International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2394-6032 / 2394-6040
Published by: Medip Academy (10.18203)
Total articles ≅ 5,980
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Mousin M. Batt, Ravi K. Parihar, Mohammad I. Dar, Roshni Thappa
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222052

Abstract:
Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome corona virus‑2 (SARS‑CoV‑2) infection can lead to multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS‑C). This study was conducted to study epidemiology, clinical profile, treatment strategies associated in children with MIS‑C in a medical college hospital in North India. Methods: This is an observational study of children with MIS-C, admitted to paediatric intensive care unit between 01March 2021 and 31 August 2021 during the second wave of SARS‑CoV‑2 infection in India. Demographic and clinical data including laboratory parameters, treatment regimens, and outcomes were collected and analyzed. Results: Out of the 37 children presenting with MIS‑C, sixty two percent patients were male and 37% were female patients. Fever was the most common symptom seen in all patients. Gastrointestinal system dysfunction was the most common systemic involvement seen in 72% patients. Anaemia was the most common sign of haematological dysfunction. Shock was seen in 37.84% patients and myocarditis was seen in 24.32% patients. Inflammatory markers were elevated in majority of children. Vasoactive medications were required in 14 patients. Eighteen patients required respiratory support of which 17 received non-invasive ventilation and only 1 patient required invasive mechanical ventilation. Methyl prednisolone and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) were used in the majority of patients. No patient required remdesivir. Thirty-six patients were discharged home with a median duration of 4 days in paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and hospital stay of 10 days, only 1 (2.7%) patient died during the treatment. Conclusions: Combination of steroid and IVIG for the treatment of MIS-C, especially with shock and MODS reduce the duration of PICU stay than treated with steroid alone.
Ruth Abraham, Maneesha Planthottathukunnel Rajan, Safa Puliyakkadi
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222079

Abstract:
Background: Burnout as an occupational disease is of global concern. From the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) were under heavy workload conditions. The study was done to assess prevalence of burnout among HCWs of a tertiary care hospital in Central Kerala.Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among HCWs of a tertiary hospital using a simple random sampling method. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire through Google forms.Burnout was assessed using Copenhagen burnout inventory (CBI). Bivariate analysis was done to find the factors affecting burnout among the study participants using SPPS software. Results: The mean age of the study participants was 31.26±6.11 years and the majority were females 79 (70.5%). The prevalence of personal burnout, work related burnout and patient related burnout were 55.4%, 44.6% and 32.1% respectively. Those who were staying with family had higher chance of personal (p=0.004), work related (p=0.032) and patient related (p=0.023) burnout. HCWs who wear working in full personal protective equipment (PPE) kit had significantly higher personal (p=0.003, OR=3.4), work related (p<0.001, OR=5.2) and patient related (p=0.022, OR=3.01) burnout. HCWs who had done high proportion of COVID-19 related duty had significantly higher personal (p=0.018) and patient related (p=0.022) burnout. Conclusions: Almost half of the HCWs are physically and emotionally exhausted with their work, which needs to be addressed. Psychological interventions should be enhanced to reduce burnout among HCWs and to improve the quality of health care delivered by them during the pandemic.
Meisan A. Bukhari, Nouf A. A. Sultan, Naif K. Bin Fnais, Ibrahim M. Alyami, Nada G. Almalki, Adel F. Alharbi, Nouf A. Mansour, Yasser K. Alhawas, Saeed M. AlAbdulrahman, Ziyad H. Alharbi, et al.
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222054

Abstract:
Dental implant is on rise in today’s time and era due to its importance in improving quality of life of patients. However, the success of the dental implant is significantly associated with individuals’ medical condition. Immunocompromised patients due to their weak immunity are considered sensitive for any type of surgery as it can result in various complications. Similarly in case of placing dental implants in immunocompromised patients’ supreme care and attention is needed in order to avoid risk and hazardous consequences. Oral and maxillofacial surgeons see an increasing number of patients with immunocompromised conditions in their daily practice due to better long-term health care and new indications for immunosuppressive therapy. The aim of this research is to review the available information about the dental implants in immunocompromised patients. Despite the fact that certain diseases are still considered risk factors in the effectiveness of dental implants in immunocompromised patients, there are few definite contradictions in this treatment option. As a result, disease control of risk factors, as well as personal risk assessment prior to dental implant treatment, may be considered more important than the disease or risk factor itself. Presence of various diseases can raise the risk of treatment failure or side effects in case of dental implant. Majority of the studies support dental implants as reliable and safe option under utmost care in immunocompromised patients however, the literature is quite divided and scarce in this regard and future research can be beneficial to yield better outcome and treatment strategies.
Noora O. Rahimuddin, Wael K. Alanazi, Reham M. Alabdulhadi, Abdullah A. Alwakeel, Thamer A. Alanazi, Reem M. Alyousef, Abdullah M. Alzahrani, Fahad S. Aldhafeeri, Maram N. Alawad, Gaith A. Sabrah, et al.
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222053

Abstract:
The rate of obesity is on rise worldwide and almost 13% of the global population is obese leading to development of various other diseases and complications. Lack of effective outcome from conventional approach for weight control and loss is causing a transition among people to approach for bariatric surgeries. Sleeve gastrectomy is one of the surgical techniques of bariatric surgery aimed to achieve weight loss. Like any other surgical procedure, it also has certain post-operative complications associated with it. The complications of sleeve gastrectomy are further divided into early and late phase.The purpose of this research is to review the available information about early and late complication of sleeve gastrectomy. In the surgical treatment of morbid obesity, sleeve gastrectomy is the most widely performed bariatric procedure. It is a minimally invasive and risk-free surgery with a low risk of complications and death. The complication rates for early and late complication range from 5.4% to 7.3%, with incidence of serious complications ranging from 1.2% to 2.2%. Early complications include bleeding such as intraluminal or extraluminal, a leak in the staple line, and the formation of an abscess. While gastric stenosis, nutritional shortages, mediastinal pouch migration, and the development or worsening of gastroesophageal reflux disease are all late consequences. Older age, male sex, increased body mass index, smoking, and comorbidities are considered the risk factors for the development of complications of sleeve gastrectomy. Overall, sleeve gastrectomy is considered a safe and effective surgical weight loss technique.
Jonathan Vinay Jewel, Sonal Dhruw, Pritam Kumar Roy, Mounika Pydipalli, Anand Dixit, Pradeep Kumar Maurya
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, Volume 9, pp 3190-3196; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222023

Abstract:
Background: Fluoride has advantages but acts as a toxin if consumed in excess. It interferes with the normal process of enamel as well as bone formation leading to an increased risk of dental and skeletal fluorosis. This study was aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude and practices related to fluoride and fluorosis among the residents of fluoride endemic villages of Kondagaon, Central India. Methods: The study was carried out among 600 individuals aged 5 years and above. Each village was considered as a cluster. The number of participants from each village was determined based on proportionate sampling following which households in each village were selected based on systematic random sampling. Results: Among the participants one-fourth of the total participants (26%) had heard the term fluorosis, less than one-fourth (23.3%) responded that fluorosis is preventable, while more than three-fourths (77.7%) had no knowledge about fluoride prevention and mitigation programs of government. Also, the attitude of more than two-third of the individuals (70.3%) is negative towards the fluorosis control program. Conclusions: The knowledge, attitude and practices of the study were found to be very low. This suggests that more efforts have to be made at the grass-root level for creating awareness.
Sangeeta Girdhar, Anurag Chaudhary, Nahush R. Bansal, Prabhleen Kaur, Amanat Grewal
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, Volume 9, pp 3214-3218; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222026

Abstract:
Background: There is an increasing burden of hypertension in India. The complications arising from hypertension mainly occur due to non-adherence to pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions. Adherence to pharmacotherapy for hypertension varies from 43-88%. Various socio-demographic factors influence non-adherence. This study determined adherence to treatment among hypertensives and factors associated with non-adherence. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on hypertensive patients visiting OPD of an institutional urban health centre. A predesigned semi-structured questionnaire including socio-demographic profile, treatment-seeking behavior, adherence to medications, and lifestyle risk factors (smoking, intake of alcohol, junk food, and high salt diet) was applied. Reasons for non-adherence were also explored. Data were analyzed using SPSS 26 version. Results: A total of 186 individuals: 113 females (60.8%) and 73 males (39.2%), participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 60.9±10.7 years. Adherence to anti-hypertensive treatment was witnessed in 68.3% of patients. The adherence was noticed significantly (p=0.001) more in literate than illiterate subjects. Further, the adherence was lower among smokers (25%) and alcohol consumers (43.75%) as compared to non-users (70.22% and 73.37%, respectively; p<0.01). Discontinuation of medicine on feeling well, forgetfulness, and unawareness were predominant reasons for skipping medications. Conclusions: Non-adherence to the anti-hypertensives significantly adds to the disease burden. A deeper understanding of factors responsible for the non-adherence plays a pivotal role in addressing this issue and improving quality of life. Intensive health education and counseling of the patients is the need of the hour.
Titilope O. Charles-Eromosele, Kofoworola A. Odeyemi
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, Volume 9, pp 3067-3074; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222002

Abstract:
Background: The uptake of contraceptives is still low especially in rural areas in Sub-Saharan Africa. This study aimed to assess the effect of the use of community champions on knowledge, attitude and use of modern contraceptive among women of reproductive age group in rural local government areas in Lagos State. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was done among two groups. The study population were 399 women of reproductive age group per group who live in rural local government areas of Lagos state. The intervention group had community champions assigned to them while the control group did not. Multi-stage sampling method was done. It was a mixed method study. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaires and from family planning registers of the health facilities in the study areas. The data were analysed using the IBM statistical products and services solutions version 23. Results: Results at post-intervention showed that there was a significant increase in the percentage of respondents with good knowledge of modern contraceptive by 22.2% (p<0.05), positive attitude towards modern contraceptives by 10.4% (p<0.05) and current use of any method of modern contraceptive by 14.3% (p0.05). Conclusions: The study concluded that the use of community champions was an effective tool for improving knowledge, attitude and use of modern contraceptives.
Atiya A. Shaikh, Nimesh A. Gupta, Janki Banpel, Devaki Deshmukh, Saraswati Iyer
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, Volume 9, pp 3141-3145; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222014

Abstract:
Background: Aim of the study was to translate falls efficacy scale international (FES-I) in Marathi and to evaluate the translation on the basis of test-retest reliability, internal consistency, concurrent validity for elderly in Maharashtra. Methods: The study was divided in 2 phases. Phase 1: Translation of FES-I following translation back translation method following ProFane guidelines. Phase 2: Psychometric testing of the new version. In phase 1 translation in to Marathi and back. The 507 participants were included for the study. Activity specific balance scale was used to as a gold standard for criterion validity and Berg balance scale was used for construct validity. Results: Study had 53.3% of male and 43.7% of female participant. The validity (Cronbach alpha and ICC) and reliability (Spearman coefficient value) of the scale is excellent. Conclusions: FES-I (M) has excellent reliability and good validity. Hence this scale can be used to assess fear of falls in Maharashtrian elderly.
Hussain Alrand, Alya Harbi, , Mohamed Tawfik Eltabbakh, Lubna Al Shaali, Rasha E. Salama
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, Volume 9, pp 3274-3282; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222036

Abstract:
Background: COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown have the potential to influence the mental health of the frontline healthcare workers (HCWs), working in the time of crisis. Hence, it is essential to monitor the anxiety, sleep, along with the other mental health concerns to realize the interceding risk factors as well as to inform tailored interventions. This study therefore aims to detect the psychological impact of COVID-19 experienced by the healthcare professionals during the COVID-19 pandemic working in the Ministry of Health and Prevention (MOHAP) facilities. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out between 25 October 2020 to 30 September 2021 by recruiting 404 healthcare providers currently working in different hospitals of the MOHAP. Results: Of 404 healthcare workers, 76.7% were females and 23.3% were males. About 35.6% were aged 36-45 years. The majority of the participants were non-locals (84.4), 23.5% were doctors/physicians, and 58.7% were nurses, 7.7% were pharmacist, remaining were other healthcare providers. Overall, 10.6% and 3.2% of all healthcare workers reported severe symptoms of anxiety, and insomnia respectively. Only age, gender, qualification, worried about being infected with COVID-19 and likelihood of being infected from COVID-19 showed statistically significant results (p<0.05). Conclusions: The pandemic with respect to the COVID-19 tends to have a noteworthy impact on the mental health of healthcare workers. This evidence indicates that substantial proportion of healthcare workers may experience sleep disturbances and anxiety during the outbreak suggesting a necessity to indicating traditions of mitigating the risks of mental health and regulate interventions under pandemic situations.
Om Lokesh Muthamilan, Pragati Amit Hapani, Sakshi Beotra, Shashidar Kotian, Ishan Goyal
International Journal Of Community Medicine And Public Health, Volume 9, pp 3225-3229; https://doi.org/10.18203/2394-6040.ijcmph20222028

Abstract:
Background: In India, medical curricula have not been kept up to date with changes in public health, demography, and health policies. Clinicians serve as role models for students in medical colleges, and CM is not seen as an appealing career option by students. Hence this study was designed to analyze the perceptions and attitudes of medical undergraduates towards the relevance of CM as a future career option. Methods: This cross-sectional study was done in a Kasturba medical college, Manipal academy of higher education, located in Mangaluru, conducted especially for undergraduate medical students consisting of 440 medical students (MS) formulate this study population who belonged to different socio-demographic and regional backgrounds. Results: This study on the perceptions of the MS in LCM as part of their MBBS syllabus and their preference for the subject as a career path. Out of 440 MS, the rate of response was 100%. Among them, 237 (53.8%) were male and 203 (46.2%) were female. In our study, 93.9% showed a positive attitude in gaining skills to understand the research in their period of CM postings, 89.7% suggested having an understanding of concepts in CM followed by preventive measures against diseases (86.6%), the real-life health issues of the community Conclusions: The prime motive was a desire to pursue a career in clinical subjects, students must learn community medicine subjects as well, and they must be better informed about the chances were available for CM specialists to work with international, national and state healthcare organisations and research institutes.
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