Behavioral Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2076-328X / 2076-328X
Published by: MDPI AG (10.3390)
Total articles ≅ 818
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Latest articles in this journal

Published: 30 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11080108

Abstract:
The ability of GIFs to generate emotionality in social media marketing strategies is analyzed. The aim of this work is to show how neuroscience research techniques can be integrated into the analysis of emotions, improving the results and helping to guide actions in social networks. This research is structured in two phases: an experimental study using automated biometric analysis (facial coding, GSR and eye tracking) and an analysis of declared feelings in the comments of Instagram users. Explicit valence, type of emotion, length of comment and proportion of emojis are extracted. The results indicate that the explicit measure of emotional valence shows a higher and more positive emotional level than the implicit one. This difference is influenced differently by the engagement and the proportion of emojis in the comment. A further step has been taken in the measurement of user emotionality in social media campaigns, including not only content analysis, but also providing new insights thanks to neuromarketing.
Published: 24 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11080107

Abstract:
To make the Japanese version of the CESD-R—a revised version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies depression scale (CES-D)—in the assessment of depressive symptoms in a general population. The English version of CESD-R was translated into Japanese, and back-translated into English by three native speakers of Japanese and English; then, we selected the version most completely consistent with the original items. The CESD-R was applied to 398 community-dwelling people (191 men: 48.0%, and 207 women: 52.0%) who were over 40 years old. The Japanese version of the CES-D was also carried out in the same population. Factor analysis was performed. Additionally, the correlations between the CESD-R and CES-D results were identified. The CESD-R scores showed a significantly positive correlation with CES-D scores (r = 0.74, p< 0.0005). Analysis of the CESD-R yielded a Cronbach’s alpha result of 0.90. Factor analysis revealed one principal factor in the CESD-R, whereas the original CES-D had two factors because of reversed items. The Japanese version of the CESD-R appears to have the reliability to be applicable for assessing depressive symptoms in population-based samples. However, because the Japanese expressions for some items might be unusual, our study population was also limited; further studies on other populations and on incorporating improved Japanese terminology will be needed.
Published: 21 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11080105

Abstract:
Dengue fever is one of the most important viral infections transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. Accurate identification of cases and treatment of dengue patients at the early stages can reduce medical complications and dengue mortality rate. This survey aims to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) among physicians in dengue diagnosis and treatment. This study was conducted among physicians in Turkey as one nonendemic country and Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia as three dengue-endemic countries. The dosing frequencies, maximum doses, and contraindications in dengue fever were examined. The results found that physicians from Bangladesh, India, and Malaysia have higher KAP scores in dengue diagnosis and treatment compared to physicians in Turkey. This may be due to a lack of physician’s exposure to a dengue patient as Turkey is considered a nonendemic country. This assessment may help establish a guideline for intervention strategies among physicians to have successful treatment outcomes and reduce dengue mortality.
Published: 21 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11080106

Abstract:
COVID-19 has harshly impacted communities globally. This study provides relevant information for creating equitable policy interventions to combat the spread of COVID-19. This study aims to predict the knowledge, attitude, and practice (KAP) of the COVID-19 pandemic at a global level to determine control measures and psychosocial problems. A cross-sectional survey was conducted from July to October 2020 using an online questionnaire. Questionnaires were initially distributed to academicians worldwide. These participants distributed the survey among their social, professional, and personal groups. Responses were collected and analyzed from 67 countries, with a sample size of 3031. Finally, based on the number of respondents, eight countries, including Bangladesh, China, Japan, Malaysia, Mexico, Pakistan, the United States, and Zambia were rigorously analyzed. Specifically, questionnaire responses related to COVID-19 accessibility, behavior, knowledge, opinion, psychological health, and susceptibility were collected and analyzed. As per our analysis, age groups were found to be a primary determinant of behavior, knowledge, opinion, psychological health, and susceptibility scores. Gender was the second most influential determinant for all metrics except information about COVID-19 accessibility, for which education was the second most important determinant. Respondent profession was the third most important metric for all scores. Our findings suggest that health authorities must promote health educations, implement related policies to disseminate COVID-19-awareness that can prevent and control the spread of COVID-19 infection.
Published: 20 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11070104

Abstract:
As an innovative way to express grief, social media posts about the deceased have become fairly common. However, few studies have examined commonly posted grief photos. The purpose of the present study was to examine such pictures, as well as the motivations and reactions of those who posted them, among Italians and Americans. Surveys were sent to both Italian and US participants. The US group yielded 262 responses (mean age = 22 years; 81% female), and the Italian group yielded 51 (mean age = 32 years; 82% female). Several key issues emerged, such as the need for social media users to receive empathic support from other users, the desire to maintain continuing bonds, the wish to remember the deceased, and the desire to share beauty and symbolic pictures. The images were analyzed using content analysis. Both samples posted photos to remember, and to enhance their posts. A strong preference for pictures with a positive emotional connotation appeared, depicting the deceased in a conjoint appearance with the participant. The results suggest that the imagery used for the expression of grief in social media sites, an “iconography of grief”, is a popular means of expression for grievers across the two cultures.
Published: 16 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11070103

Abstract:
Reading and writing skills influence the social status of students, exerting effects not only on learning, but also on wellbeing. This study aimed to assess the impact of diagnosis of specific learning disorder on well-being in secondary-school students, comparing students with a diagnosis of specific learning disorder (SLD-group), students showing learning difficulties without diagnosis (LD-group) and students without learning difficulties (control-group). Students were tested with neuropsychological screening tests in order to identify learning difficulties and were further assessed by means of psychological and school well-being questionnaires. The results show that LD group perceive themselves as having a low sense of mastery and autonomy, less interest and engagement in daily activities and low peer social support than their schoolmates. This result highlights, for the LD group, a low well-being experience, which is not observed in the SLD and control groups. On the contrary, SLD group students do not differ from control group students in any dimensions except for the perceived parents’ support and involvement in school life, in which the SLD group show the highest scores. This work underlines the importance of having a diagnosis as it seems to work as a protective factor for both the psychological and school well-being of the student.
Published: 16 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11070102

Abstract:
Personal values play a significant role when adopting learning approaches by individuals during their studies. Particularly in higher education, these values significantly influence the character that individuals play within their learning community and ultimately influence their academic achievements. The purpose of this paper is to investigate personal values in their choice of learning approaches and, subsequently, how it impacts one’s academic achievements. It also investigates the importance of developing an individual’s personal values as a part of their wider studies, while aligning these with graduate attributes and balancing them with knowledge and skills, to produce successful graduates in a society.
Published: 15 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11070101

Abstract:
(1) Background: Passenger vehicles equipped with advanced driver-assistance system (ADAS) functionalities are becoming more prevalent within vehicle fleets. However, the full effects of offering such systems, which may allow for drivers to become less than 100% engaged with the task of driving, may have detrimental impacts on other road-users, particularly vulnerable road-users, for a variety of reasons. (2) Crash data were analysed in two countries (Great Britain and Australia) to examine some challenging traffic scenarios that are prevalent in both countries and represent scenarios in which future connected and autonomous vehicles may be challenged in terms of safe manoeuvring. (3) Road intersections are currently very common locations for vulnerable road-user accidents; traffic flows and road-user behaviours at intersections can be unpredictable, with many vehicles behaving inconsistently (e.g., red-light running and failure to stop or give way), and many vulnerable road-users taking unforeseen risks. (4) Conclusions: The challenges of unpredictable vulnerable road-user behaviour at intersections (including road-users violating traffic or safe-crossing signals, or taking other risks) combined with the lack of knowledge of CAV responses to intersection rules, could be problematic. This could be further compounded by changes to nonverbal communication that currently exist between road-users, which could become more challenging once CAVs become more widespread.
Published: 9 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11070099

Abstract:
Starting from statistical data derived from the oncological field, some articles have highlighted the importance of communication in the patient–caregiver dyad and have considered the various roles involved in a cancer diagnosis situation. Thus, the question of how to intervene in terms of “quality of life” from the time of diagnosis to the recovery or death of a cancer patient, beyond the sanitary and physical dimensions, has become relevant. Therefore, the present narrative review aims to offer an overview of the state of the art in terms of the psychological treatment modalities of cancer patients, from the diagnosis to the post-surgery period. A total of 67 articles were collected and analyzed, in relation to (1) psychological constructs employed in the oncological field, (2) intervention models and (3) quality of life and well-being measurement and evaluation tools. We described these articles, differentiating between those focusing on the role of (1) the patient, (2) the caregiver, (3) the patient–caregiver dyad and (4) healthcare professional roles. The oncological diagnosis and its repercussions in the lives of the patient and caregiver were explored and critical aspects that emerged from the literature were highlighted. In conclusion, the analysis allowed some considerations about the need to define research protocols and useful management strategies for increasing the overall health of patients with cancer diagnoses and the people who surround them.
Published: 9 July 2021
by MDPI
Behavioral Sciences, Volume 11; doi:10.3390/bs11070100

Abstract:
Background: The global pandemic has affected the psychological health of the population, including pregnant women. Due to the difficulty of offering conventional therapies to reduce stress in this population, studies are needed to show the effect of online therapies. Therefore, the objective was to test the effect of online cognitive behavioural therapy in pregnant women during the pandemic on the main variables of stress and psychopathology. Methods: The sample consisted of 16 pregnant women who participated in a weekly cognitive behavioural intervention for 8 weeks. Prenatal concerns, general stress, stress vulnerability, resilience and psychopathology were assessed. Results: The results show a reduction in prenatal concerns, perceived stress, stress vulnerability and psychopathology, as well as an increase in resilience. Conclusions: Online cognitive behavioural intervention may be effective in pregnant women, so it is important to conduct a randomised controlled trial to certify these findings.
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