International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials

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ISSN / EISSN : 1976-0485 / 2234-1315
Total articles ≅ 573
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Wei-Jian Yi, Fan Yi,
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-23; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00469-6

Abstract:
In the recent two decades, the progressive collapse of reinforced concrete (RC) frame structures attracted unprecedented research interests in the structural engineering community. Experiments are regarded as an essential method in this field since actual cases can barely provide sufficient and effective data to support rigorous research. In this paper, prevailing experimental assumptions and configurations among over 100 series of experiments are quantitatively revealed by a bibliometric collection based on systematic search in an academic database. Since numerous experiments have been reported on the progressive collapse of RC frame structures, this paper subsequently presents a state-of-the-art review summarizing both experimental consensuses and controversies constituted by three main aspects: (a) static mechanisms, (b) dynamic behavior, and (c) threat-dependent research. The significance of secondary mechanisms, existing problems of dynamic effects, and potential flaws of the threat-independent assumption are discussed in detail with experimental findings. Future needs are emphasized on research targets, correlations between experiments and design, dynamic effects, threat-dependent issues, and retrofitting. These recommendations might help researchers or designers realize a more reliable and realistic progressive collapse design of RC frame structures in the future.
SangWoo Park, Jangwoon Beak, Kukjoo Kim, Young-Jun Park
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-20; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00467-8

Abstract:
With the increasing installation cases of underground explosive facilities (e.g., ammunition magazines, hydrogen tanks, etc.) in urban areas in recent years, the risk of internal explosions is also increasing. However, few studies on the measures for reducing damage by the ground vibration have been conducted except for maintaining safety distance. In this study, a method for attenuating the vibration propagated outward by installing a blast-proof panel was numerically and experimentally investigated. Two cubical reinforced concrete structures were manufactured according to the concrete strength and a blast-proof panel was installed on only one side of the structure. Then, acceleration sensors were installed on the external surface to evaluate the propagation of vibration outward depending on the installation of a blast-proof panel. Before a field experiment, a preliminary numerical simulation was performed. The results showed that the acceleration propagated outward could be effectively reduced by installing a blast-proof panel. Even though the performance of a blast-proof panel on vibration reduction was also investigated in the field experiment, significantly larger absolute accelerations were estimated due to the different experimental conditions. Finally, the vibration reduction effect of the blast-proof panel was numerically evaluated according to its thickness and the internal explosion load. A blast-proof panel more effectively reduced the acceleration propagated outward as its thickness increased and the explosion load decreased.
Correction
, Irem Şanal, Jaime Marian
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-1; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00466-9

Abstract:
An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via the original article.
Aocheng Zhong, , Elisa Lumantarna, Zhiyuan Zhou, Priyan Mendis
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00461-0

Abstract:
Steel fibre (SF) reinforcement has been shown to improve the ductility of high strength concrete (HSC), which is known to be brittle. Research conducted to date on steel fibre reinforced concrete and its effects have emphasised post-failure performance and cracking mechanism. The difficulty in predicting the behaviour of fibres is due to the randomly distributed nature of the material within the matrix leading to a probability distribution of results. Published literature has shown a benefit of adding steel fibres in terms of the ductility performance of structures. Clearly, there is a potential for such material as replacement of conventional steel reinforcement. This study proposes a theoretical model of evaluating the potential of using steel fibres as a replacement material to conventional steel reinforcement bars based on the case study, laboratory and theoretical methodologies. The compressive strength of the concrete at key dates, the effective fibre cross-sectional were measured, and a prediction model was created based on the measurement parameters. The use of four-point flexural testing, standard compressive testing and software image modelling provided the study with relevant data used to analyse and compare to the prediction. Greater ductility performance and toughness were observed with increased fibre volumes, confirming proposed predictions and conclusion drawn from published literature. No consistent or conclusive correlations between fibre volumes and the compressive strength of concrete were found. A relationship between fibre volumes and predicted moment capacities of steel fibre reinforced concrete beams was found based on the proposed theoretical flexural analysis method.
Jin Zhou, Zhelun Zhang, Tessa Williams, Sashi K. Kunnath
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-15; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00463-y

Abstract:
The development of fragility functions that express the probability of collapse of a building as a function of some ground motion intensity measure is an effective tool to assess seismic vulnerability of structures. However, a number of factors ranging from ground motion selection to modeling decisions can influence the quantification of collapse probability. A methodical investigation was carried out to examine the effects of component modeling and ground motion selection in establishing demand and collapse risk of a typical reinforced concrete frame building. The primary system considered in this study is a modern 6-story RC moment frame building that was designed to current code provisions in a seismically active region. Both concentrated and distributed plasticity beam–column elements were used to model the building frame and several options were considered in constitutive modeling for both options. Incremental dynamic analyses (IDA) were carried out using two suites of ground motions—the first set comprised site-dependent ground motions, while the second set was a compilation of hazard-consistent motions using the conditional scenario spectra approach. Findings from the study highlight the influence of modeling decisions and ground motion selection in the development of seismic collapse fragility functions and the characterization of risk for various demand levels.
Liang-Dong Zhuang, Hong-Bing Chen, Yuan Ma, Ran Ding
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-25; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00464-x

Abstract:
The headed studs have been widely applied in steel–concrete composite structures as shear connectors. However, the tensile performance of headed studs is also key to the structural performance in many cases such as the semi-rigid composite joints including steel beam–concrete wall joint and steel column–base joint. Therefore, this study presents experimental and analytical study on the whole-process tensile behavior of headed studs. Tests on a total of 33 pullout specimens are first conducted. The tensile capacity and load–deformation behavior of the anchorage concrete, which dominates the structural performance of headed studs, are thoroughly analyzed. In addition, test data in the literature are collected for quantitatively evaluating the influence of embedment depth, bearing area, boundary conditions, and concrete strength on the tensile behavior of the anchorage concrete. On the basis of the influence evaluation, an analytical model represented by a piecewise function is proposed to describe the whole-process load–deformation behavior of the anchorage concrete and validated through the comparison between the predicted curves and all collected experimental results. Then the proposed model is applied to simulate the rotational behavior of the typical semi-rigid joint anchored by headed studs, which takes the contribution of the anchorage concrete into consideration, and is verified by experimental results. The research findings indicate that tensile behavior of anchorage concrete is crucial to the structural performance of semi-rigid joints, even for headed studs with large embedment depth and bearing area.
, Huaming Tang, Shenyao Han
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-16; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00465-w

Abstract:
In this paper, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) coarse aggregate with different mixing contents is used to solve the problems of plastic pollution, low energy absorption capacity and poor damage integrity, which provides an important reference for PVC plastic concrete used in the initial support structures of highway tunnels and coal mine roadway. At the same time, the energy absorption characteristics and their relationship under different impact loads are studied, which provides an important reference for predicting the energy absorption characteristics of concrete under other PVC aggregate content or higher impact speed. This study replaced natural coarse aggregate in concrete with different contents and equal volume of well-graded flaky PVC particles obtained by crushing PVC soft board. Also, slump, compression, and splitting strength tests, a free falling low-speed impact test of steel balls and a high-speed impact compression test of split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) were carried out. Results demonstrate that the static and dynamic compressive strength decreases substantially, and the elastic modulus and slump decrease slowly with the increase of the mixing amount of PVC aggregate (0–30%). However, the energy absorption rate under low-speed impact and the specific energy absorption per MPa under high-speed impact increase obviously, indicating that the energy absorption capacity is significantly enhanced. Regardless of the mixing amount of PVC aggregate, greater strain rate can significantly enhance the dynamic compressive strength and the specific energy absorption per MPa. After the uniaxial compression test or the SHPB impact test, the relative integrity of the specimen is positively correlated with the mixing amount of PVC aggregate. In addition, the specimens are seriously damaged with the increase of the impact strain rate. When the PVC aggregate content is 20%, the compressive strength and splitting strength of concrete are 33.8 MPa and 3.26 MPa, respectively, the slump is 165 mm, the energy absorption rate under low-speed impact is 89.5%, the dynamic compressive strength under 0.65 Mpa impact air pressure is 58.77 mpa, and the specific energy absorption value per MPa is 13.33, which meets the requirements of shotcrete used in tunnel, roadway support and other impact loads. There is a linear relationship between the energy absorption characteristics under low-speed impact and high-speed impact. The greater the impact pressure, the larger the slope of the fitting straight line. The slope and intercept of the fitting line also show a good linear relationship with the increase of impact pressure. The conclusions can be used to predict the energy absorption characteristics under different PVC aggregate content or higher-speed impact pressure, which can provide important reference for safer, more economical, and environmental protection engineering structure design.
, Irem Şanal, Jaime Marian
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00462-z

Abstract:
Super absorbent polymers (SAP) are the recent promising chemical admixtures with the potential for reducing the shrinkage, cracking, freeze/thaw and increasing the durability of the concrete. These polymers are classified as hydrogels when cross-linked and can retain exceptionally high amount of liquid solutions of their own weight. In this paper, the flowability of the concrete is quantified by means of developing a percolation-based image processing method and the transient behavior of the viscosity of the SAP-contained mortar mixture is characterized via numerical solution of Navier–Stokes relationship. In addition, rheological measurements and the analytical development has been carried out for complementary verification of the viscosity trends. Controlling the flow within such relatively short period of time is essential for tuning the functionality of concrete during the construction as well as it’s respective resilience during the extended period of application.
Dapeng Yang, Bei Zhang, Guojun Liu
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-22; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00459-8

Abstract:
Steel-fiber reinforced concrete slabs have good blast and spall resistance. In this study, compression and splitting tensile experiments were carried out to obtain the basic quasi-static mechanical properties of the steel-fiber concrete specimens and the influence of steel-fiber parameters was revealed. In-field explosion experiments were performed to study the dynamic responses and damage modes of the steel-fiber reinforced concrete slabs. Five typical spall damage modes were observed, the distribution law of the spalling fragments was obtained, and the influence of steel-fiber shape, length, length–diameter ratio and volume percentage on the spall performance were revealed. These results will provide a basis for the application of steel-fiber reinforced concrete slabs in protective structures.
, , , Eleftherios Eleftheriou, , Rogiros Illampas
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, Volume 15, pp 1-17; doi:10.1186/s40069-021-00460-1

Abstract:
Fabric reinforced cementitious matrix (FRCM) composites, also known as textile reinforced mortars (TRM), an inorganic matrix constituting fibre fabrics and cement-based mortar, are becoming a widely used composite material in Europe for upgrading the seismic resistance of existing reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings. One way of providing seismic resistance upgrading is through the application of the proposed FRCM system on existing masonry infill walls to increase their stiffness and integrity. To examine the effectiveness of this application, the bond characteristics achieved between (a) the matrix and the masonry substrate and (b) the fabric and the matrix need to be determined. A series of experiments including 23 material performance tests, 15 direct tensile tests of dry fabric and composites, and 30 shear bond tests between the matrix and brick masonry, were carried out to investigate the fabric-to-matrix and matrix-to-substrate bond behaviour. In addition, different arrangements of extruded polystyrene (XPS) plates were applied to the FRCM to test the shear bond capacity of this insulation system when used on a large-scale wall.
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