ISSN / EISSN : 20466390 / 20466390
Current Publisher: The Company of Biologists (10.1242)
Total articles ≅ 1,435
Latest articles in this journal
Biology Open; doi:10.1242/bio.044081
Biology Open, Volume 8; doi:10.1242/bio.043653
Biology Open, Volume 8; doi:10.1242/bio.040626
Biology Open, Volume 8; doi:10.1242/bio.045781
Biology Open, Volume 8; doi:10.1242/bio.042135
Abstract:PGC-1α and its homologues have been proposed to act as master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis in animals. Most relevant studies have been conducted in mammals, where interpretation is complicated by the fact that there are three partially redundant members of the gene family. In Drosophila, only a single PGC-1 homologue, spargel (srl), is present in the genome. Here we analyzed the effects of srl overexpression on phenotype and on gene expression in tko25t, a recessive bang-sensitive mutant with a global defect in oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in a deficiency of mitochondrial protein synthesis. In contrast to previous reports, we found that substantial overexpression of srl throughout development had only minimal effects on the tko25tmutant phenotype. Copy number of mtDNA was unaltered and srl overexpression produced no systematic effects on a representative set of transcripts related to mitochondrial OXPHOS and other metabolic enzymes, although these were influenced by sex and genetic background. This study provides no support to the concept of Spargel as a global regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, at least in the context of the tko25t model.
Biology Open, Volume 8; doi:10.1242/bio.045880
Biology Open, Volume 8; doi:10.1242/bio.041988
Biology Open; doi:10.1242/bio.045062
Abstract:The ellipsoid body (EB) of the Drosophila central complex mediates sensorimotor integration and action selection for adaptive behaviours. Insights into its physiological function are steadily accumulating, however the developmental origin and genetic specification have remained largely elusive. Here we identify two stem cells in the embryonic neuroectoderm as precursor cells of neuronal progeny that establish EB circuits in the adult brain. Genetic tracing of embryonic neuroblasts ppd5 and mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker identified lineage-related progeny as Pox neuro (Poxn)-expressing EB ring neurons, R1-R4. During embryonic brain development, engrailed function is required for the initial formation of Poxn-expressing ppd5-derived progeny. Postembryonic determination of R1-R4 identity depends on lineage-specific Poxn function that separates neuronal subtypes of ppd5-derived progeny into hemi-lineages with projections either terminating in the EB ring neuropil or the superior protocerebrum (SP). Poxn knockdown in ppd5-derived progeny results in identity transformation of engrailed-expressing hemi-lineages from SP to EB-specific circuits. In contrast, lineage-specific knockdown of engrailed leads to reduced numbers of Poxn-expressing ring neurons. These findings establish neuroblasts ppd5-derived ring neurons as lineage-related sister cells that require engrailed and Poxn function for the proper formation of EB circuitry in the adult central complex of Drosophila.
Biology Open; doi:10.1242/bio.039461
Abstract:Temperature is a ubiquitous environmental factor affecting physiological processes of ectotherms. Due to the effects of climate change on global air and water temperatures, predicting the impacts of changes in environmental thermal conditions on ecosystems is becoming increasingly important. This is especially crucial for migratory fish, such as the ecologically and economically vital salmonids, because their complex life histories make them particularly vulnerable. Here, we addressed the question whether temperature affects the morphology of brown trout, Salmo trutta L. spermatozoa. The fertilising ability of spermatozoa is commonly attributed to their morphological dimensions, thus implying direct impacts on the reproductive success of the male producing the cells. We show that absolute lengths of spermatozoa are not affected by temperature, but spermatozoa from warm acclimated S. trutta males have longer flagella relative to their head size compared to their cold acclimated counterparts. This did not directly affect sperm swimming speed, although spermatozoa from warm acclimated males may have experienced a hydrodynamic advantage at warmer temperatures, as suggested by our calculations of drag based on head size and sperm swimming speed. The results presented here highlight the importance of increasing our knowledge of the effects of temperature on all aspects of salmonid reproduction in order to secure their continued abundance.
Biology Open; doi:10.1242/bio.044370
Abstract:Development of the vertebrate central nervous system involves the co-ordinated differentiation of progenitor cells and the establishment of functional neural networks. This neurogenic process is driven by both intracellular and extracellular cues that converge on the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Here we demonstrate that mTORC1-signaling mediates multi-faceted roles during central nervous system development using the mouse retina as a model system. Down-regulation of mTORC1-signaling in retinal progenitor cells by conditional ablation of Rptor leads to proliferation deficits and an over-production of retinal ganglion cells during embryonic development. In contrast, reduced mTORC1-signaling in postnatal animals leads to temporal deviations in programmed cell death and the consequent production of asymmetric retinal ganglion cell mosaics and associated loss of axonal termination topographies in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of adult mice. In combination these developmental defects induce visually mediated behavioural deficits. These collective observations demonstrate that mTORC1-signaling mediates critical roles during visual pathway development and function.