Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology

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ISSN / EISSN : 2089-5690 / 2406-9272
Total articles ≅ 267
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Pipin Kusumawati, Priyanto Triwitono, Sri Anggrahini, Yudi Pranoto
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.601

Low daily calcium intake in Asia, especially in Indonesia, is still a serious problem. The abundant fish bone waste from the fishery fillet industries in Indonesia, can be employed as an alternative source of calcium to meet daily calcium needs. This research aimed to determine which of the six fish species (tilapia, catfish, grouper, snapper, tuna, kingfish mackerel) produces the best quality and the most cost-effective nano-calcium powder for a recommendation to the stakeholders. The calcium was extracted using an alkali treatment. The properties of the produced nano-calcium powders were analyzed for: proximate composition, calcium and phosphorus levels, color brightness level, XRD, FTIR, particle size, and SEM-EDX image analysis. The tilapia bone had the finest particle size of calcium (87.37 nm), while the grouper bone had the biggest particle size (281.4 nm). The brightness of all yields varied from 83.83 (beige-kingfish mackerel) to 90.64 (white-tilapia). The average calcium content from EDX analysis varied from 21.51% (snapper) to 34.37% (grouper). The average phosphorus levels ranged from 10.73% (kingfish mackerel) to 15.99% (grouper). The EDX Ca/P molar ratio was 1.41-1.66 across all samples. The FTIR spectra showed that all samples contained PO, CH, CO, NH, and OH groups. The XRD spectra pattern determined that the two main components of the fish bone nano-calcium powder were 90% hydroxyapatite and halite. All fish bone samples have the potential to be used as raw material for nano-sized calcium. However, grouper bone with the highest calcium content and the highest nano-calcium yield was the best choice for further study.
Meda Canti, Katarina Aninda Karisma Palupi, Maggy Thenawidjaja Suhartono
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 35-43; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.608

Anchovy is one of the primary fishery commodities in Indonesia; however its development as fishery products is currently suboptimal. Due to its high protein content, anchovy is potential to be developed as a source of value-added fish protein isolate. This study aims to produce anchovy protein isolate (API) and evaluate its physical, chemical, and sensory properties. The API was prepared from defatted anchovy flour. Isolation of anchovy protein was carried out using a pH-shifting method. The API was then analyzed for its physicochemical (bulk density, color, proximate) and sensory properties. The results showed that anchovy protein was more soluble at pH 11 and less at pH 5. Yield and protein recovery of API were 26.39 and 36.86% wb, respectively. The API had 92.20% protein, 3.64% moisture, 2.18% ash, 2.26% lipid, and 3.36% carbohydrate content on a dry basis. The results showed that the API exhibited good physical and sensory properties such as bulk density, color, the best score on sweetness, seaweed, bitterness, off-flavor, aroma, and rancid taste. There was no significant difference in sweet taste, off-flavor, aroma, and rancid taste between API and soy protein isolate (SPI) (p0.05). Overall, API demonstrated satisfactory nutritional properties and potential use as food ingredients.
Nur Fadhilah Rahim, Khusnul Yaqin
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 44-53; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.597

Microplastic in the oceans might interfere the health of marine organisms, including the green mussels (Perna viridis). This is due to microplastic accumulation in mussels organs, such as gills, hepatopancreas, and gonads. Therefore, tissue alteration is a good indicator for ecological risk analysis and other ecotoxicological study activities. Green mussels with shells 4.1 to 5.0 cm in length were collected from Mandalle waters, Pangkep Regency (Pangkajene Islands), Indonesia. Green mussels were exposed for seven days to microplastic with concentrations of 0.05 (A), 0.5 (B), and 5 (C) g/L. The results showed that the higher the concentration of microplastics exposed to the green mussel, the higher the accumulation of microplastics in the body of the mussel, within the tested concentrations. The increased concentration of microplastics increased the level of tissue alteration in the gills, hepatopancreas, and gonads, with the most sensitive organ being the hepatopancreas. Overall, the study confirmed that the histological assay of mussel organs could be used as a biomarker in ecotoxicological studies.
Henny Helmi, , Rudi Dungani,
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 23-34; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.631

This study aims to determine and compare the quality of Indonesian fermented shrimp paste (terasi) produced from pelagic marine shrimp using a traditional preservation method (fermentation, drying, and salting). The quality of fermented shrimp pastes from different locations in Indonesia (Sungsang district, South Sumatra; Toboali district, Bangka Belitung Islands; Indramayu, West Java; Tegal, Central Java; Madura, East Java; Bontang, East Kalimantan and Sumbawa, West Nusa Tenggara) was determined by evaluating its parameters (i.e., physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory). This study found that the fermented shrimp pastes quality differed among locations due to the processing method used (i.e., fermentation, salting, and drying), not the raw material characteristics, as indicated by the Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The first group (Sumatra and Sumbawa terasi samples) with a similar added salt percentage and length of fermentation resulted in similar pH, salinity, salty taste, and more preferred taste. The second group (Java and Kalimantan terasi samples) with similar lengths of first and second sun-drying resulted in similar chemical compositions such as higher protein content, lipid content, moisture content, total amino acid, and bitter taste. Terasi from Toboali prepared using Acetes japonicus with 48 h of fermentation produced the most nutritious and preferred taste by the panelists.
Afif Arwani, Nurheni Sri Palupi, Puspo Edi Giriwono
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 17, pp 13-22; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.629

Shrimp and crab are fishery products with high nutritional value, especially as protein sources. However, they belong to the crustacean group known to cause many allergies in Southeast Asian countries. Not only affecting the nutritional composition, processing also has the potential in reducing the allergenicity of a food ingredient. This study aims to analyze the effects of various heat processing on nutrient composition, soluble protein content, protein molecular weight profile, and allergenicity of white shrimp and mud crab. The processing was carried out by boiling, frying, and autoclaving. Changes in macronutrient content were determined using proximate analysis. Soluble protein content was analyzed using the Bradford method, while molecular weight and allergenicity profiles were analyzed using SDS-PAGE electrophoresis and ELISA techniques. Results showed that processing treatment could significantly reduce protein solubility. SDS-PAGE profile showed that heating shrimp and crab using autoclave at 121.1 oC and pressure of 0.2 MPa for 10 min was able to remove protein bands of 35-38 kDa, which were suspected as the allergen bands. However, boiling (100 oC for 10 min) and deep frying in palm oil (160 oC for 10 min) treatments of the samples gave stronger 35-38 kDa bands intensity than the unprocessed sample. Autoclaving was able to significantly reduce IgE reactivity to shrimp extract better than the boiling and frying process. In contrast, IgE reactivity of crab extract was increased by heat processing especially frying. Thus, autoclaving can be used in the white shrimp processing to produce hypoallergenic food.
Fazilah Ariffin, Rozilawati Mohamed Razali, Vigneswari Sevakumaran
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 16, pp 130-138; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.567

Marine contamination caused by anthropogenic activities has side effects and causes severe contamination to the environment. Polychaetes are benthic organisms that live in the sediment and can be a good indicator of sediment contamination by organic compounds. In this study, bacterial strains were isolated and identified from the gut of polychaete worm Marphysa moribidii and the potential of the bacteria was evaluated to degrade hydrocarbon compounds. The isolated bacteria were primary and secondary screened on Minimal Salt Media (MSM) agar supplemented with 1% v/v of diesel oil. Diesel degradation analysis was performed by inoculating potential bacterium into MSM broth with 1% v/v diesel oil and incubated at 37 oC for 20 days. Diesel degradation percentage was analyzed using the gravimetric method, while the bacteria cell densities were measured using the standard plate count method. Then, the selected isolates were identified based on their morphological characteristics and 16S rDNA sequences. As a result, two bacteria isolates coded as Isolate 6 and Isolate 8 were able to degrade diesel oil up to 52.29% and 39.24% after 20 days of incubation. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed that it was identified as Bacillus sp. strain UMTFA1 (RB) and Staphylococcus kloosii strain UMTFA2 (RS). Our result showed that these strains have the potential in oil-degrading processes, which will provide new insight into bioremediation process and decrease environmental pollution in soil and water contaminated with hydrocarbons.
Hiroko Seki
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 16, pp 110-118; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.585

Recently, the popularity of scallops consumption and the preference to eat them raw have been increasing worldwide. Therefore, maintaining its freshness and quality is important. It is necessary to investigate the changes in quality, particularly umami-related component parameters and perform a comprehensive evaluation to assess scallop quality over time. In this study, the distinction in the abundance of microorganisms, K value, pH, color value, glycogen content, and ATP-related compound levels (i.e., ATP, ADP, AMP, IMP, HxR, Hx, and glutamic acid levels) were investigated to determine the quality of Ezo giant scallops. The parameters were evaluated every day for six days at 4°C post mortem of the scallops. The total viable aerobic count of marine bacteria increased from 1 to 3 log CFU/g over six days, and the K value increased sharply from 18% on day 2 to 66% on day 4. The pH decreased from 7.0 on day 0 to 6.0 on day 3, but the color value did not change during the six days of observation. The AMP content increased over three days and then decreased during the last three days of storage. IMP was not detected; meanwhile, the glycogen and glutamic acid levels were stable during the observation. Based on these results, the best recommendation is to serve the refrigerated scallops as sashimi for not more than two days and cook by the third day to preserve the quality.
Rosa Amalia, , Agus Sabdono, Ocky Karna Radjasa
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 16, pp 65-74; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.536

The coral reefs’ condition in most regions in Indonesia has been declining due to coral diseases, such as Brown Band Disease (BrBD). A treatment for BrBD involves the use of biological control agents that have antagonistic properties against disease-causing agents. This study aimed to isolate bacteria from healthy hard coral, those associated with BrBD, and those that had bioactivities against BrBD. Sampling and identification of corals and BrBD were carried out in March 2015 at the Marine National Park of Karimunjawa. Bacteria from healthy and infected corals were isolated and purified. The isolates were subjected to antipathogenic assay using overlay and agar diffusion methods. Finally, molecular identification of active bacteria was carried out using the 16S rRNA gene amplification. As many as 57 bacterial isolates were obtained from healthy coral, as well as four bacterial isolates from coral with BrBD symptoms. A total of 15 bacterial isolates (26%) showed antipathogenic activity against BrBD-associated bacteria. Three isolates with the strongest antipathogenic activities, i.e., GAMSH 3, KASH 6, and TAPSH 1 were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequences. The results showed that they were aligned to Virgibacillus marismortui (97%), Oceanobacillus iheyensis (97%), and Bacillus cereus (96%), respectively.
Izhamil Hidayah, Hedi Indra Januar, Dwiyitno Dwiyitno, Nining Betawati Prihantini
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 16, pp 75-82; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.505

Cirebon has 18 rivers that flow into the Java Sea. The Cirebon rivers play an important role in several sectors such as industrial, agriculture, household, and also aquaculture. The increasing anthropogenic activities, may have affected the health and quality of the Cirebon rivers and the surrounding area. This study aimed to determine the water pollution level of Cirebon rivers based on the Storage and Retrieval (STORET) and Pollution Index approaches. The study was conducted at seven different rivers located in the districts (kabupaten) and municipals (kotamadya) of Cirebon. The observation was performed during the end of the west monsoon (March 2019) as well as the beginning (July 2019) and the end of the east monsoon (November 2019). The STORET score of the Cirebon district rivers were between -10 and -20, which is categorized as lightly to moderately polluted. Similarly, most of the Cirebon municipal rivers were moderately contaminated throughout the year (-18 to -30). In contrast, the Pollution Index (PI) values of all observed rivers were between 1.0 to 5.0 which are categorized as lightly polluted.
Sihono Sihono, Bagus Sediadi Bandol Utomo, Nurhayati Nurhayati
Squalen Bulletin of Marine and Fisheries Postharvest and Biotechnology, Volume 16, pp 83-92; https://doi.org/10.15578/squalen.525

Two species of Caulerpa, locally known as “Pedesan” and “Latuh” have been traditionally consumed by coastal communities at Binuangeun, Banten. This study aimed to identify “Pedesan” and “Latuh” using the DNA barcoding method and to evaluate their nutrient and heavy metal contents. Fatty acids were determined by Gas Chromatography Flame Ionization Detector (GC FID), amino acids using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC), and minerals using Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP OES). Based on the tufA gene sequences, the “Pedesan” was identified as Caulerpa racemosa var. macrophysa and “Latuh” as Caulerpa chemnitzia. Thirteen fatty acids were detected in C. racemosa var. macrophysa and twelve fatty acids in C. chemnitzia. Of the total fatty acid content, C. racemosa var. macrophysa contained 41.0% unsaturated fatty acids, dominated by linolenic acid and eicosapentaenoic acid. Meanwhile, C. chemnitzia contained 47.5%, dominated by oleic acid. Both seaweeds contained fatty acids with the w6/w3 ratio lower than 10, which could prevent heart disease risk based on World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation. The primary amino acids content in C. racemosa var. macrophysa were glutamic acid, alanine, serine and aspartic acid, while those in C. chemnitzia were glutamic acid, serine, aspartic acid, and glycine. The high content of glutamic acid in both samples indicated their potential use as food flavor enhancer. The Na/K ratio of C. racemosa var. macrophysa (40.31) and C. chemnitzia (27.48) were higher than those recommended by WHO. Heavy metals were not detected in either “Pedesan” nor “Latuh”, indicating that they are safe for consumption.
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