International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2278-1005 / 2278-1005
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 1,261
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Nkengazong Lucia, Kame-Ngasse Ginette Irma, Mohamadou Halmata, Kidzeru Elvis, Zebaze Togouet Serge
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 28-38; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1330636

Abstract:
Aims: Household wastes constitute favorable environment for the development of human pathogens, posing thus important public health problem in the absence of appropriate waste management. This study aimed to assess health problems of people living close to household refuse collection points in the city of Yaoundé. Study Design: The prospective and cross-sectional study consisted of collecting stool samples from the populations in 12 quarters of Yaoundé around Hygiene and Sanitation in Cameroon refuse collection sites from November 2019 to February 2020. Methodology: Stool samples collected were treated with the formol ether and Kato-Katz technics. Questionnaires were administered to volunteer participants to evaluate risk factors related to contamination. Results: Of the 252 stool samples collected from participants aged 4 to 60 years, 209 (82.9%) individuals were infected with at least one species of intestinal pathogens. The pathogens identified belong to Helminthes (16.7%): Ascaris lumbricoides (12.3%), Trichirus trichiura (3.2%), hookworms (5.5%), to Protozoa: Entamoeba histolytica (11.5%), Entamoeba coli (13.5%), and Yeast Candida spp. (76.1%). Infection rate varied significantly by neighborhood (P= 0.02). The distance between residence and the collection point (P= 0.004); hand washing with soap before meals (P = 0.001); frequency of abdominal pain (P= 0.001); the date of the last deworming (P= 0.003); promiscuity (P= 0.005); source of water supply (P= 0.002) and the distance between the water source and the collection point (P = 0.006) were the main risk factors for the transmission of intestinal parasitosis. Conclusion: The results of this study show that people living close to HYSACAM dumpsites could be exposed to high risk of contamination of pathogens which develop and are propagated from these areas. An appropriate management house hood wastes collection point is indispensable in maintaining the neighborhood population in a healthy status.
Niaz Ahmed, Muhammad Bilal, Mahwish Raza, Naureen Lalani, Nida Shoaib, Nousheen Rahim
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 20-27; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1330635

Abstract:
Globally, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) took the lives of nearly 680,000 people in 2020. And STI prevalence was found at almost 4.4% in the local population. As Lady Health Workers (LHWs) are a communication bridge between the patient and care provider therefore we aim to assess and identify the gaps in the knowledge, attitude, and practice of lady health workers regarding STIs Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study for 12 weeks (January-2020 till March-2020) was conducted among 18-60years who were trained in the last 3 months for the basic health unit in Jacobabad and were assessed for their knowledge, attitude, and practices. A total of 316 participants were selected via a simple random technique from 595 LHWs whereas analysis was performed in SPSS v.25 Results: Total of 315 LHWs participated with mean age of 36.32±6.61 years and 99.4%, were Muslim. Their mean household monthly income was 26010.13± 2201.86 rupees and the majority, 266 (84.4%), were married and half of them, 169 (49.7%), were matriculated. Almost 94% knew about STIs but their knowledge was 6% at an excellent level. Very low number 7.9% found as excellent in the attitude assessment scale among participants whereas none of them was identified as excellent in practice. Discussion: The results findings showed that LHW should be equipped with the proper knowledge of STIs. LHW is in need of getting proper training on the practice as only 0.3% of the population involved in the study had a good practice of STIs.
Poonam, Asha Rani, Ritu Saharan, Twinkle Chaudhary, Kanchan Makkar, Raj Rani,
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1330634

Abstract:
To prevent food borne diseases, microbiological control is very important in the food industry. Therefore, the present investigation was undertaken to conduct a microbiological quality assessment of fresh vegetables that were collected from several regions of Chandigarh. The purpose of this study was to determine the bacterial load and safety of vegetables presented for sale in the marketplace. Vegetable samples (tomato and capsicum) collected from two different sites (vegetables market and supermarket), were analyzed for their bacteriological contaminants following different procedures. The maximum bacterial count present in the vegetable market was compared to that of the super market. The micro biota of these vegetable samples was found to be dominated by Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Bacillus and Staphylococcus were detected in tomato and Capsicum respectively. Bacillus and Staphylococcus were included as the most abundant species and as pathogens of concern when working to improve the microbial quality of fresh vegetables. Our study demonstrated that the vegetables, sold in the vegetable market, were found to contain a higher microbial load that may represent a greater risk for human health. Hence, for many microorganisms, vegetables may act as a reservoir colonize and infect the host.
Christopher Kankpetinge, David Tekpor, , Kwasi Frimpong, Stephen Odonkor
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1330633

Abstract:
Background: Schistosomiasis affects an estimated 250 million people worldwide, with 200,000 people dying each year. Despite success in managing the disease, data on its prevalence in non-endemic areas is rare. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors of urogenital schistosomiasis among people in the Devego sub-municipality of the Ketu North Municipal Volta region, Ghana. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was conducted among 335 respondents. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Urine samples were examined microscopically to identify S. haematobium ova. Categorical data was analyzed and presented as percentages or frequencies. Means, medians and standard deviations were used to summarize the continuous variables. Chi-square/Fishers Exact test was used to determine the associations between the independent and dependent variables and considered significant if P-value was less than 0.05. Results: The study found 34.6% (116/335) prevalence rate of urinary schistosomiasis among the 335 participants studied. The prevalence rate was 58.6% (68/116) in male respondents and 41.4% (48/116) among female respondents. Respondents aged 11-15 years recorded the highest (41.4%) prevalence. Major risk factors associated with urinary schistosomiasis were; swimming, fetching of water, bathing and washing of cloths ((X2=21.207, P-value < .02); frequency of exposure to fresh water (X2 = 14.684, P = .005, CL = 95%). Conclusion: Urinary schistosomiasis is common in remote communities with fresh water sources. Chemoprevention should be extended to schistosomiasis non-endemic communities with fresh water sources.
Fuyong Jiao, Weihuan Zhang, Jan Hovorka, Xianpeng Yan, Shan Lu, Jacek Tabarkiewicz, Alexey À. Gusev
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 32-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1230631

Abstract:
COVID-19 has been known as the part of “epidemic disease” in TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine). The reason is that the human body feels the external toxin and pathogen. The pathogenesis is mainly "wet, heat, poison, stasis, deficiency" and the lesions are the principal in the spleen, lungs, and stomach. There are 4 COVID-19 waves in South Africa including ancestral variants, Beta, Delta, and Omicron. Compared COVID-19 cases of the 4 waves and found the admission rate of Omicron was 4.9%, Delta was 13.7%, and Beta was 18.9% (P<0.001). It also found that 28.8% of inpatients of Omicron were critical patients, while critical inpatients of Beta, and Delta were 60.1% and 66.9% respectively (P<0.001). The infectivity of Omicron is ten times that of Delta. Day on Jan 17, 2022, there were about 125 million omicron infections were diagnosed in the world. The current COVID-19 epidemic situation is frustrating. Today there are still no effective vaccines and targeted therapies for the treatment of COVID-19. Fight against the epidemic diseases in China, 90% of confirmed cases have been treated with TCD. TCD can effectively relieve symptoms, shorten the course of the disease, improve the cure rate, reduce the mortality rate, and promote rehabilitation, the total effective rate is more than 90%. This unique system of TCM has opened a new avenue to fight the novel pandemic.
Fuyong Jiao, Xiaojin Ding, Jianying Feng, Juyan Wang, Ling Zhang
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 27-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1230630

Abstract:
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile systemic necrotizing medium and small vasculitis in children, mainly affecting children under 5 years old, and has become the main cause of pediatric acquired heart disease in developing countries. The exact etiology of this disease is still unclear. At present, researcheson KD are mostly limited to susceptibility gene, infection and immunity. How ever, there are few studies on the correlation between intestinal flora and KD. In recent years, some studies have found that KD is related to the imbalance of intestinal flora, and the abundance and structure of intestinal flora in children with KD change, which contributes to the occurrence and development of KD by affecting the release of inflammatory factors, damaging the intestinal barrier function and activating the autoimmune system. This review aims to elucidate the relationship between gut microflora and KD, and the mechanism of action and that of probiotics
, Mirza Mohammad Omer Farrque, Chowdhury Nourin Hassin, Alden Henderson
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 9-15; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1230628

Abstract:
Aims: To understand the mask wearing behavior of people, to identify why people do not wear masks, what obstacles are present, and what suggestions people have to increase mask wearing. Study Design:  It was a cross sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: In the outpatient department of the government hospital, community clinics and expanded program for immunization centers in Sub district area Monohargonj Upazila (Sub district), Bangladesh from 21st November to 20th December 2020. Methodology: Mask wearing was categorized as always wear mask in outside or not, reasons for not wearing mask, perception on prevention of COVID-19 and suggested punishment for not wearing mask. The researchers recruited people from 18 years and over from the Government Hospital, community clinics, and Expanded Immunization Program (EPI) centers in Monoharganj Upazila, Cumilla District, Bangladesh. The sample size of 384 assumed 50% mask wearing. However, 401 persons were participated in this study. A questionnaire was prepared in local language. Data were collected through face-to-face interview after obtaining verbal informed consent. Interviewers were doctors, nurses, health assistants and community health care providers. Results: Of the 401 survey participants, 51% of the males always wear mask. Mask wearing was highest among in-service holders (68%), Hindus (67%) and students (61%) and increased with educational level and income. While 73% said a mask can prevent COVID-19 only 48% wore a mask. Of the people who don’t wear masks, 39% said it was uncomfortable, 5% felt it did not prevent COVID-19, and 8% thought it did not look nice. Most participants agreed to fine or jail people who don’t wear masks. Conclusion: Wearing masks is a reasonable and economical intervention to prevent COVID-19 transmission. In Bangladesh, many people don’t wear masks because its uncomfortable, unattractive, and not protective. The government should encourage people to wear masks and enforce the infection prevention law on wearing masks.
, Obasi Sunday Onyekazuru
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1230627

Abstract:
The public advertisement with indiscriminate sale of herbal bitters has led to increase in consumption without adequate information on the safety profile of the product. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effects of HB cleanser® bitters (a polyherbal mixture composing of Aloe vera, Acinos arvensis, Moringa oleifera, Chenopodium murale and Cinnamomum aromaticum, Allium sativum on haematological parameters in Wistar rats. Twenty-eight animals were randomly allotted into 4 groups comprising 7 animals each. HB cleanser® bitters was administered at doses of 1 ml/kg, 1.03 ml/kg and 1.29 ml/kg according to the manufacturers recommendation while the fourth group was administered with normal saline orally for 28days consecutively. Feed and fluid intake were measured daily. Haematological parameters (PCV, RBC, WBC, HB, platelet, neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte, eosinophil, and basophil) were evaluated. Flavonoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides were revealed as the phytoconstituents. The results showed that the HB cleanser bitters at 1.03 ml/kg significantly (P0.05) decrease in RBC, PCV and Hb (4.88 ± 0.14 ×1012/L, 44.40 ± 1.17%, 14.54 ± 0.55 g/dl) when compared to control. A non-significant increase in platelets occurred at all doses. The findings of this study have shown that HB cleanser® bitters caused an increase in white blood cell count with a reduction in haemoglobin concentration and red blood cell count hence, it should be taken with caution.
, N. Gabriel-Job
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 38-44; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1130626

Abstract:
Background: Despite efforts by the government to ensure that child labour is eradicated, children are still exposed to the menace of this abuse and other forms of abuse. This paper examined street hawking among children in Obio/Akpor L.G.A of Rivers State, Nigeria. Methodology: This descriptive cross-sectional study used a purposive sampling method. 109 participants aged 10 - 17 years who hawked around two busy junctions in Obio/Akpor L.G.A Rivers State, Nigeria, were recruited for the study. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Analysis was done with SPSS version 25. Results: Participants comprised 109 child street hawkers, 67 (61.5%) female, 42 (38.5%) males. 72 (66.1%) of the participants lived with their parents, and more than half of their parents were traders. Reasons for hawking included the need to augment the family income, having lost a parent, and being forced by a guardian to hawk. 104 (95.4%) of the children reported not liking to hawk. 33 (30.3%) of the child street hawkers were school dropouts; more females, 27 (40.3 %), were school dropouts compared to their male counterparts, 6 (14.3 %). This sex difference was statistically significant (X2= 8.27, p= 0.004). Problems encountered while hawking included: accidents, loss of money and goods, exposure to harsh weather, low self-esteem, and sexual advances. Conclusion: Street hawking among children is common despite its adverse effects on children. Education of the masses on the dangers of this menace is needed, and measures to alleviate poverty among the populace need to be radically pursued.
, Macdonald Idu
International Journal of TROPICAL DISEASE & Health pp 28-37; https://doi.org/10.9734/ijtdh/2022/v43i1130625

Abstract:
Aims: Preeclampsia can have a deleterious impact on hematological parameters of pregnant women. Management of this medical condition is critical for improving mother and fetal outcomes. Alternative phytomedicinal intervention is becoming more popular in prenatal care. The current study looked into the effects of methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas, Alchonnea cordifolia, and Secamone afzelii on haematological markers in preeclamptic Wistar rats. Study Design: The study was a trial using an animal model. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted in the University of Benin, Nigeria in July 2019. Methodology: Age-matched (3 days) female Wistar rats weighing 220 to 256 g were used in the study (mean, 237 g). The Adriamycin Model was utilized in Wistar rats to induce preeclampsia. Methanolic extracts of Jatropha curcas, Alchonnea cordifolia, and Secamone afzelii were given to the rats in doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. The animals were anaesthetized with chloroform and humanely slaughtered (use ‘sacrificed’ instead) twenty-four (24) hours after the last dosage of the standard medicine and various treatment extracts were administered to the relevant groups. Blood samples were drawn from the aorta and transferred to tubes containing the anticoagulant EDTA before being evaluated for the various parameters on an Auto Haematology Analyzer Model XrHA640. Results: White cell count was 6.77x103 in the control group, but when preeclampsia was developed, WBC plummeted to 5.8x103. However, when preeclamptic rats were given 100mg/kg of Secamone afzeli extracts, their WBC increased to 9.75x103. A similar increase in hematological differentials was observed in lymphocytes when preeclampsia dramatically reduced lymphocyte volume to 1.1% against 1.17 % in the control. The mean corpuscular volume in the control group was 71.6fL, but when preeclampsia was induced, it dropped to 67.0fL. This improved to 78.6fL when the normal medication was supplied, and 81.6fL when 50mg of Alchonnea cordifolia extracts were administered. Conclusion: According to the findings, extracts of several plants (be specific and mention the plants used in the study) generated increases in PCV to varying degrees, and hence might be utilized to treat anemia. Their ability to improve platelet counts at various levels showed that they could be used in the treatment of thrombocytopenia. The extracts can help improve immune responses by increasing white cell numbers.
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