significant addition to the armamentarium of anti-leishmanial medications. This review summarizes and discusses previous and recent findings regarding the therapeutic roles of oral zinc sulfate in cutaneous leishmaniasis therapy.
Chioma Maureen Obi, Onyekachi Patrick Amakor, Ifeanyi Onyema Oshim, Monique Ugochinyere Okeke, Barbara Ogochukwu Ochiabuto
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430516

Abstract:
Background: Bio-contamination of surfaces of various items and equipment used by the public is the main cause of disease epidemic. Most outbreaks of infection associated with inanimate objects are caused by items that should be sterile but have been contaminated and are generally known as fomites. Objective: This study is to evaluate the presence of enteric bacteria from different public surfaces in restaurants in Nnewi town. Methodology: Selected public surfaces in eight (8) randomly selected restaurants were analyzed for the presence of enteric bacteria via culture and biochemical tests following a standard criterion. The sample sites included; tables, chairs, counters, sinks and walls. Also, Disc susceptibility test were carried out on the isolates using conventional antibiotics. Results: Eighty-eight (88) bacteria isolates were isolated and identified, and S. aureus showed the highest prevlence 29(33%), followed by E. coli 15(17%), Proteus spp 13(15%), Klebsiella spp 12(14%), Pseudomonas spp 10(11%), and Coagulase-negative Staphylococci 9(10%). Tables and sinks were the most contaminated fomites each constituting of 19(22%) of the total bacteria isolated in this study. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp, Proteus spp and Staphylococcus aureus, were the most resistant isolates to the antibiotics, Coagulase-negative Staphylococci was the most sensitive isolate. Out of the ten antibiotics tested ceporex was found to be the least effective with about 100% resistance by the isolates while ciprofloxacin, ceftriaxone, and levofloxacin were the most effective antibiotics with 0% resistance by the bacteria isolates. Conclusion: the study has shown that public surfaces in restaurant can easily be contaminated with a variety of bacterial contaminants that may be multi-drug resistant bacteria strains posing as a possible public health issue.
, A. B. Samaila, S. M. Panda, M. Y. Iliyasu, U. M. Kadaura, M. A. Umar, H. S Hamafylto, U. A. Bukar, H. U. Wakawa
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 17-25; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430513

Abstract:
Background: Cryptosporidium species are intestinal parasites that infect both humans and animals; it causes cryptosporidiosis which usually resulted to diarrhea especially among those with impaired immunity. It was observed that enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) be ascertain was never been used as one of the techniques in the detection of Cryptosporidium parvum antigen in Maiduguri, Borno state. Materials and Methods: Four hundred stool and blood samples were collected in four selected hospitals in the study area. Stool samples were analyzed by Enzyme link immunosorbent assay to detect fecal Cryptosporidium antigen, while the blood samples were analyzed with Partec sysmex ® flow cytometric machine for CD4 T-lymphocyte counts. Results: Demographically, female are 275 while male 125 in number. The result of the stool samples have shown that, of the four hundred samples, seventy nine (79) patients were positive for Cryptosporidium species with an infection rate of 19.8%. According to gender, females have the highest infection rate of 14.25% while males 5.5%.based on age, patients between the ages of 20-39 have the highest prevalence of 9.5% followed by 40-59 with 7.5% and lastly 0-19 and >60 old are1.25 and 1.5% respectively. Traders (businessmen and women) demonstrated the highest infection rate of 8.0% followed by housewives 6.25%, civil servants 4.25% and lastly student and farmer with 1.0 and 0.25% respectively. In terms of CD4-T-lymphocyte count, those with CD4 500 with 4.5%. on the bases of clinical details, the results have shown that patients with diarrhea has a prevalence of 13.0% while those without diarrhea has 6.75%, however, according to the hospitals the patients attended, the result has that, USUMH has 7.0%.Followed by UMTH 6.5%, SSHM 3.75%, and MSMH 2.5% respectively. Conclusion: It was concluded that those with cd4 count bellow 200 are at risk of contacting the parasites and hence is one of the causes of diarrhea among HIV patients. It is recommended that proper hygiene practice should be encouraged.
Awuri Babema-Igonikon,
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 8-16; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430512

Abstract:
Introduction: Women living with HIV may or may not intend to bear children. They may also have different preferences in terms of family sizes. The desire of HIV positive women to bear children and their family size preferences has significant implication for horizontal and vertical transmission of this incurable disease. This study, therefore, aims to determine fertility preferences and their predictors among HIV positive women accessing care at UPTH, Port Harcourt, Rivers State. Methods: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional study among 402 women within the reproductive age (15-49 years) who were on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART). Participants were recruited using systematic sampling method and were interviewed with an interviewer-administered questionnaire. A semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain participant’s socio-demographic characteristics, desire for children, use, demand and choice of contraception and reproductive characteristics. With SPSS version 20, data was summarised as descriptive statistics and Chi-square test was used to test for association. Results: The study showed that 81.8% of respondents desire to have children out of which 96 (29.3%) desired one to two children, 169 (51.5%) desired three to four children, and 18 (5.5%) wanted five or more children. Factors such as age, marital status, and disclosure of Sero-status to partner were found to be associated with family size preferences (p<0.05). Conclusion: HIV positive women in Port Harcourt have high fertility desires and moderate family sizes preferences; thus, indicating the need for more support and involvement of the government and relevant stake holders in ensuring better access to ART services in the country. More resources should be channelled towards provision of effective preventive medications and services, people who live with HIV (PLHIVs) should be continuously and adequately sensitised with the necessary knowledge on how to make healthy reproductive decisions, as well as on available practicable reproductive options for HIV-infected women should be made efficient, and easily accessible.
, Barclaye Ngossanga, Thièry Ndong Mba, Angélique Kombila, Cyrille Bisseye
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 1-7; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1430511

Abstract:
Background: Malaria remains a public health concern in developing nations despite the reduction of its burden worldwide. In Gabon, the prevalence of malaria has declined in major urban cities due to the implementation of the preventive strategies recommended by the World Health Organization. However, the few studies conducted in rural areas have revealed that malaria still poses threats. The scarcity of data on rural areas of Gabon in general, and the Haut-Ogooué province, in particular, has led us to conduct the present study. The main objective of this four-year retrospective study was to determine the slide positivity rate of malaria at JC ANDRAULT hospital of Mounana, Southern Gabon. Methods: Sociodemographic and clinical data from malaria suspected patients were collected from laboratory annual reports and analyzed. Results: The results revealed a mean annual prevalence of 67.43%, no statistical difference was recorded among the years. The mean malaria cases of female (896) patients were nearly double of that of male patients (467), and patients aged 5-18, and older than 18 were the most affected; both results were found to be statistically significant. Although two peaks malaria cases were recorded during the great rainy season (482) and small dry season (476), the difference among seasons was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that malaria transmission is high in the study area and thus preventive measures should be strengthen and extended to the older patients. This study is the first one to ever report the prevalence of malaria in a rural area of the Haut-Ogooué province.
Obi Peter Adigwe, Moses Musa Ebohon,
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 38-49; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1330510

Abstract:
The people of Edo State of Nigeria have a long history of dependence on traditional medicine as a primary source and first line of action for their healthcare needs. Efforts have been made by various national and subnational governments towards integrating the TM practice for the benefit of its citizens with little progress. The slow progress is partly because of dearth in the knowledge, attitude and practice of the practitioners. A descriptive cross-sectional study aimed at highlighting the demography, attitude and approach as well as the exposing the key gaps in the practice and expectation of the practitioners from the different stakeholders, was carried out. The survey study was conducted using a standardized structured questionnaire. The outcome showed that 90% of practitioners were within the age bracket of 25 and 65 years, and majority (66%) were of male gender and, about 94% and 78% were literate and self-employed, respectively. About 30% have being in practice for less than 10 years and about 44% sees less than 10 patients per week. The major diseases treated include malaria (66%), stomach ulcer (62%), cough and sore throat (54%), diabetes (54%), gonorrhoea/sexually transmitted diseases (52%) and menstrual pain (50%). About 28% claimed to have subjected some of their products to laboratory testing but only about 4% of respondents had NAFDAC registered products. Edo TMPs have high expectation for government and partners supports in strengthening TM practices through the provision modern production facility, supports for medicinal plant gardens, laboratory testing, training on best practices and better legislation for citizens’ patronage.
, E. B. Iorliam, M. Ochogwu, J. Ondoma, S. Wuam
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 30-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1330509

Abstract:
Aims: The study was carried out to determine the prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women attending St. Mary's Hospital Okpoga, Benue State, Nigeria, with respect to demographic factors, socio-economic and underlying medical determinants among pregnant women. Methodology: A retrospective study design was used for the study. The study of 858 pregnant women who booked for antenatal care (ANC) between March 2019 to March 2020 was done. Their records were retrieved from the Records Department and the ANC unit using a standard proforma. Results: The findings revealed that prevalence of anaemia among pregnant women at booking was (55.2%). The highest prevalence of anaemia by age range 15-20 years was (62.2%), by educational status, highest prevalence was among those with no formal education (84.3%), by occupation highest prevalence was among house wives (59.9%). By underlying medical condition – severe form of parasitaemia (78.5%), by degree of severity, mild form of anaemia 74.1%, was most prevalent. By parity, it was highest among multiparous women (66.9%), by habitants it was highest among rural habitants (73.9%) while prevalence by gestational age it was highest among pregnant mothers who were in their 3rd trimester (60%) in the first antenatal care (ANC) visit. Conclusion: Pregnant mothers need to book early for antenatal clinic to access services such as intermittent preventive treatment, uptake of iron supplements and anthelmintics. They should also be empowered economically to access ANC in order to reduce the problem of anaemia in pregnancy.
Nilanchali Singh, Shalini Rajaram, Bindiya Gupta, Anita Mendiratta, Sanjay Singh
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 13-17; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2021/v42i1330507

Abstract:
Background: India has the world’s largest load of cervical malignancy. A lot of it can be attributed to lack of cervical cancer screening awareness among the general population. The Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHA) are grass root workers who have good reach in the remote areas, where health care facilities are lacking. Training these ASHAs may increase the general awareness about cervical cancer screening. The aim of the study was to train ASHA workers via lectures and question answer sessions and assess the training with pre and post tests. Methods: We organized two training programs of 500 ASHA workers in two tertiary care hospitals with aim of improving their knowledge and attitude about cervical cancer screening which will eventually improve their practice of training women in general population. It comprised of five lectures in language they understand, slogans, posters, question answer session etc. A test comprising of 17 questions was conducted before and after session to check their knowledge and attitude. Results: There was an overall improvement of 35% in knowledge of the ASHAs i.e. 48% answers were correct in pre-test and 78% were correct in post-test. Questions were pertaining to symptomatology, risk factors, screening methods, their utility and prerequisites of performing the screening tests, when and how often to repeat. Improvement was seen in all the areas. There was improvement in attitude too and most of them wanted themselves (98%), their relatives (100%) and the woman within their area (98%) to be screened for cancer cervix. Conclusion: It was a small initiative and successful result was obtained after the training session of ASHAs. These grass root workers may act as key link of awareness for cervical cancer prevention. They live in same community as the client and therefore, have better repo and communication as compared to medical personnel. Though, this study showed improved knowledge and motivation in ASHAs yet the impact on general population needs further evaluation.
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