American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement

Journal Information
ISSN : 1061-592X
Published by: Cambridge University Press (CUP) (10.1017)
Total articles ≅ 33
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E. H. Willis, H. Tauber, K. O. Münnich
American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement, Volume 2, pp 1-4; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1061592x00020548

Abstract:
Considerable attention has been focussed in recent years upon the validity of the radiocarbon dating method by papers whose authors have considered that one or other of the fundamental principles might either be in error or require serious modification (Crowe, 1958; Milojčić, 1957; Elsasser, Ney, and Winkler, 1957; Daniel, 1959). It has even been suggested that errors as great as 800 years might arise between datings on the same sample made in different laboratories (Crowe, 1958). In the light of such criticism, it is clearly of the utmost importance to investigate, and, if possible, justify the basic assumptions on which the validity of the method rests.
H. Barker, C. J. Mackey
American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement, Volume 2, pp 26-30; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1061592x00020573

Abstract:
The second series of radiocarbon measurements made at the British Museum Research Laboratory are reported in the following list. The equipment and method used remain the same as described in our first date list (Barker and Mackey, 1959) and, as stated there, the error terms are not based solely on counting statistics but are widened to include contributions of ±80 years for possible isotopic fractionation effects and ±100 years for the de Vries-effect. Ages are calculated on a half-life of 5568 ± 30 years.
Meyer Rubin, Corrinne Alexander
American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement, Volume 2, pp 129-185; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1061592x00020652

Abstract:
The dates listed herein have been determined at the U. S. Geological Survey radiocarbon laboratory at Washington since our last date list (USGS IV) and up to the end of 1959. Acetylene continues to be the gas of our choice. Each sample is run for a period of two days in two separate counters with separate electronics. The modern standard used is wood grown in the 19th century, and the ages and errors have been computed in the same manner as before. Pretreatment of wood, charcoal, and peat samples by boiling in acid, alkali, and acid again, is standard procedure.
H. Göte Östlund, Lars G. Engstrand
American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement, Volume 2, pp 186-196; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1061592x00020664

Abstract:
This paper is a direct continuation of the second date list released from this laboratory (Östlund, 1959), and the technique of preparation and the characteristics of our two 3-atmospheres carbon dioxide counters are substantially unchanged (Östlund 1957a, b). As in previous lists, our standard is oak wood, grown, A. D. 1845–1855 in Stockholm. corrected for radioactive decay to 1960. As usual, the counting rates have been corrected according to the massspectrometrically measured C13/C12ratio in each sample of purified carbon dioxide. In this scale the U. S. National Bureau of Standards Natural Radiocarbon Standard (NBS standard) gives a counting rate which is 104.5 ± 0.4% of our age-corrected oak standard. Taking into account that our oak has a C13/C12ratio of 25 per mil lower than the Chicago PDB-C13standard, our age figures can, by subtracting 55 years, be converted to the new, international radiocarbon age scale proposed by Broecker and Olson (1959).
H. R. Crane, James B. Griffin
American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement, Volume 2, pp 31-48; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1061592x00020585

Abstract:
The following is a list of radiocarbon dates obtained since the time of the preparation of Michigan list IV. The method of measurement and treatment of data are the same as those described in the introductions to lists III and IV.
E. E. Bray, W. H. Burke
American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement, Volume 2, pp 97-111; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1061592x00020639

Abstract:
The samples in this list were measured by the methane proportional counter method reported by Burke and Meinschein (1955). Shell samples were mechanically cleaned and washed with water. Where necessary, cold, very dilute HCI was used to remove the powdery exterior. Sedimentary wood and mud or clay samples were treated with hot concentrated HCI and washed with water before burning. Four other types of materials recovered from sediments were dated: (1) the total organic carbon, (2) benzene-soluble organic material, (3) foraminiferal tests, and (4) “dispersed carbonate”. The foraminiferal samples were recovered from the sediment by washing on a 120-mesh screen. These were then converted to carbon dioxide by acid treatment. “Dispersed carbonate” was recovered in the form of CO2, by acid (HCI) treatment of the sediment wash which had been depleted of Foraminifera. The total organic carbon samples were recovered by combustion to CO2 after all carbonates had been removed by acid treatment. Organic extractables were also converted to CO2 by combustion.
Ingrid Olsson
American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement, Volume 2, pp 112-128; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1061592x00020640

Abstract:
The following list covers the samples measured at the Uppsala radiocarbon laboratory during 1959.
Henrik Tauber
American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement, Volume 2, pp 5-11; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1061592x0002055x

Abstract:
In the Copenhagen I and II date lists radiocarbon dates for samples representing the late-glacial Aller⊘d oscillation and early Neolithic periods in Switzerland and Denmark were given. At the time of publication no account was taken of the dilution of the atmosphere with inactive carbon by the extensive combustion of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution (Suess, 1955), and of its influence on the dating results. This effect as measured by Suess amounted to 3.4% depletion in wood samples from the heavily industrialized east coast of the United States. Several later measurements have shown that the magnitude of this reduction in atmospheric C14concentration varies in different areas. The average universal decrease was calculated by Fergusson (1958) as 2.03 ± .15%. However, the magnitude of reported Suess effects may vary with the chosen reference sample as a result of periodic changes (de Vries effect) in the atmospheric C14concentration as found by de Vries (1958).
H. Godwin, E. H. Willis
American Journal of Science. Radiocarbon Supplement, Volume 2, pp 62-72; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1061592x00020603

Abstract:
The dates given have been obtained during the year 1959. They have been made with carbon dioxide at 2 atmospheres pressure in a proportional gas-counter, as for the series given in Radiocarbon Supplement, volume 1.
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