Public and Municipal Finance
ISSN / EISSN : 2222-1867 / 2222-1875
Published by: LLC CPC Business Perspectives (10.21511)
Total articles ≅ 87
Latest articles in this journal
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 12-24; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.02
Using funded and unfunded pillars, the optimal pension structure is estimated using an over-lapping generation model, calibrated to the average OECD countries. While simulating different pillar sizes, a socio-economic characteristic was revealed in which low-earning groups are prone to unexpected market risks than high-earning cohorts and support a larger contribution than better-off individuals. This led to high contribution rates for funded pillars and low contributions rates for social security pillars. This suboptimal allocation leads to inefficient hedging capability for the pension portfolio. An alternative is a minimum pension guarantee as an efficient system stabilizer as it rebalances the economic cost among different earning cohorts. However, the guarantee might be expensive to implement if not capitalized early in the working phases in an era of aging populations, low birth rates, and deep financial crisis.
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 34-46; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.04
The consolidated state budget expenditures reflect the condition of performance by a country of its basic functions and allow defining priority directions for the implementation of state policy. Their optimal ratio allows satisfying the interests of citizens, business and society as a whole, and can provide a significant impetus for economic growth. The analysis of state budget expenditures using the example of Ukraine showed that their structure is unbalanced. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to find the necessary balance. The optimization of Ukraine’s state budget expenditures was carried out using the simplex method based on their structure from 2007 to 2019. Since the priorities of Ukraine’s strategic economic and political development are the implementation of the EU standards and norms, the structure of the EU’s state budget expenditures is chosen as a guideline for determining the optimal structure of expenditures. As a result, it is determined that in order to harmonize the structure of the Ukrainian budget expenditures with the approaches implemented in the European Union, minimal changes in public order spending are required. In addition, significant areas of funding include healthcare, economic activity, social protection and security. At the same time, intergovernmental transfers need to be significantly reduced, the amount of which should be revised after the completion of the financial decentralization reform.
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 25-33; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.03
In corporate finance, the pecking-order theory suggests that companies adhere to a particular financing hierarchy, with internal funding taking preference over external funding, and debt financing taking preference over equity. This paper examines whether South African state-owned entities prioritize their financing sources as predicted by the pecking-order theory. A financing deficit variable comprising various cash flow-based components was used to test the theory. A panel regression model was employed using panel data estimators. Using a cross-section sample of 33 state-owned entities from 1995 to 2018, the study finds no evidence that South African state-owned entities follow a pecking order to finance investment projects. The pecking order theory proposition that costs of adverse selection are dominant for lower levels of leverage provides a reason for the financing deficit coefficient not being close to unity and hence an indication that the SOEs in South Africa do not follow the pecking order behavior in their financing decisions, an indication that South African capital market is still developing.
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 67-81; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.06
Devastating effects of the COVID-19 pandemic throughout the world enhance the societal requests for effective healthcare and social protection systems, modern education, and high-quality infrastructure. In Ukraine, education, healthcare, and social services have been chronically deteriorating, and the corona-crisis has further exacerbated their state and increased poverty in the country. The aim of this study is to reveal the main weaknesses of fiscal policy in Ukraine and to outline the prospects of public finance transformations under the impact of the COVID-19. To achieve this aim, the indicators of fiscal policy response to the pandemic in Ukraine are calculated and a comparative analysis of Ukraine’s public finance structure with the international patterns is undertaken. A moderate fiscal impulse and insufficient fiscal rescue package in Ukraine are shown. Moreover, the inconsistencies of anti-crisis fiscal policy instruments with the international best practice are revealed. Summarizing the available theoretical sources and recent applied research allows identifying the prospects of public finances transformations under the impact of the COVID-19 in a global context. Along with the obtained results of Ukraine’s fiscal sector analysis, these form the basis for shaping the fiscal policy response in Ukraine over the medium term. Proposals for public financing of Ukraine’s health care and educational sectors, of the social safety nets and infrastructures under the impact of the pandemic are developed. Offsetting measures from the expenditure and revenue sides of the budget are drawn up for closing the arising fiscal gaps.
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 82-93; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.07
Zimbabwe requires USD2 billion annually until 2032 for financing economic infrastructure. However, the Government of Zimbabwe currently affords about 20% of this financing requirement leaving an 80% gap. The aim of the study was to establish the main sources of finance for economic public infrastructure and recommend alternative financing sources to supplement the current sources. The qualitative descriptive study collected primary data through 23 interviews conducted with officials from ministries of the Government of Zimbabwe, government departments and parastatal enterprises. Secondary data was obtained from documentary analysis. The study revealed bilateral loans from the China Exim Bank as the main source of finance for economic infrastructure, contributing USD2.1 billion whilst budget appropriations from the Government of Zimbabwe contributed USD1 billion during the 10-year period under study. Infrastructure finance was also obtained from development partners (USD200 million) and commercial and multilateral lenders (USD400 million). The study recommends developing a framework that promotes and protects private sector and/or innovative financiers of infrastructure through policy stability.
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 10, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.10(1).2021.01
Decentralization reforms cause social challenges and shape a new configuration, conditions and behavioral etiquette for business entities in the fiscal environment of local communities in Ukraine. Destinations with significant tourism potential can form a powerful budgetary resource through local taxes, including tourist tax. The study aims to develop a tourist tax administration system in the context of drawing up local budgets and fiscal targets of hospitality businesses. The dynamics of tourist tax revenues to local budgets was traced, which shows a rapid growth in the pre-pandemic period by 47.1% and a slight decrease in 2020. The forecast indicators for the tourist tax growth are determined: by the end of 2022, it is 73.4% compared to 2019. The likelihood of achieving such results is justified by the increase in domestic tourist flows and the possibilities of increasing the efficiency of the tourist tax administration system. Most united territorial communities (UTC) have problems with formalizing the management process, lack of strategic vision, partial or complete lack of information on budgeting and administration of taxes and fees, including tourist tax. This led to the following proposals: the development of strategies and tactics that motivate fiscal discipline; assistance to cooperation of hospitality entities with UTCs; providing digitalization, agilization and forward-looking improvements that set benchmarks for business. The emphasis is on hospitality businesses’ ability of effectively utilize the financial resources generated by the tourist tax, which will contribute to developing the overall potential of UTCs and shaping the competitiveness of territories.
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 9, pp 70-87; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.09(1).2020.07
This paper theoretically underpins the idea of greater involvement of local governments in the overall development of India explained through the theory of Fiscal Federalism. The theory outlines the dynamics of decentralization of power and functions through a multi-layered governance system leading to a new structure and added functions, finance, and accountability to local government. The paper also provides an overview of the increasing role of urban local governments in India and investigates whether the Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) of Gujarat – a state in India, are efficient to perform the functions and responsibilities assigned to them by the 74th Constitutional Amendment Act (CAA). It scrutinizes the financial health of local governments in the urban regions of India. The results based on the application of MANOVA indicate that the 74th CAA empowered ULBs with a strong economic base that these ULBs are capable of mobilizing their own resources. This means that smaller municipalities must develop and convergence must be supported by a proportionate level of grants. This will ensure that with the development of social infrastructure, economic activities will increase, and, as a result, the conversion will occur.
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 9, pp 60-69; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.09(1).2020.06
The article presents a comparative analysis of state funding of higher education as a factor of its effectiveness in European countries. The analysis is conducted on the example of countries where the share of state budget expenditures on education no less than 11%.The assumption that education is the main factor in the formation of a responsible citizens capable to provide the job themselves, and to provide qualified professionals for the country, that means to promote economic and cultural growth, is taken as a basis of the article.The structure of state expenditures on education in general and the amount of higher education funding in countries under consideration is analyzed.The correlation between the amount of expenditures on higher education and the indicators of the quality index of the higher education system QS World University Rankings is analyzed. Also the correlation analysis between other indexes, that characterize the general level of human development and quality of business as a result of public investment in training of highly qualified specialists, is done.
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 9, pp 34-47; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.09(1).2020.04
Further improvement of financial relations at the local level and the development of local budgets take place in the context of financial decentralization. This implies strengthening the role of local governments in attracting necessary financial resources to ensure socio-economic development of territories. The purpose of this paper is to identify the impact of decentralization on the state of local budgets and to develop a scientific and methodological approach to assessing the level of financial decentralization of local budgets using the example of Ukraine for 2010–2019. The developed methodology consists of six successive stages. A comparative analysis of the dynamics of indicators of local budget execution in Ukraine in terms of revenues, expenditures and transfers using an integrated index obtained through taxonomic analysis is conducted. As a result of evaluating the effectiveness of the basic principles of financial decentralization, the expediency of calculating the integrated index of local budget financial decentralization is substantiated. This index is formed using intermediate indicators of autonomy to cover expenses and generate income both on the basis of own sources and taking into account the received state transfers for the implementation of their own and delegated powers of local governments. The implementation of the proposed method allow one to assess the levels of financial decentralization of local budgets to establish the degree of financial autonomy and financial self-sufficiency of the territories. The results obtained should be considered when determining the effectiveness of financial support for local budgets in the process of socio-economic development of regions.
Public and Municipal Finance, Volume 9, pp 48-59; https://doi.org/10.21511/pmf.09(1).2020.05
With the deepening of global financial and economic instability, the search for ways to increase fiscal sustainability becomes relevant in the crisis regulation system. This problem is compounded by the emergence of new global challenges, including the COVID pandemic. Timely and complex analysis of the local budget financial sustainability allows one to comprehensively assess financial and economic risks, identify social and other problems, consider planning deficiencies and, on this basis, form a sound and effective regional budget policy. The purpose of the study is to summarize theoretical and practical principles of assessing the financial sustainability of local budgets and to outline the directions for its improvement in Ukraine considering international practices. The study revealed the lack of a unified system for assessing the financial sustainability of local budgets in Ukraine. On the basis of generalization of theoretical and methodological approaches, a system of indicators for estimating the financial sustainability of local budgets has been identified. The indicators were grouped and calculated. Based on the study of practical experience, measures have been specified that would contribute to a systematic approach to assessing the financial sustainability of local budgets in Ukraine. It was concluded that a systematic assessment of the financial sustainability of local budgets is a prerequisite for making informed management decisions about necessary adjustments to the budget, improving the quality of budget planning and the effectiveness of budget policy.