Public and Municipal Finance

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2222-1867 / 2222-1875
Published by: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 92
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DOAJ
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Khoirul Aswar, Ermawati, Wisnu Julianto
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 151-163; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.12

Abstract:
Public sector accounting reforms have resulted in crucial changes in accounting reporting by the government, namely the adoption of accrual accounting in the public sector. This study looks into the social factors that led to the Indonesian central government implementing accrual accounting reform. This study adopted a quantitative approach using purposive sampling. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) with PLS version 3.0 was used to analyze the data. The information for this study was gathered using a Google Form, which was used to send 70 questionnaires to government finance officials, chief accountants and auditors, and heads of accounting and auditing divisions in the Ministry of Finance. Seeing these social factors is expected to increase the effectiveness of the administration of accrual accounting implementation. The results showed that pressure from donors, pressure from the National Board of Accountants and Auditors (NBAA), political will, and audit process had an impact on the effectiveness of accrual accounting application (AAA). However, management change, regulatory matters, and a culture of transparency have no effect. In addition, the effective administration of AAA affects managerial accountability. This study implies that the effective application of accrual accounting depends on human-related concerns and culture. It is important to note that accrual accounting is more of a management reform that entails changes to bigger areas of institutional and accountability systems than merely adopting a new accounting technology.
, , Taras Kloba, Lev Kloba
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 138-150; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.11

Abstract:
An essential determinant of the economic growth of regions and amalgamated hromada is budgetary security, the weakening of which causes the strengthening of financial imbalances of territories and the emergence of budget risks and threats in different time lags. The paper aims to assess budgetary security of regions and amalgamated hromada in Ukraine in an unstable economy. The assessment of budgetary security and risks of areas and amalgamated hromada is carried out based on a multidimensional statistical analysis of budget indicators, calculation of the aggregate indicator of budget risks, and the level of budgetary security by a multiplicative method. The study sample included the regions of Ukraine and 22 amalgamated hromada in terms of cities of regional significance, urban, township, and rural territorial assemblies, which are represented by different areas in Ukraine. According to the assessment, Poltava, Kyiv, Zaporizhzhia, Dnipropetrovsk, and Mykolaiv oblasts are characterized by a low level of budget risks, which indicates high budget stability. On the other hand, the strengthening of budget imbalances, deterioration of the strength of local budgets, in particular in 2019–2020 in urban amalgamated hromada (Druzhbivska and Malovyskivska (6-8 points)); in village areas (Malynivska (5 points), Steblivska (7-7 points)); in rural amalgamated hromada (Chmyrivska (8-7 points)). The study results can serve as an analytical basis in the practice of local governments in the development and justification of regional and local budget policies, the nature of inter-budgetary relations, the formation of regional development strategies, etc. AcknowledgmentsThe study has been conducted within the framework of Applied Research “Financial determinants of the provision of economic growth in the regions and Amalgamated hromada based on the behavioral economy” with the support of the National Research Foundation of Ukraine (M. Dolishniy Institute of Regional Research of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, the Grant Reg. No. 2020.02/0215, 2020–2022).
, , , Yuliia Serpeninova, Giuseppe Sorrentino
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 119-137; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.10

Abstract:
2020 revealed the vulnerability of the healthcare systems in most countries. It also highlighted their failure to generate serious progress in the fulfillment of Sustainable Development Goal 3 (SDG 3): Ensure healthy lives and promote welfare for all at all ages. One of the key problems inhibiting its progress is the lack of financial resources. Based on a comprehensive meta-analysis of the literature related to SDG 3 and its investment, it aims to demonstrate that lack of appropriate academic support is a part of the failure to generate serious progress in the fulfillment of SDG 3. To do this academic literature published in the period 2010–2019 is analyzed. SciVal Elsevier, VosViewer, and Google Trends tools are applied for analysis. The results show that there is a significant interest in the academic circles on SDG 3 alone. However, this interest is concentrated toward its medical aspects while economic aspects, including investment, are poorly represented. This study shows that the reason for the current investment gap in SDG 3 is the lack of academic support to provide a theoretical, methodological, and analytical framework for tackling the financing problem for SDG 3.
Oleh Skorba, Tetyana Pasko, Viktoriia Babenko-Levada, Tetiana Tereshchenko
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 106-118; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.09

Abstract:
It is extremely important for the budget process to obtain accurate forecasts of potential tax revenues, especially in periods of disruption and crisis. The paper is devoted to the study of dynamics of tax revenues’ volumes in the budget of Ukraine and the forecast of their values during the crisis.The dynamics of tax revenues in the Consolidated Budget of Ukraine, studied by using randomized R|S-analysis, fractal and probabilistic analyses as well as entropy calculation based on the data on monthly tax revenues for the period 2011–2021, is anti-persistent, fractal-like and unpredictable based on parametric dependencies, simple and complex trends. The topological dimension of the lines of dynamics for tax revenues of all types of taxes is much higher than 1, and the Hirst index indicates either fractal similarity of dynamics or its chaos. The map of dissipation periods of tax revenues in Ukraine, determined on the basis of entropy calculation and periods of negative entropy production according to the dynamics of tax revenues, coincided with the periods of maximum reduction in their volumes. The most crisis periods in the formation of tax revenues are 2019–2020, for certain types of taxes – 2016–2020, but the dissipation of tax revenues is projected for 2021–2022.The comparison of the level of fractal similarity in dynamics of the volume of tax revenues and peculiarities of the dynamics of entropy and entropy production, allowed to substantiate the division of taxes into nine types, of which five were found in Ukraine.
Iryna Storonyanska, , , Natalia Sytnyk, Oksana Zakhidna
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 94-105; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.08

Abstract:
In the last two years, Ukraine and the world have been living in economic instability caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has fundamentally changed the trends in global and domestic economies, public and local finance. This study aims to estimate the trends of economic development of Ukrainian regions in the coronavirus crisis and their impact on the local budgets’ tax revenues generation. Main findings show the impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the development of Ukrainian regions is territorially differentiated. It is determined that in quarantine restrictions, the regions were developing under the impact of behavioral and institutional factors. Although a range of enterprises terminated their activities and there was a decline in income from business activities in 2020, the tax revenues of local budgets increased. The growth of tax revenues was accompanied by decreasing interbudgetary transfers and growing expenditures on containing the spread of pandemics and supporting healthcare. Reduced transfers to local budgets from the public budget affected the funding of investment programs of regional development. The abovementioned effects of falling business activity and consumer expenditures of the population along with falling investment can be considered the delayed effects of economic activity curtailment in the short-term period. An intensive increase of public investment that stipulates projects co-funding from budget funds and resources of businesses and establishment of cooperation between public, regional, and local levels of government should become among the primary steps to overcome the negative trends.
Tonderai Kapesa, Gift Mugano, Houdini Fourie
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 82-93; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.07

Abstract:
Zimbabwe requires USD2 billion annually until 2032 for financing economic infrastructure. However, the Government of Zimbabwe currently affords about 20% of this financing requirement leaving an 80% gap. The aim of the study was to establish the main sources of finance for economic public infrastructure and recommend alternative financing sources to supplement the current sources. The qualitative descriptive study collected primary data through 23 interviews conducted with officials from ministries of the Government of Zimbabwe, government departments and parastatal enterprises. Secondary data was obtained from documentary analysis. The study revealed bilateral loans from the China Exim Bank as the main source of finance for economic infrastructure, contributing USD2.1 billion whilst budget appropriations from the Government of Zimbabwe contributed USD1 billion during the 10-year period under study. Infrastructure finance was also obtained from development partners (USD200 million) and commercial and multilateral lenders (USD400 million). The study recommends developing a framework that promotes and protects private sector and/or innovative financiers of infrastructure through policy stability.
Tetiana Bogdan, Vitalii Lomakovych
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 67-81; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.06

Abstract:
Devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the world enhance the societal requests for effective healthcare and social protection systems, modern education, and high-quality infrastructure. In Ukraine, education, healthcare, and social services have been chronically deteriorating, and the corona-crisis has further exacerbated their state and increased poverty in the country. The aim of this study is to reveal the main weaknesses of fiscal policy in Ukraine and to outline the prospects of public finance transformations under the impact of the COVID-19. To achieve this aim, the indicators of fiscal policy response to the pandemic in Ukraine are calculated and a comparative analysis of Ukraine’s public finance structure with the international patterns is undertaken. A moderate fiscal impulse and insufficient fiscal rescue package in Ukraine are shown. Moreover, the inconsistencies of anti-crisis fiscal policy instruments with the international best practice are revealed. Summarizing the available theoretical sources and recent applied research allows identifying the prospects of public finances transformations under the impact of the COVID-19 in a global context. Along with the obtained results of Ukraine’s fiscal sector analysis, these form the basis for shaping the fiscal policy response in Ukraine over the medium term. Proposals for public financing of Ukraine’s health care and educational sectors, of the social safety nets and infrastructures under the impact of the pandemic are developed. Offsetting measures from the expenditure and revenue sides of the budget are drawn up for closing the arising fiscal gaps.
Gintarė Pauliukevičienė,
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 47-66; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.05

Abstract:
Implementation of SDGs is the unified goal of 193 UN Member States. FinTech plays a crucial role in achieving it. Therefore, the development of FinTech must be facilitated through proper policy-making and public finance, creating beneficial PEST conditions. However, the interaction of the FinTech PEST environment and achievement of SDGs is a topic that has not yet been addressed. The purpose of this study is to assess the link between these two indicators using statistical methods, indicate SDGs having the strongest link to FinTech PEST environment, and explain the interface to facilitate its useful application within government and financial regulations, as well as administration of the state and municipal financial entities. The results show that the economic and investment potential of Northern Europe is caused by the most favorable PEST environment for FinTech sector development, and demonstrate the existence of a statistical link between FinTech PEST environment and SDG4, SDG8, SDG9, SDG16. There is a clear trend – the more favorable the FinTech PEST environment, the better the achievement of SDGs, the better results of Sustainable Finance indicators, and the higher the Sustainable Finance typology assigned to the country. These results suggest that the goals, targets, and indicators of SDG4, SDG8, SDG9, and SDG16 contribute to the formation of a favorable environment and are conductive to the sustainable development of the FinTech industry in a country. Therefore, sustainability in the development of FinTech industry and finance, and the achievement of SDGs, is a circular process of three interacting factors.
Inna Shkolnyk, Yuriy Ladyka, Volodymyr Orlov, Khaled Aldiwani, Yevhenii Kozmenko
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 34-46; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.04

Abstract:
The consolidated state budget expenditures reflect the condition of performance by a country of its basic functions and allow defining priority directions for the implementation of state policy. Their optimal ratio allows satisfying the interests of citizens, business and society as a whole, and can provide a significant impetus for economic growth. The analysis of state budget expenditures using the example of Ukraine showed that their structure is unbalanced. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to find the necessary balance. The optimization of Ukraine’s state budget expenditures was carried out using the simplex method based on their structure from 2007 to 2019. Since the priorities of Ukraine’s strategic economic and political development are the implementation of the EU standards and norms, the structure of the EU’s state budget expenditures is chosen as a guideline for determining the optimal structure of expenditures. As a result, it is determined that in order to harmonize the structure of the Ukrainian budget expenditures with the approaches implemented in the European Union, minimal changes in public order spending are required. In addition, significant areas of funding include healthcare, economic activity, social protection and security. At the same time, intergovernmental transfers need to be significantly reduced, the amount of which should be revised after the completion of the financial decentralization reform.
Ferina Marimuthu, Stephanie Caroline Singh
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.03

Abstract:
In corporate finance, the pecking-order theory suggests that companies adhere to a particular financing hierarchy, with internal funding taking preference over external funding, and debt financing taking preference over equity. This paper examines whether South African state-owned entities prioritize their financing sources as predicted by the pecking-order theory. A financing deficit variable comprising various cash flow-based components was used to test the theory. A panel regression model was employed using panel data estimators. Using a cross-section sample of 33 state-owned entities from 1995 to 2018, the study finds no evidence that South African state-owned entities follow a pecking order to finance investment projects. The pecking order theory proposition that costs of adverse selection are dominant for lower levels of leverage provides a reason for the financing deficit coefficient not being close to unity and hence an indication that the SOEs in South Africa do not follow the pecking order behavior in their financing decisions, an indication that South African capital market is still developing.
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