International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1976-0485 / 2234-1315
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1186)
Total articles ≅ 584
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Xianhua Yao, , Lei Zhang, Junyi Xi, Lielie Li
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00479-4

Abstract:
Crack distribution and widths were experimentally examined in a series of reinforced concrete (RC) beams. Concretes of different strengths were used, and beams were reinforced with 600 MPa yield strength steel bars. The features of cracks, which need to be considered in the design, were determined by using statistical analysis of different crack patterns observed in RC beams. The methods for determining the depth of effective influence zone of 600 MPa steel bars in RC beams were experimentally obtained. Based on the experimental data obtained in this study and from the data on RC beams with 335–600 MPa yield strength steel bars from other studies, the applicability of different formulas for the determination of the maximum widths (provided in codes and by scholars) was analyzed. Methods for the calculation of average crack spacing and maximum crack widths in RC beams with steel bars of various yield strengths were proposed. A unified formula for the calculation of maximum crack width in such beams was also established.
Sani Mohammed Bida, , Mohd Saleh Jaafar, Farzad Hejazi, Nabilah Abu Bakar
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00477-6

Abstract:
Many nations are already working toward full implementation of energy efficiency in buildings known as Green Building. In line with this perspective, this paper aims to develop a thermally efficient precast concrete sandwich panels (PCSP) for structural applications. Therefore, an experimental investigation was carried out to determine the thermal resistance of the proposed PCSP using Hotbox method and the results were validated using finite element method (FEM) in COMSOL Multiphysics Software. The PCSP were designed with staggered shear connectors to avoid thermal bridges between the successive layers. The staggered connectors are spaced at 200 mm, 300 mm and 400 mm on each concrete layer, while the control panel is designed with 200 mm direct shear connection. In the experimental test, four (4) panels of 500 mm × 500 mm and 150 mm thick were subjected to Hotbox Test to determine the thermal resistance. The result shows that thermal resistance of the PCSP with staggered shear connection increases with increase in spacing. The PCSP with 400 mm staggered shear connectors indicates the best thermal efficiency with a thermal resistance (R value) of 2.48 m2K/W. The thermal performance was verified by FEA which shows less than 5% error coupled with a precise prediction of surface temperature gradient. This indicates that, with conventional materials, thermal path approach can be used to develop a precast concrete building with better thermal resistant properties. Hopefully, stakeholders in the green building industry would find this proposed PCSP as an alternative energy efficient load bearing panel towards sustainable and greener buildings.
Wei Shao, Danda Shi
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00478-5

Abstract:
A probabilistic analysis approach for estimating the durability of piles with microcracks under chloride attack is presented. The chloride ingress model is obtained by considering the time-dependent diffusion process. The equivalent diffusion coefficient is derived to investigate the crack effect by introducing the crack effect factor. The fitting formula between the chloride diffusion coefficients and crack widths is established through experimental results, and the proposed equivalent diffusion coefficient is verified by comparison with the experimental results. The probabilistic evaluation of durability of piles with microcracks is performed, and then the parametric analysis is performed to study the effect of main parameters on the failure probability and durability life. The results indicate that the chloride concentration increases rapidly as the crack width increases at the same number of cracks. The durability life greatly reduces with increasing crack density of pile. The durability life predicted by probabilistic method is always less than those by deterministic method at the same condition. The deterministic approach may underestimate the threat of reinforcement corrosion induced by chloride attack, owing to the omission of probabilistic nature of main influencing parameters.
Hua Huang, Yujie Yuan, , Liang Zhu
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00476-7

Abstract:
This study investigated the mechanical properties and the effects of the volume fraction for carbon fibers (CF-VF), polypropylene fibers (PPF-VF) and aramid fibers (AF-VF) with a fixed aspect ratio of 650 for the carbon fibers, 400 for the polypropylene fibers and 900 for the aramid fibers in hybrid fiber-reinforced concrete (HFRC). Furthermore, compressive, splitting tensile and flexural tensile tests were carried out to obtain the optimal total volume fraction for the three types of fibers, as well as the optimal ratio between the CF-VF, PPF-VF and AF-VF. In addition, stress–strain curves of normal concrete and HFRC were examined to explore the whole mechanical process. The results indicated the CF-VF, PPF-VF and AF-VF have a significant effect on the tensile and flexural strengths of HFRC. The HFRC with a fiber additional ratio of 25:50:25 had the best hybrid effect. Moreover, a calculation method based on the compressive strength of normal concrete and HFRC and the volume fraction is proposed to calculate the strength of HFRC in engineering as a reference. Besides, a uniaxial compression constitutive mathematical model of normal concrete and HFRC is established.
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00474-9

Abstract:
Low cycle fatigue life of high-strength reinforcing steel bars (ASTM A706 Grade 80), using photogrammetry by RGB methodology is evaluated. Fatigue tests are performed on specimens under constant axial displacement with total strain amplitudes ranging from 0.01 to 0.05. The experimental observations indicate that buckling of high-strength reinforcing bars results in a damaging degradation of their fatigue life performance as the slenderness ratio increases, including an early rebar failure as the total strain amplitude increases since it achieves the plastic range faster. In addition to this, the results show that the ratio of the ultimate tensile strength to yield strength satisfies the minimum of 1.25 specified in ASTM A706 for reinforcement. On the other hand, the RGB methodology indicates that the axial strains measured by photogrammetry provide more accurate data since the registered results by the traditional experimental setup do not detect second-order effects, such as slippage or lengthening of the specimens within the clamps. Moreover, the RGB filter is faster than digital image correlation (DIC) because the RGB methodology requires a fewer computational cost than DIC algorithms. The RGB methodology allows to reduce the total strain amplitude up to 45% compared to the results obtained by the traditional setup. Finally, models relating total strain amplitude with half-cycles to failure and total strain amplitude with total energy dissipated for multiple slenderness ratios (L/d of 5, 10, and 15) are obtained.
Ling-Yun Feng, Ai-Jiu Chen, Han-Dong Liu
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00475-8

Abstract:
Rubberized concrete is an environmentally friendly building material that mixes rubber particles from old automobile tires into normal concrete in place of fine aggregate. The addition of rubber particles can improve the abrasion resistance of normal concrete observably. It has a good application prospect in hydraulic engineering, especially in the concrete building parts with high abrasion resistance. However, there are few experimental studies on the abrasion resistance of rubberized concrete, and the influence law and mechanism of rubber particles on the abrasion resistance of concrete are not understood. In this paper, the abrasion resistance of rubberized concrete is studied using the underwater-steel-ball method. The results show that rubber particles increase the slump of concrete mixtures. The abrasion resistance of rubberized concrete increases significantly with increasing rubber particle content, whereas the compressive strength decreases linearly. For the same rubber particle size and content, the abrasion resistance of rubberized concrete positively correlates with compressive strength and larger rubber particles significantly improve the abrasion resistance. Rubber particle content is the factor that most strongly affects abrasion resistance of rubberized concrete, followed by the compressive strength. Rubber particle pretreatment methods of NaOH + KH570 can significantly improve the abrasion resistance of rubberized concrete.
Yong Zhou, Yuxuan Yang, Bigya Gyawali, Weiping Zhang
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00468-7

Abstract:
This paper presents the simulation of the permeation of saturated cement paste based on a novel pore network model. First, a 2D hydration model of cement particles was developed by extending the work of Zheng et al. 2005 to provide the background for the network construction. Secondly, the establishment of the pore network model and simulation of permeation of saturated cement paste were carried out. The irregular pores between any two hydrated cement particles were linearized with clear distances as the diameters of pores. The straight tubular pores were interconnected with one another to form the network model. During this process, the weighted Voronoi diagram was employed to operate on the graphical expression of the hydrated cement particles. Water permeation in saturated cement paste was simulated to verify the pore network model. Finally, the factors including water–cement ratio, reaction temperature, reaction time and cement particle size that would influence water permeation were numerically investigated.
Ninghui Liang, Lianxi Ren, Shuo Tian, Xinrong Liu, Zuliang Zhong, Zhiyun Deng, Ru Yan
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-23; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00472-x

Abstract:
To study the hybrid effects of polypropylene fiber and basalt fiber on the fracture toughness of concrete, 13 groups of notched concrete beam specimens with different fiber contents and mass ratios were prepared for the three-point bending test. Based on acoustic emission monitoring data, the initiation cracking load and instability load of each group of specimens were obtained, and the fracture toughness parameters were calculated according to the double-K fracture criterion. The test results show that the basalt fiber-reinforced concrete has a greater increase in initial fracture toughness, and the toughness of coarse polypropylene fiber-reinforced concrete is more unstable. Moreover, after the coarse polypropylene fiber content reaches 6 kg/m3 and the basalt fiber content reaches 3 kg/m3, increasing the content will not significantly improve the fracture toughness of the concrete. The polypropylene–basalt fiber will produce positive and negative effects when mixed, and the mass ratio of 2:1 was optimal. Finally, the fitting analysis revealed that the fracture process of polypropylene–basalt fiber-reinforced concrete (PBFRC) can be objectively described by the bilinear softening constitutive curve improved by Xu and Reinhardt.
, Tieng Cheewaket, Chai Jaturapitakkul
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00473-w

Abstract:
This research aimed to create value of construction and demolition waste to be able used as a recycled coarse aggregate (RCA) in durable concrete, based on 7-year field investigation in marine site. Fly ash was used to substitute Portland cement type I in RCA concrete varied from 0 to 50% by weight of binder with three W/B ratios and comparing to natural aggregate (NA) concrete. Cubical concrete specimens were cast having round steel bars embedded with various concrete coverings to evaluate the durability performances. After 28-day curing, the specimens were placed at a tidal zone in the gulf of Thailand and investigated both mechanical and durability performances at 7-year exposed period. Based on site monitoring, 15–25% fly ash RCA concrete with W/B ratio of 0.40 would be advantaged to resist destruction due to the marine attack when compared with NA concrete with the same water-to-binder ratio.
Yibo Yang, , Weizhen Zeng, Yanjun Li, Qiaohui Chen, Wenying Guo, Hengchang Wang, Yingqin Chen
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s40069-021-00470-z

Abstract:
To reduce the cost of lightweight concrete (LWC) partition panels and to address recycling concrete waste, this work utilized completely recycled fine aggregate (CRFA) to replace the natural fine aggregate and ceramsite in the preparation of LWC and LWC partition panels. To this end, an autoclave-free curing process and an air-entraining agent were used to prepare the CRFA-LWC. The workability, compressive strength, drying shrinkage, and pore structure of the CRFA-LWC and the performance of the CRFA-LWC partition panels were then investigated. The results show that the optimal ratio of the CRFA to the cement is 2.2 for the lightweight concrete, and the optimal panel cross section is a rounded rectangular one. All the pores in the CRFA-LWC have a diameter of smaller than 0.17 mm, and the diameter of 89% of them is less than 0.05 mm. In order to satisfy the drying shrinkage requirements stipulated by Chinese code JC/T 169-2016, the CRFA-LWC should be cured for at least 10 days. The economic analysis concludes that the material cost of CRFA-LWC is 40% lower than that of the autoclaved ceramsite concrete. In addition, utilizing CRFA in lightweight concrete can ease the shortage of natural aggregate.
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