Exposure and Health

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2451-9766 / 2451-9685
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1007)
Total articles ≅ 325
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Latest articles in this journal

Published: 29 September 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-19; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00505-0

The occurrence of major water contamination events across the world have been met with varying levels of policy responses. Arsenic—a priority water contaminant globally, occurring naturally in groundwater, causing adverse health effects—is widespread in Bangladesh. However, the policy response has been slow, and marked by ineffectiveness and a lack of accountability. We explore the delayed policy response to the arsenic crisis in Bangladesh through comparison with water contamination crises in other contexts, using the Multiple Streams Framework to compare policy processes. These included Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Campylobacter in Walkerton, Canada; lead and Legionella in Flint, Michigan, USA; and chromium-6 contamination in Hinkley, California, USA. We find that, while water contamination issues are solvable, a range of complex conditions have to be met in order to reach a successful solution. These include aspects of the temporal nature of the event and the outcomes, the social and political context, the extent of the public or media attention regarding the crisis, the politics of visibility, and accountability and blame. In particular, contaminants with chronic health outcomes, and longer periods of subclinical disease, lead to smaller policy windows with less effective policy changes. Emerging evidence on health threats from drinking water contamination raise the risk of new crises and the need for new approaches to deliver policy change.
, , Manus Carey, Paul Williams, Zhengyu Shi, Katrina Campbell, Christopher Elliott, Ernest Marwa, Xiao Jiujin, Júlia Gomes Farias, et al.
Published: 29 September 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00504-1

Despite the centrality of staple grains for human well-being, both as a source of nutrients and of toxic ions, there is little understanding of where and how elements vary, and if there are particular elements that correlate. Here, for shop bought polished (white) rice, we comprehensively characterized trace (arsenic species, cadmium, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, rubidium and zinc) and macro-nutrients (calcium, chlorine, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur) for grain purchased in 18 countries, across four continents, a total of 1045 samples. This was to investigate if there were any major differences between geographic location and elemental content, and to observe if there were any patterns in elemental distribution. Greatest variation in the median was observed for the non-essential rubidium (15-fold) and arsenic species (fivefold). Rubidium was the highest in the Americas, lowest in Europe, while inorganic arsenic (iAs) and dimethylarsonic acid (DMA) were low for Africa and high in the South American and European continents. The highest concentrations of cadmium were found in Asian samples, and lowest in South America, with variation within these regions. At the extremes of individual counties, China had fivefold higher concentrations than the global median, while Tanzania was fourfold lower than this value. Calcium, potassium, molybdenum and phosphorus were the highest in European and lowest in African grain, though the fold-differences were relatively low, ~ 0.2, while iron was the highest in African grain and lowest in European, Asian and South American grain, with a ~ twofold difference. Selenium was also higher in Africa versus other regions, and copper, manganese and zinc were the highest in American grain. Factor analysis showed that copper, cadmium, molybdenum, rubidium and selenium were strongly associated together, and these element’s factor loadings were diametrically opposed to less tightly associated calcium, chlorine, manganese, potassium, phosphorus and sulphur. Stepwise additions linear region analysis was performed on log-transformed concentrations to investigate cadmium associations in more detail. Selenium was the greatest predictor of cadmium concentration, followed by molybdenum, accounting for over 50% of the contribution to the adjusted R2. Arsenic species were only weakly correlated with other elements. The implications for these findings with respect to dietary nutrition are discussed. Vietnamese rice was notable in being deficient in macro- and micro-nutrients while also being elevated in cadmium at a median of 0.02 mg/kg, with China though still having a median that is ~ 2.5-fold this concentration. These Chinese concentrations are of particular concern as the 75th percentile for China is 0.1 mg/kg, a value that triggers regulatory action for rice products.
, Abdur Rahman, , Junaid Ghani, Zahid Ullah, Haris Khan, Muhammad Waqas
Published: 28 September 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00511-2

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, K. Norström, J. M. Weiss
Published: 26 September 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00507-y

The number of chemicals in the anthroposphere is increasing and some of them end up in humans. A literature search was made to assess which anthropogenic organic contaminants (OCs) that have been analysed in blood from the general population. The reviewed articles were used to create a database of studies [human blood database (HBDB), containing 559 OCs] reporting blood analyses made worldwide. All studies analysing blood from the Swedish population were compiled into a second database [Swedish exposure database (SEDB), containing 166 OCs] listing blood concentrations of OCs. Data from the SEDB showed decreasing levels of regulated chemicals in blood over time, indicating that regulation had made an impact. The Hazard Index (HI) approach was used as a qualitative mixture risk assessment of the OCs with established human biomonitoring guidance values (HBM-GVs) and blood levels in the SEDB. Nine HBM-GVs were found and the HI of the corresponding OCs/groups of OCs showed that a risk of adverse effects in the general population could not be excluded, which is a cause for concern considering that only a fraction of the analysed OCs in the SEDB were included. This study presents the OCs identified in human blood and concentration time trends. The study highlights the lack of HBM-GVs needed for mixture risk assessments to assess the combined risk of chemical exposure to the general population.
Xianjiang Zeng, , , Chen He, Quan Shi, Qiutong Shi, Meththika Vithanage
Published: 26 September 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00509-w

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Godagama Gamaarachchige Dinesh Suminda, Yunhui Min, Mangeun Kim, Yunji Heo, Kyoungtag Do,
Published: 19 August 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00502-3

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Annette E. Valdes, Aljoscha Wothke, Lanya Fanovich, Ryan S. Mohammed, Stanley Shea, Cindy González, Yong Cai, Demian Chapman
Published: 3 August 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00500-5

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Oluwatobi Kolawole, Simon A. Haughey, Sarah J. Miller, Rudolf Krska, Christopher T. Elliott
Published: 3 August 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-21; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00499-9

Globally, of all mycotoxins, aflatoxins present a significant threat to human and animal health and has resulted in the introduction of strict food regulatory limits to protect public health. A systematic review, was performed to elucidate the rationale applied in establishing aflatoxin standards and evaluate the economic impacts of these. The focus was peanuts, a principal trading commodity susceptible to aflatoxin contamination. Results revealed that although regulations are established in many countries, there is huge disparity in the maximum limits applied due to different methodologies used when considering exposure assessment. Moreover, in countries most affected by aflatoxin contamination in peanuts, few, if any standards exist. In the case of risk assessments, knowledge gaps identified include the impact of climate change on peanut aflatoxin contamination, the role of aflatoxins in child stunting, Kwashiorkor and immunomodulation and a lack of occurrence and exposure data in many developing countries from contaminated peanuts. Few quantitative studies evaluating the impact of aflatoxin regulations on trade exist and evidence is lacking in terms of what happens to exports that do not meet regulatory requirements. Evidence does suggest a lack of knowledge of the extent of the aflatoxin problem, associated health risks and mitigation strategies in developing countries. A hugely important factor that needs to be highlighted is that while there is a fundamental right for sufficient, safe, nutritious food, in many cases in low-income and lower middle-income countries there exists an incredibly difficult and complex trade-off between food security and food safety.
Xufeng Fei, Zhaohan Lou, Rui Xiao, Xiaonan Lv,
Published: 1 August 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00498-w

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
, Sanjida Akter Tanima, Bijoya Paul, Al Zahid, Humayun Kabir, Shamim Ahmed, Shankar Chandra Mandal, Anwar Hossain
Published: 29 July 2022
Exposure and Health pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1007/s12403-022-00501-4

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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