Advances in Geosciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 2163-3967 / 2163-3975
Published by: Hans Publishers (10.12677)
Total articles ≅ 867
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敏郑 志
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 711-716; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.116066

Abstract:
地貌景观是在成因上彼此相关的各种地表形态的组合。珠三角地区地质条件复杂,在地球演化过程中,由于各种内外动力地质作用,形成了丰富多样、类型齐全的地质遗迹资源。珠三角地貌景观类地质遗迹不仅有重要的科学研究价值,还有极高的美学价值和旅游开发价值。本文对区内31处地貌景观类地质遗迹进行梳理发现,位于国家级公园(景区)、省级公园(景区)、市县级公园(景区)内的地貌景观类地质遗迹分别有15处、4处、3处,占总量的71%,区内的地貌景观类地质遗迹得到了较好的旅游开发。 Geomorphologic landscape is a combination of various surface forms that are related to each other in origin. The Pearl River Delta region is characterized by complex geological conditions. Due to various internal and external dynamic geological processes in the process of earth evolution, rich and diverse geological relic resources of various types have been formed. The geomorphological and landscape geological relics in the Pearl River Delta are not only of great scientific value, but also of high aesthetic value and tourism development value. The 31 geomorphic landscape geological relics in the area can be divided into 5 categories and 13 subcategories, among which 15, 4 and 3 geomorphic landscape geological relics are located in national parks (scenic spots), provincial parks (scenic spots) and municipal and county parks (scenic spots), accounting for 71% of the total. It can provide a good reference value for the study and utilization of geomorphic geological relics in other areas.
明丁 永
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 717-728; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.116067

Abstract:
“4•25”尼泊尔Ms8.1级地震导致我国西藏自治区日喀则市受灾严重,根据西藏国土部门汇总灾害排查数据分析研究发现:日喀则市境内17个县(区)滑坡灾害共计206处,其分布极不均匀,其中亚东县、吉隆县、仁布县和定结县数量较多,占比达到73.3%。研究发现坡度、坡向和高程对于滑坡灾害分布影响明显,滑坡灾害密度在15°~30°范围内密度最大,且其敏感性系数值在该坡度上最大,坡度与滑坡数量呈一阶累计和变维分形关系;滑坡在各坡向上分布明显不同,其中在东南方向上数量最多,而在北坡和西南坡滑坡数量最少,滑坡坡向与滑坡灾害数量呈一阶累计和变维分形关系;滑坡在在高程3000~5000 m范围内滑坡数量分布最多,占总量的79.6%。高程越低,其滑坡灾害密度越大。滑坡的坡向与其在该坡向上分布的滑坡灾害数量呈二阶累计和变维分形关系。高程越低,滑坡在该高程上敏感性系数值越大,说明滑坡灾害在该高程上越敏感,研究成果可以为日喀则市灾后重建和灾后次生地质灾害监测预警提供参考。 The “4.25” Nepal Ms8.1 earthquake caused serious disasters in Shigatse City, Tibet Autonomous Region of China. According to the data analysis of disaster investigation collected by Tibetan ter-ritorial departments, it is found that: There were 206 landslide hazards in 17 counties (districts) in Shigatse City. The distribution of landslide hazards was extremely uneven. Among them, East Asia, Jilong, Renbu and Dingjie counties account for 73.3%. It was found that the gradient, direc-tion and elevation have obvious effects on the distribution of landslide hazards. Landslide hazard density was the highest in the range of 15~30 degrees, and its sensitivity coefficient value was the largest on the gradient. The gradient and the number of landslides show a first-order cumulative and variable-dimensional fractal relationship. The distribution of landslides was obviously different in each slope direction, in which the number of landslides was the largest in the southeast, while the number of landslides was the smallest in the north and southwest slopes. The relationship between slope direction and the number of landslide disasters was first-order cumulative and variable fractal. The number of landslides was the largest in the range of 3000~5000 m, accounting for 79.6% of the total. The lower the elevation, the greater the density of landslide hazards, the direction of landslides had a second-order cumulative and variable-dimensional fractal relationship with the number of landslide hazards distributed on the slope. The lower the elevation is, the greater the sensitivity coefficient of landslide is. This indicates that landslide hazards are more sensitive at this elevation. The research results can provide reference for post-disaster reconstruction and monitoring and early warning of secondary geological hazards in Shigatse City.
龙李 春
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 756-768; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.116070

Abstract:
为了分析当今高速远程滑坡学科领域的发展趋势及目前研究现状,以“高速远程滑坡”为主题词,通过citespacV和Bicomb文献分析软件对1993~2019年CNKI中国知网搜集到的259条文献数据进行可视化分析。研究结果表明:1) 高速远程滑坡领域的研究历经了发展停滞期、高速增长期和快速下降期三个阶段,该研究领域引起学者重视时期较晚,目前该领域的研究处于平稳发展状态。2) 许强、殷跃平、程谦恭和吴树仁等学者是该领域的核心研究人员,他们形成了四足鼎立的局面,其发文量占总数的21.23%。中国地质科学院地质力学研究所和成都理工大学是该领域内的核心机构。而研究机构方面则更加的集中,形成两家独大的局面,领域内其他机构作者总体发文量不高,就整体合作情况来看,已初步形成以上述两家机构为核心的网络框架。3) “稳定性”、“成因机制”、“数值模拟”、“滑坡碎屑流”、“成灾模式”为近几年的主要研究热点词汇,相关学者在该领域取得了一系列的研究成果。本文研究结果可以为读者清晰梳理高速远程滑坡研究近年来的研究成果及研究热点,并追溯高速远程滑坡发展演化进程,从而为相关学者追踪该领域近期热点及未来发展趋势提供参考。 In order to analyze the development trend and current research status of the subject of high-speed remote landslide, the title of “high-speed remote landslide” was adopted to conduct a visual analysis of 259 data collected by CNKI from 1993 to 2019 through citespacV and Bicomb literature analysis software. The results show that: 1) The research in the field of high-speed remote landslide has gone through three stages: stagnation period, rapid growth period and rapid decline period. The research in this field has attracted the attention of scholars for a relatively late period, and the current research in this field is in a stable development state. 2) Xu Qiang, Yin Yueping, Cheng Jiangong, Wu Shuren and other scholars are the core researchers in this field. They form a four-legged situation, and their publications account for 21.23% of the total. The Institute of Geomechanics of the Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences and Chengdu University of Technology are the core institutions in this field. As for the research institutions, they are more concentrated, forming a situation in which the two institutions are the only one. The total amount of articles published by other institutions in the field is not high. As for the overall cooperation, a network framework with the two institutions as the core has been preliminarily formed. 3) “Stability”, “genetic mechanism”, “numerical simulation”, “landslide debris flow” and “disaster mode” are the main research hotspots in recent years, and relevant scholars have made a series of research achievements in this field. The research results of this paper can clearly sort out the research achievements and hot spots of high-speed remote landslide research in recent years, and trace the development and evolution process of high-speed remote landslide, so as to provide references for relevant scholars to track the recent hot spots and future development trend of this field.
卢 楠
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 808-813; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.116075

Abstract:
类金属砷(As)及其化合物被世界卫生组织国际癌症研究机构列为一类致癌物。As具有亲煤特性,煤层作为As的重要载体,因煤炭开采导致类金属砷(As)对矿区周边土壤的污染及其修复是值得关注的课题。本文对目前国内外学者对煤矿区环境介质中不同形态As的来源、分布、迁移转化等进行解析,为创新探索研究方向,控制污染物来源,限制传播途径、制定环保策略等提供重要依据。 Arsenic was a kind of metal element. Arsenic and its compounds were listed as a kind of carcino-gen by the International Cancer Research Institute of the World Health Organization. Because the coal affinity of As, coal seam was an important carrier. The pollution of arsenic (As) to the soil around the mining area caused by coal mining and its remediation was a subject worthy of attention. This paper analyzes the source, distribution, migration and transformation of different forms of As in the environmental media of coal mining area by domestic and foreign scholars, which provided an important basis for innovating and exploring the research direction, controlling the source of pollutants, limiting the transmission path, and formulating environmental protection strategies.
昊梁 建
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 842-853; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.116079

Abstract:
汉江作为长江最大的支流,其曲流发育,沉积环境多变,与人类生产生活息息相关,在沉积研究的相关课题中对于长江与黄河的研究很充分,但是对于汉江的相关研究明显是不足的,因此深入解剖汉江不仅仅具有地质意义,还对于人类社会生产生活具有一定的指导意义。粒度特征是河流以及湖泊沉积物最基本的物理特征,通过粒度特征得到的粒度曲线是沉积环境分析的重要参考标志。本次研究利用汉江蔡甸段34个沉积物粒度资料,采用图解法对沉积物展开粒度参数分析,并综合粒度概率累积曲线分析以及C-M图对汉江蔡甸段进行分析得出:汉江蔡甸段具有典型的曲流河特征,其上游沉积物分选性较好,沉积期环境较稳定;下游沉积物分选性中等,沉积期环境不稳定,这可能是一定的流水作用导致了分选变差。粒度主要集中在粗粒部分,粒度分布曲线中粒度相对集中。其概率累积曲线都呈现“两段式”的特征,跳跃总体只发育一段,缺少牵引总体,表明研究区总体上的沉积物以跳跃总体为主;从上至下细截点向右移动,体现出上游研究区的沉积物整体粒度要大于下游研究区的沉积物,在汉江蔡甸段的曲流部分与顺直部分采集的沉积物其粒度数据受到环境控制明显,但是粒度数据受到了下游沉积物中的云母等沉积物的影响,因此分析河流沉积物粒度特征时需要从多个方法,多个方面,多个角度去解释。 As the largest tributary of the Yangtze River, Hanjiang is a typical meander. The sedimentary en-vironment of Hanjiang is highly varied, and plays an important role to human life. The researches on the Yangtze River and the Yellow River are very adequate, but the relevant research on Hanjiang is obviously inadequate. Therefore, in-depth dissection of Hanjiang does not only have geological significance, but also has certain guiding significance for human social production activities. The particle size is the most basic physical characteristics of rivers and lake deposits. The particle size curve obtained by granularity characteristics is an important reference sign of deposition environmental analysis. This study uses 34 deposit particle size data of Caidian segment of Hanjiang. Graphical method is used to obtain particle size parameters of sediments. Integrating the analyzation of probability cumulative curve and the analyzation of C-M diagram, the result of the study on Caidian segment of Hanjiang is as following: Caidian segment of Hanjiang has typical meander characteristics, the upstream sediment sorting is good, the deposition period is relatively stable; the downstream sediment sorting is medium, the deposition period is unstable, which may be a certain amount of flow of water results in the deterioration. The particle size is mainly concentrated in the coarse portion, and the particle size in the particle size distribution curve is relatively concentrated. Its probability accumulation curve shows a two-stage characteristic. The jumping portion is only developed one, and no pulling portion is developed, indicating that deposits in the research area are mainly based on the jumping portion. Cut point T moves to the right from the top, indicating that the overall particle size of the upstream research area is coarser than the sediments of the downstream research area. The particle size data of the sediments collected in Caidian segment of Hanjiang is remarkably controlled by sediment environment. However, the particle size data is affected by particular sediments such as mica in downstream sediments. Thus to analyze and to explain particle characteristics of fluvial sediment need to integrate multiple methods and aspects.
健肖 健
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 921-929; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.117087

Abstract:
庙背垅地区位于诸广山岩体中段鹿井铀矿田南部,也是重要的铀成矿区。通过对区内控矿构造基本特征、构造岩及蚀变分带特征、构造控矿及铀矿化特征进行研究,探讨了构造–岩浆活动与铀成矿成因关系,认为庙背垅铀矿床属于中低温热液充填交代成因矿床,且密切与煌斑岩脉、辉绿岩脉等基性岩脉密切相关,提出了本区新的找矿方向及思路。 Miaobeilong area is located in the south of Lujing uranium deposit in the middle of Zhuguang Mountain rock mass, and is also an important uranium metallogenic area. Based on the study of the basic characteristics of ore-controlling structure, tectonite and alteration zoning, structural ore-controlling and uranium mineralization characteristics, the relationship between tecton-ic-magmatic activity and uranium mineralization is discussed. It is considered that Miaobeilong uranium deposit belongs to medium-low temperature hydrothermal filling metasomatic deposit, and is closely related to basic dikes such as lamprophyre veins and diabase veins. A new pros-pecting direction and idea in this area are proposed.
李 健
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 879-884; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.116082

Abstract:
通过对新疆A地区烃源岩干酪根样品有机质类型显微组分特征研究,确定生烃方向和生烃潜力,对页岩油气资源进行潜力评价。结果表明:TI ≥ 80的I型干酪根有4件,占比2.21%;40 By studying the characteristics of the organic matter types of the source rock kerogen samples in area A of Xinjiang, the hydrocarbon generation direction and potential are determined, and the potential of shale oil and gas resources is evaluated. The results show that: Type I kerogen has 8 cases of TI ≥ 80, accounting for 4.04%; Type II1 kerogen has 77 cases of 40 < TI < 80, accounting for 38.89%; Type II2 kerogen has 69 cases of 40 < TI < 80, accounting for 34.85%; Type III kerogen has 44 cases of TI < 0, accounting for 22.22%. The sample source rock has good organic matter type and contains a large amount of sapropel type, sapropel-mixed type. The whole sample is mainly type II, not only can form oil, but also form a lot of gas, that oil and gas; Type III secondly, the hydrocarbon generation capacity is relatively poor, mainly the formation of gaseous hydrocarbons; the content of I type the least.
邹 宇
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 885-891; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.116083

Abstract:
重晶石是新晃县优势矿产,也是我省的优势非金属矿产资源之一。本文分析了凉伞地区几个典型重晶石矿矿床地质特征及找矿标志,对研究区重晶石矿床进行了综合评价,为将来的选区立项提供科学指导。 Barite is the superior mineral resource in Xinhuang County, and is also one of the superior non-metallic mineral resources in our province. In this paper, the geological characteristics and prospecting indicators of several typical barite deposits in Liangsan area are analyzed, and the comprehensive evaluation of the barite deposits in the study area is carried out, which provides scientific guidance for the project establishment in the future.
均侯 圣
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 590-600; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.115054

Abstract:
类岩堆体隧道边坡稳定性是山区高速公路设计和建设中的关键问题之一,且由于西部交通的需求迫切需要解决。本文设计了由钢结构和有机玻璃构成的模型试验装置,并开展了类岩堆体隧道边坡开挖和降雨下的稳定性相似试验,试验装置尺寸为1.6 m × 1.2 m × 0.6 m。基于相似理论,土体和块石按实际级配随机混合浇筑成类岩堆体隧道边坡体。试验结果表明:1) 降雨相比单一的开挖对类岩堆体隧道边坡的影响更加显著,水平位移和竖直位移表现出同样的规律;2) 竖直位移随着开挖深度逐渐减小,且没有出现位移突变的情况;3) 在降雨条件下的破坏多为拉裂–滑动破坏。 The stability of talus-type rock mass slope is one of the key problems in the design and construc-tion of expressway in mountain area, and it is urgent to be solved due to the needs of west trans-portation. In this paper, a model setup is designed to carry out a reduced scale model test of ta-lus-type rock mass slope stability. The dimension of the model tank is 1.6 m long, 1.2 m high and 0.6 m wide, respectively. And it is mainly constructed by thick perspex and fixed steel plates. Based on the similarity theorems, model soil and rock debris are mixed stochastically to simulate talus-type slope of a typical tunnel slope. The model test results show that: 1) rainfall compared with single excavation has a significant effect on the stability of talus-type slope, and the horizontal and vertical displacements caused by rainfall are both much larger than those caused by just excavation; 2) in addition, the vertical displacement reduces with the increase of depth from the ground surface and few local slumps occur on the excavating slope; 3) the failure mode is usually tension-sliding under rainfall state.
双张 群
Published: 1 January 2021
Advances in Geosciences, Volume 11, pp 614-623; https://doi.org/10.12677/ag.2021.115057

Abstract:
北特鲁瓦油田是岩性–构造双重控制的多断块边底水油气藏,具有低孔低渗、地层压力低、易压窜底水层等改造难题。通过对该油田多井开采层含水变化情况进行分析,得出油水预测界面,对比以往安全压裂改造规模与油水纵向距离间的关系,结合地应力解释和裂缝模拟等深入研究,最后针对H817井提出连续油管水力喷砂射孔环空酸压工艺改造方案,酸化和酸压同井实施,同时采用水力喷射、组合酸、多级交替注入等集成技术模式,顺利完成14段酸化作业,取得了多项成果,如区域内相同段数规模下施工周期最短,施工后自喷生产,日产液过百方,日产气过万方。该井解决方案解决了多项改造难题,为同类井提供了技术参考。 North Trova oilfield is a multi-fault block edge and bottom water reservoir controlled by lithology and structure, which has some difficult problems, such as low porosity and low permeability, low formation pressure, easy pressure channeling bottom water layer and so on. Through the analysis of the water cut change of the multi-well production layer in the oil field, the oil-water prediction interface is obtained, and the relationship between the previous safe fracturing transformation scale and the oil-water vertical distance is compared, combined with in-depth study of in-situ stress interpretation and fracture simulation. Finally, the modification scheme of coiled tubing hydraulic sandblasting perforation annular acid fracturing process is put forward for H817 well, and acidizing and acid fracturing are carried out in the same well. At the same time, the integrated technical modes such as hydraulic injection, combined acid and multi-stage alternating injection were adopted, and 14 sections of acidizing operation were successfully completed, and a number of achievements were obtained, such as the shortest construction period under the same number of sections in the region, self-spraying production after construction, daily production of more than 100 square meters of liquid, daily production of gas of more than ten thousand square meters. The solution of this well solves a number of reconstruction problems and provides a technical reference for similar wells.
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