World Journal of Engineering and Technology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2331-4222 / 2331-4249
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 668
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SHERPA/ROMEO
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Latest articles in this journal

World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 292-321; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.102019

Abstract:
This study examines the traditional Saudi built environment and culture to uncover its rich architecture and to propose a new way of thinking about how to comprehend and value the past while also rebalancing the Kingdom’s future architectural identity. In that sense, the primary objective of this study is to examine the Core Concepts and Forms of traditional architecture, as well as their cultural connotations, in three regions of Saudi Arabia: the central, eastern, and western regions. Non-participant observation, ethnographic, and descriptive approaches were used in the study, which was based on a multi-dimensional comparative observational model. It was determined that the traditional Saudi built environment relied on forty Core Concepts and Forms that were divided into four categories: constant, semi-constant, semi-flexible, and flexible core forms to regulate the production process and maintain its continuity over centuries.
Miguel A. Barron, Joan Reyes, Dulce Y. Miranda
World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 593-604; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.103038

Abstract:
In the metallurgical industries, it is very important to characterize the flow of molten metals in open channels given that they are transported through these devices to different plant sections. However, unlike the flow of water which has been studied since ancient times, the flow of molten metals in open channels has received little attention. The unsteady non-uniform flow of blast furnace molten pig iron in a rectangular open channel is analyzed in this work by numerical solution of the Saint-Venant equations. The influence of mesh size on the convergence of molten metal height is studied to determine the proper mesh and time step sizes. A sinusoidal inflow pulse is imposed at the entrance of the channel in order to analyze the propagation of the resulting wave. The influence of the angle of inclination of the channel and the roughness coefficient of the walls on the amplitude and the dynamic behavior of the height of the molten metal are analyzed. Phase portraits of the channel state variables are constructed and interpreted. Numerical simulations show that as the angle of inclination of the channel increases, the amplitude of the formed wave decreases. From 10 degrees onwards, the peak of the wave descends even below the initial height. On the other hand, the roughness coefficient affects the molten pig iron height profiles in an inverse way than the angle of inclination. The amplitude of the formed wave increases as the roughness coefficient increases.
Ion Albu, Doina-Cezara Albu, Viorica Ursu
World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 565-573; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.103036

Abstract:
The present research aims to identify the possibilities of rehabilitation of building facades in the centre of Chisinau, through the use of high-performance materials, use of high-performance technologies in execution, reduction of facade renovation costs, etc. In the process of organising the rehabilitation works of historical buildings of architectural value, we are dealing with the following: the value of the rehabilitation works of a historical building is very high, the duration of the rehabilitation is important, the attitude of the society is insufficient, the lack of strategies for the rehabilitation of buildings at the municipality level. In order to achieve this objective, we propose to research the following tasks: definition of the concept of rehabilitation of buildings in the Historic Centre of Chisinau; legislative, normative assurance of rehabilitation of historical heritage in the Republic of Moldova; analysis of the situation in Chisinau on the example of historical buildings with limestone finishes and examination by non-destructive methods of facades; solutions for rehabilitation of facades of historical buildings by comparing two types of technologies. In conclusion, emphasis will be placed on the choice of the most efficient method in terms of material, technology and cost.
Pritchard Elmon Marozva, Bruno Roberts Mose, Abdel-Monem El-Batahgy, Thomas Ochuku Mbuya
World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 241-253; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.102015

Abstract:
Conventional fusion arc welding of high-strength quenched and tempered steel can be improved through the use of non-conventional laser beam welding. This article presents the investigations of autogenous bead on plate and butt CO2 Laser Welding (LW) of 7 mm thick high-strength quenched and tempered low alloy SM570 (JIS) steel plates. The influence of laser welding parameters, mainly welding speed, defocusing distance and shielding gas flow rate on the weld profile, i.e., weld zone penetration depth and width, microstructure and mechanical properties of welded joints was determined. All welded joints showed smooth and uniform weld beads free from superficial porosity and undercuts. The selected best welding conditions were a laser power of 5.0 kW, welding speed of 500 mm/min, argon gas shielding flow rate of 30 L/min and a defocusing distance of -0.5 mm. It was observed that these conditions gave complete penetration and minimized the width of the weld bead. The microstructure of the welded joints was evaluated by light optical microscopy. The weld metal (WM) and heat-affected zone (HAZ) near weld metal achieved maximum hardness (355 HV). The tensile fractured samples showed the ductile mode of failure and ultimate tensile strength of 580 MPa.
Gladius Lewis
World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 363-409; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.102022

Abstract:
The most widely used metal additive manufacturing processes utilize powder that is spread or fed onto a building platform. Although there are reviews of the literature on some aspects of the powder, many aspects have been under-reviewed or unreviewed. The present work is a review of the literature on these aspects. Articles published in the open literature through the end of February 2022 were collected by consulting highly regarded relevant bibliographic databases, such as Google Scholar and Science Direct. The aspects reviewed were emerging methods of powder production, methods used to improve the quality of a powder after production by a well-established method, influence of variables of well-established powder production methods on powder properties, influence of powder production method on powder properties, and influence of powder reuse on properties of powders of a wide collection of alloys. One key finding was that with regard to powder reuse, the only consistent finding is that it leads to increase in the oxygen content of the powder. Another key finding was that the literature on the aspects of the literature reviewed herein contains many shortcomings and gaps, which suggest potential areas for future research, such as techniques for optimization of process variables for a given combination of metal powder and powder production method and development of methods for production of powders of new/emerging metallic materials.
Roa’A Mohammed Omar, Shifana Fatima Kaafil Rehumaan
World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 264-271; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.102017

Abstract:
The main aim of this paper is to study the effect of building envelope constructed with different materials on thermal comfort of buildings located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Four different buildings constructed with brick, glass, stone, and gypsum are taken into account to study the difference in temperature of the indoor and outdoor environments. Also, this paper explores the heat conducted by walls of different materials with different thicknesses. In addition, survey is conducted among the residents of Jeddah to know their perspective about thermal comfort of buildings. From the study, it is found that building envelope constructed with glass is more effective compared to envelope constructed with other materials of with least thickness of wall. Also, it is found that the envelope constructed with brick is more effective in absorbing the heat provided the thickness of the walls remains the same.
Mamdouh Mohammed Al-Harbi, Nashwan Al-Ansi, Mohammed Alrubayan
World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 272-291; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.102018

Abstract:
Traditional buildings, particularly residential dwellings, are spatio-temporal reflections of the society and culture in which they were originally sited. Understanding the nature of this built heritage thus fosters interpretation of previous generations’ experiences in these older settlements, all of which can thus be described as products of several different cultural dimensions. Qassim province, which sits in the central province of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is distinguished by having retained various traditional towns and villages, including multiple dwellings representing important eras in the past. However, due to the local population’s abandonment of these traditional towns and movement to new urban areas, and related failures in conservation and restoration, some of these towns have lost many of their unique characteristics, especially with regard to their dwellings. This research thus attempts to interpret the relationships between the spatial configuration of traditional dwellings in Saudi Arabia and their socio-cultural principles and values, focusing on decoding their interior spatial constants and genotypes. The study proposes the use of space syntax theory, represented by the justified plan graph method, as an appropriate socio-spatial methodology for such work, targeting the traditional town of Riyadh Al-Khabra in Qassim province as a case study area, with eight dwellings built between 1900 and 1940 used as examples. Interpretation of analysis results enabled defining spatial constants digitally in these traditional dwellings through the benefit of syntactic analysis techniques, and the main findings of this research reveal the significance of various social and cultural factors and customs among inhabitants with regard to determining the spatial form and properties of traditional dwellings in towns such as Riyadh Al-Khabra.
Mahamud Shaibu, Debrah Kwame Donkor
World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 322-333; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.102020

Abstract:
Most parts of the world are rapidly urbanizing. In sub-Saharan Africa, towns are urbanizing at a faster pace than earlier predicted. Also, large portions of rural settings have been gradually moving towards urbanization. The Tamale Metropolis has been rated as the fastest-growing metropolis in Sub-Saharan Africa. City planning and concerns about the need for open-space creation have been a major challenge due to poor adherence to standards in the building codes. This study was conducted to assess the role of open space in human settlement development in the Tamale Metropolis. The study sampled the views of 157 residents who stay closed to community open spaces in five suburbs of the metropolis. Key informant interviews were also conducted with officials from the Town and Country Planning Department. The study revealed that most residents spend leisure by taking a walk in the neighborhood or idling in outdoor spaces. Also, the majority of the residents had poor knowledge of institutional and land administration. This often led to non-adherence to regulations and this affects open spaces in the metropolis. Common among residents is also a poor appreciation of the importance of open space and this results in encroachment. The Town and Country Planning Department should institute sanctions and stringent measures to deter offenders. Also, public seminars should be used to educate residents on the need to adhere to planning and building codes. Lastly, the study recommends strong collaboration between the various institutions engaged in land administration to facilitate effective provision and preservation of quality open spaces in the metropolis.
Pierre Tize Mha, Amèvi Tongne, Olivier Pantalé
World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 334-362; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.102021

Abstract:
Non-linear numerical modeling, widely used in research and development to understand many complex processes such as forming or machining, does not guarantee the success of a study to be performed. Indeed, the numerical simulation uses finite element codes where the models already integrated are not based on shapes adjustable to any type of study. In this study, a new form of non-linear constitutive flow law based on the Modified Zerilli-Armstrong model, which can answer the above problem, has been developed to apply it to the numerical simulation of two different tests (a quasi-static compression test, the necking of a circular bar). This flow law is based on the modified Zerilli-Armstrong model, which, together with the new modified Johnson-Cook model, has been compared to appreciate the relevance of the proposal. For that, an implementation of this new law via the VUHARD subroutine into the Abaqus/Explicit finite element code was made to model the two tests. The comparison of the results obtained (from identification) by our proposed law with those obtained using the NMJC shows that this new law better approaches the experiments than the other one. This is also shown through the numerical results using the Abaqus software. It can be said that this way of formulating a flow law allows highlighting the great performance of the proposed approach. Although this law has been only used for quasi-static tests, we can say that it can also be used in dynamic tests.
Yuefeng Zhu, Gang Wang, Minshen Tang, Jiawei Zhang
World Journal of Engineering and Technology, Volume 10, pp 502-510; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjet.2022.103030

Abstract:
Waste rubber-modified asphalt has good anti-aging properties and can significantly improve the service life of asphalt pavements. For domestic and foreign scholars of rubber modified asphalt thermal oxygen aging, photo-oxidative aging and water aging some behavioural research, and rubber asphalt aging after the characteristics of the research progress are reviewed. Especially rubber-modified asphalt after light, water and other multi-factor agingsituations, the aging situation is more serious, for rubber-modified asphalt mixture aging, rubber asphalt anti-aging process research and analysis means are still very few, the future research must have more thinking.
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