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ISSN / EISSN : 1314-4057 / 1314-4049
Published by: Pensoft Publishers (10.3897)
Total articles ≅ 424
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Qin Yang, Jie Tang, Guo Y. Zhou
Published: 18 October 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 84, pp 15-33; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.84.71701

Abstract:
Tea-oil tree (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is an important edible oil woody plant with a planting area over 3,800,000 hectares in southern China. Species of Diaporthe inhabit a wide range of plant hosts as plant pathogens, endophytes and saprobes. At present, relatively little is known about the taxonomy and genetic diversity of Diaporthe on C. oleifera. Here, we conducted an extensive field survey in Hunan Province in China to identify and characterise Diaporthe species associated with tea-oil leaf spots. As a result, eleven isolates of Diaporthe were obtained from symptomatic C. oleifera leaves. These isolates were studied by applying a polyphasic approach including morphological and phylogenetic analyses of partial ITS, cal, his3, tef1 and tub2 gene regions. Two new Diaporthe species (D. camelliae-oleiferae and D. hunanensis) were proposed and described herein, and C. oleifera was revealed to be new host records of D. hubeiensis and D. sojae. This study indicated there is a potential of more undiscovered Diaporthe species from C. oleifera in China.
, Rogério Louro, , Tânia Nobre
Published: 18 October 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 84, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.84.71372

Abstract:
Developing below the soil surface desert, truffles are hard to find. Within Terfezia genus, at least 18 species are described and many are endemic to the Mediterranean basin. Ecological and geographic information are key factors for species diagnosis, and so far Terfezia species are believed to be linked to either acidic or basic soils or to specific plant hosts. Thus, we have looked at Terfezia diversity within a relatively homogeneous geographical area in Portugal that is suitable for these species and that covered different soils and different dominant host species. We analyzed the observed intraspecific variability within the context of species ecological preferences (e. g. edaphic and putative host). One of our major findings was the discovery of T. grisea in acid soils in association with Tuberaria guttata, a puzzling information since, until now, this species was only found in alkaline soils. We also report on the linkage of different Terfezia lineages within species and ecologic parameters such as soil texture, soil pH and plant host. Additionally, by placing the collected specimens on the most recent genus phylogeny based on the ITS region, we also updated the number of known Terfezia species occurring in Portugal from three to ten. Terfezia dunensis is here reported for the first time for Portugal. Overall, our results show that the exploration of undersampled sites reveals itself as a good strategy to disclose unknown aspects of desert truffle diversity and ecology. These aspects are of prime importance when considering the economic value of the desert truffles for rural populations in the Mediterranean basin.
, Xiuyu Zhang, Hongli Si, Guoyan Zhao, Xiaowen Yuan, Tengteng Liu, Tanay Bose, Meixue Dai
Published: 13 October 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 83, pp 181-208; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.83.70925

Abstract:
Cryphalus piceae attacks various economically important conifers. Similar to other bark beetles, Cr. piceae plays a role as a vector for an assortment of fungi and nematodes. Previously, several ophiostomatoid fungi were isolated from Cr. piceae in Poland and Japan. In the present study, we explored the diversity of ophiostomatoid fungi associated with Cr. piceae infesting pines in the Shandong Province of China. We isolated ophiostomatoid fungi from both galleries and beetles collected from our study sites. These fungal isolates were identified using both molecular and morphological data. In this study, we recovered 175 isolates of ophiostomatoid fungi representing seven species. Ophiostoma ips was the most frequently isolated species. Molecular and morphological data indicated that five ophiostomatoid fungal species recovered were previously undescribed. Thus, we proposed these five novel species as Ceratocystiopsis yantaiensis, C. weihaiensis, Graphilbum translucens, Gr. niveum, and Sporothrix villosa. These new ophiostomatoid fungi add to the increasing number of fungi known from China, and this evidence suggests that numerous novel taxa are awaiting discovery in other forests of China.
Jia-Jun Hu, Gui-Ping Zhao, Yong-Lan Tuo, Dan Dai, Di-Zhe Guo, Gu Rao, Zheng-Xiang Qi, Zhen-Hao Zhang, Yu Li, Bo Zhang
Published: 27 September 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 83, pp 161-180; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.83.72325

Abstract:
Cordyceps species are notable medicinal fungi in China, which are pathogenic on insects and exhibit high biodiversity in tropical and subtropical regions. Recently, three new Cordyceps species, Cordyceps changchunensis and Cordyceps jingyuetanensis growing on pupae of Lepidoptera and Cordyceps changbaiensis growing on larvae of Lepidoptera, were found in Jilin Province, China and are described, based on morphological and ecological characteristics. These three new species are similar to the Cordyceps militaris group, but are distinctly distinguishable from the known species. Cordyceps changchunensis, characterised by its small and light yellow to orange stromata which is occasionally forked, covered with white mycelium at the base of stipe, globose to ovoid perithecia, is macroscopically similar to Cordyceps militaris. Cordyceps changbaiensis is clearly discriminated from other Cordyceps species by its white to orange and branched stromata, clavate to cylindrical fertile apical portion, immersed and globose to ovoid perithecia. Moreover, unbranched, clavate and orange to light red stromata, almond-shaped to ovoid and immersed perithecia separate Cordyceps jingyuetanensis from other Cordyceps species. nrITS, nrLSU and EF-1α sequences were undertaken and phylogenetic trees, based on Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analysis showed that the three new species clustered with Cordyceps militaris, but formed individual clades, as well as confirmed the results of our morphological study.
Qian-Xin Guan, Yi-Fei Li,
Published: 20 September 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 83, pp 145-160; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.83.69909

Abstract:
Wood-inhabiting fungi play crucial roles as decomposers in forest ecosystems and, in this study, two new wood-inhabiting corticioid fungi, Hyphoderma puerense and H. tenuissimum spp. nov., are proposed, based on a combination of morphological features and molecular evidence. Hyphoderma puerense is characterised by effused basidiomata with smooth to floccose hymenial surface, a monomitic hyphal system with clamped generative hyphae and ellipsoid basidiospores. Hyphoderma tenuissimum is characterised by resupinate basidiomata with tuberculate to minutely-grandinioid hymenial surface, septate cystidia and cylindrical to allantoid basidiospores. Sequences of ITS and nLSU rRNA markers of the studied samples were generated and phylogenetic analyses were performed with Maximum Likelihood, maximum parsimony and Bayesian Inference methods. These analyses showed that the two new species clustered into Hyphoderma, in which H. puerense grouped with H. moniliforme and H. tenuissimum formed a singleton lineage. In addition, an identification key to Chinese Hyphoderma is provided.
Aurora Cobos-Villagrán, Ricardo Valenzuela, César Hernández-Rodríguez, Rosa Paulina Calvillo-Medina, Lourdes Villa-Tanaca, , Abigail Pérez-Valdespino, César Ramiro Martínez-González, Tania Raymundo
Published: 14 September 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 83, pp 123-144; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.83.68582

Abstract:
The genus Rhytidhysteron is characterised by forming navicular to apothecial hysterothecia, exposing the green, yellow, orange, red, vinaceous or black colours of the hymenium which generally releases pigments in the presence of KOH. The exciple is smooth or striated, the asci bitunicate and ascospores have 1–5 transverse septa. To date, twenty-six Rhytidhysteron species have been described from the Tropics. The present study aims to describe three new species in the Neotropics of Mexico based on molecular methods and morphological features. Illustrations and a taxonomic key are provided for all known species of this genus. Rhytidhysteron cozumelense from the Isla Cozumel Biosphere Reserve, R. esperanzae from the Sierra Juárez, Oaxaca and R. mesophilum from the Sierra Madre Oriental, Hidalgo are described as new species. With the present study, the number of species of Rhytidhysteron known from Mexico is now increased to eight.
Hong-Li Si, Yue-Min Su, Xiao-Xiao Zheng, Meng-Yao Ding, Tanay Bose,
Published: 9 September 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 83, pp 105-121; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.83.71140

Abstract:
Lichens are the result of a symbiotic interaction between fungi (mycobionts) and algae (phycobionts). Aside from mycobionts, lichen thalli can also contain non-lichenised fungal species, such as lichenicolous and endolichenic fungi. For this study, three surveys were conducted in China’s Yunnan Province and Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region between 2017 and 2020. Several samples of four lichen species were collected during these surveys: Candelaria fibrosa, Flavoparmelia caperata, Flavopunctelia flaventior and Ramalina sinensis. Six isolates of Coniochaeta were recovered from these four lichen species. The phylogenetic and morphological analyses revealed that two of these isolates were previously identified species, Coniochaeta velutinosa and C. acaciae. Those remaining were from potentially unknown species. We used molecular and morphological data to describe these previously-unknown species as Coniochaeta fibrosae sp. nov., C. mongoliae sp. nov. and C. sinensis sp. nov. The findings of this study significantly improve our understanding of the variety and habitat preferences of Coniochaeta in China and globally.
Gu Rao, Dan Dai, Hui-Nan Zhao, Yi Liang, Yu Li, Bo Zhang
Published: 8 September 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 83, pp 85-103; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.83.71405

Abstract:
In this study, Coprinopsis jilinensis and Coprinopsis pusilla were introduced, based on their morphological characteristics, the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and large subunit ribosomal (LSU) region sequences of nrDNA. These new psathyrelloid species were found in Jilin Province, China. Coprinopsis jilinensis has brown pileus, utriform pleurocystidia, brown, smooth, dextrinoid basidiospores and tiny pore. It mainly grows on humus. Coprinopsis pusilla has small basidiomata, greyish-white pileus, thick and distinct veil at edges, subcolourless and verrucose basidiospores. It is poreless and it grows on the decaying wood of broad-leaved trees. Both of them belong to the C. sect. Melanthinae. A supplementary description of C. sect. Melanthinae was given in combination with the newly-discovered taxa and an identification key to the fourteen psathyrelloid species of Coprinopsis is provided. Coprinopsis sect. Canocipes and C. sect. Quartoconatae were evaluated and the phylogenetic position of the psathyrelloid species of Coprinopsis was discussed. Psathyrella subagraria, as a confusing species, was also discussed in this study.
Yin Hui Pi, Si Han Long, You Peng Wu, Li Li Liu, Yan Lin, Qing De Long, Ji Chuan Kang, Ying Qian Kang, Chu Rui Chang, Xiang Chun Shen, et al.
Published: 24 August 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 83, pp 39-67; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.83.69906

Abstract:
During an investigation of Xylariaceae from 2019 to 2020, isolates representing eight Nemania (Xylariacese) species were collected from Yunnan, Guizhou and Hainan Provinces in China. Morphological and multi-gene phylogenetic analyses, based on combined ITS, α-actin, rpb2 and β-tubulin sequences, confirmed that six of them are new to science, viz. Nemania camelliae, N. changningensis, N. cyclobalanopsina, N. feicuiensis, N. lishuicola and N. rubi; one is a new record (N. caries) for China and one is a known species (N. diffusa). Morphological descriptions and illustrations of all species are detailed. In addition, the characteristics of Nemania are summarised and prevailing contradictions in generic concepts are discussed.
Sihan Long, Lili Liu, Yinhui Pi, Youpeng Wu, Yan Lin, Xu Zhang, Qingde Long, Yingqian Kang, Jichuan Kang, , et al.
Published: 20 August 2021
MycoKeys, Volume 83, pp 1-37; https://doi.org/10.3897/mycokeys.83.68926

Abstract:
In this study, fungal specimens of the family Diatrypaceae were collected from karst areas in Guizhou, Hainan and Yunnan Provinces, China. Morpho-molecular analyses confirmed that these new collections comprise a new genus Pseudodiatrype, three new species (Diatrype lancangensis, Diatrypella pseudooregonensis and Eutypa cerasi), a new combination (Diatrypella oregonensis), two new records (Allodiatrype thailandica and Diatrypella vulgaris) from China and two other known species (Neoeutypella baoshanensis and Paraeutypella citricola). The new taxa are introduced, based on multi-gene phylogenetic analyses (ITS, β-tubulin), as well as morphological analyses. The new genus Pseudodiatrype is characterised by its wart-like stromata with 5–20 ascomata immersed in one stroma and the endostroma composed of thin black outer and inner layers of large white cells with thin, powdery, yellowish cells. These characteristics separate this genus from two similar genera Allodiatrype and Diatrype. Based on morphological as well as phylogenetic analyses, Diatrype lancangensis is introduced as a new species of Diatrype. The stromata of Diatrype lancangensis are similar to those of D. subundulata and D. undulate, but the ascospores are larger. Based on phylogenetic analyses, Diatrype oregonensis is transferred to the genus Diatrypella as Diatrypella oregonensis while Diatrypella pseudooregonensis is introduced as a new species of Diatrypella with 8 spores in an ascus. In addition, multi-gene phylogenetic analyses show that Eutypa cerasi is closely related to E. lata, but the ascomata and asci of Eutypa cerasi are smaller. The polyphyletic nature of some genera of Diatrypaceae has led to confusion in the classification of the family, thus we discuss whether the number of ascospores per asci can still be used as a basis for classification.
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