World Journal of Vaccines

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2160-5815 / 2160-5823
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 136
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Fouzia Hali, Cyrine Marmech, Soumiya Chiheb, Hind Alatawna
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 11, pp 33-38; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2021.113005

Abstract:
Erythema nodosum (EN) is a delayed hypersensitivity response that may be triggered by a range of conditions, including infections and vaccines. Rare cases of EN caused by COVID-19 were recently reported but none due to COVID-19 vaccines were documented. We report here a case of EN occurring after COVID-19 vaccination. Patient presented with painful nodular lesions of all 4 limbs, evolving for one month. These lesions appeared 48 h after the second dose of COVID-19 vaccination. The patient reported no recent infectious episodes. The physical examination found numerous, erythematous dermohypodermatitis knots with no palpable adenopathy. Some were regressive according to biligenesis shades. Biology and radiology findings eliminated other common causes of this dermatosis. The skin biopsy was done and suggested EN. The final diagnosis was post COVID-19 vaccine EN. Patient received a symptomatic treatment and had a slight improvement of the lesions 10 days after diagnosis. Physicians should be aware of the side effects of the vaccine including skin manifestations, especially since more people are bound to be vaccinated.
Daniele Melo Sardinha, Diana Da Costa Lobato, Ana Lúcia Da Silva Ferreira, Karla Valéria Batista Lima, Ricardo José De Paula Souza E Guimarães, Luana Nepomuceno Gondim Costa Lima
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 11, pp 28-32; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2021.113004

Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the severe cases of COVID-19 in Brazil in 2020 and compare those vaccinated and unvaccinated against influenza in invasive ventilation, admission in Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and deaths. Method: Cross-sectional study with public data from the OpenDataSUS platform, regarding confirmed severe cases for COVID-19 in Brazil in the year 2020. Data were analyzed by SPSS, from the chi-square test of independence and binary logistic regression. Results: The population was 472,688 cases and 177,640 deaths, with a lethality of 37.58% in severe cases. The test of independence was highly significant in vaccinated survivors (<0.0001), and regression showed an almost twofold odds ratio for invasive ventilation, ICU admission, and death in unvaccinated cases. Conclusion: We recommend mass influenza vaccination as an adjuvant in combating the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil.
Iqbal Hossain, Tariq Masood, Akram Sultan, Rana Safdar, Hamidreza Setayesh, Lora Shimp, Soofia Younus
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 11, pp 39-49; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2021.114006

Abstract:
Karachi, the largest city in Pakistan, having high population growth and a complex health care environment, has highest density of unimmunized (zero dose) and under-immunized children. The main reasons of low immunization coverage in Karachi were lack of governance and accountability in a duplicative and fragmented health management structure, weak and inequitable immunization services, and lack of demand and trust among people for immunization services. The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI), Ministry of Health (MOH) in Sindh Province spearheaded a structured and collaborative process to develop strategies for addressing inequity in immunization services towards achieving Universal Immunization Coverage (UIC) in Karachi. The process included a situation analysis with gathering quantitative and qualitative information on the root causes of zero-dose and inequity of the immunization services. The strategies and interventions were developed with multi-layer input and feedback of the stakeholders and partners, and focusing primarily to address gaps in three program areas: governance, leadership and accountability; immunization service delivery; and building demand and trust among the people. The interventions were further prioritized for high-risk areas; identified based on maximum number zero-dose children, presence of large slum areas, measles outbreak and on-going circulation of wild poliovirus. Finally, costing for the Roadmap activities was done through consultation with partners and aligning domestic and external (donor) resources. In this paper, we have highlighted the unique process the Sindh Government undertook in collaboration with the stakeholders and partners to develop strategies and interventions for addressing inequity in urban immunization services in Karachi towards achieving Universal Immunization Coverage (UIC). Similar processes can be adapted, as a potential model, for developing strategies to achieve universal health coverage in the cities of Pakistan and in other countries.
Amadou Sow, Modou Gueye, Djibril Boiro, Idrissa Demba Ba, Abou Ba, Aliou Thiongane, Papa Moctar Faye, Amadou Lamine Fall, Ousmane Ndiaye
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 11, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2021.111001

Abstract:
Introduction: The COVID 19 pandemic has prompted the world to implement drastic prevention methods based on limiting population movements that have an impact on public health policies such as vaccination. The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of these prevention measures on routine vaccination in hospitals since the advent of the pandemic in Senegal. Methodology: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study carried out in August 2020 in the vaccination unit of the Abass NDAO hospital centre. We compared data from the vaccination unit during the period from March to August of the last three years (2018, 2019 and 2020). The parameter studied was the number of vaccine doses administered for the different periods according to the expanded programme of immunization. Results: For the vaccines administered in the sixth week in April, the number of doses was 36 in 2018, 29 in 2019 and 15 in 2020, i.e. a 50% drop compared to March. In July the number of doses administered was 40 in 2018, 35 in 2019 and 15 in 2020, a reduction of 42% compared to 2019. Conclusion: Measures to fight this pandemic should not make us forget routine vaccination, especially in our resource-constrained countries. It is essential to continue vaccination for children and to identify children who have missed vaccine doses for catch-up.
Chung-Min Tsai
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 11, pp 19-27; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2021.113003

Abstract:
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), had caused over 382 million cases and over 2.7 million deaths globally as of 23 March 2021. By that date, at least 10 SARS-CoV-2 variants had emerged. The transmissibility and lethality of the variants are higher than those of the Wuhan reference strain. Therefore, a universal vaccine for the reference strain and all variants (present and future) is indispensable. The coronavirus envelope (E) protein is an integral membrane protein crucial to the viral lifecycle and the pathogenesis of coronaviruses. The SARS-CoV-2 E protein has a postsynaptic density protein 95/Drosophila disc large tumor suppressor/zonula occludens-1 (PDZ) binding motif (PBM), and its interaction with PDZ-domain-2 of the human tight junction protein may interrupt the integrity of lung epithelium. Furthermore, the SARS-CoV-2 E protein itself is a homopentameric cation channel viroporin, which may be involved in viral release. This protein is thus a potential target for the development of a universal COVID-19 vaccine, because of its highly conserved amino acid sequence. The variant mutations occur mainly in the spike protein, and conservation of E protein remained in most Variants of Concern (VOC). Only one of the extant VOC have mutations in the E protein that P71L mutation occurs in the South African variant 501Y.V2 (B.1.351). If a vaccine is designed to target E protein, two scenarios are possible: 1) SARS-CoV-2 maintains a highly conserved E protein amino acid sequence, rendering the virus consistently or permanently susceptible to the vaccine; or 2) the E protein mutates and new variants evolve accordingly. In scenario 2, the tertiary structure and function of the E protein homopentameric cation channel viroporin, PBM, or other aspects affecting pathogenicity would be attenuated. Either scenario would thus ameliorate the pandemic. I therefore propose that a vaccine targeting the SARS-CoV-2 E protein would be effective against the Wuhan reference strain and all current and future SARS-CoV-2 variants. Efforts to create E protein-based vaccines are ongoing. Further research and clinical trials are needed to realize this universal COVID-19 vaccine.
Salahuddin Mahmud, Jahida Gulshan, Farhana Tasneem, Syed Shafi Ahmed
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 11, pp 7-18; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2021.112002

Abstract:
Background: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the most important global health problems and active immunization is the single most important and effective preventive measure against HBV infection. Several studied show that HBV carrier rate is between 2% - 7% in Bangladesh. Bangladesh introduced hepatitis B vaccination in children through Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 2005 that includes 3 doses which starts from six weeks after birth. Currently booster vaccination is not recommended any more. However, many studies on different countries observed a declined level of HBs-antibody over a period of 3 - 6 years that may even reach to non-protective levels. Objective: To evaluate the status of seroconversion and seroprotection along with non-responders of EPI vaccinated children against HBV and to measure their antibody levels in different age groups. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was done in the department of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Dhaka Shishu (Children) Hospital, Dhaka, Bangladesh on 120 cases of EPI vaccinated children enrolled from January-December 2019 while attending the inpatient department without any liver problem. The development of Anti-HBs titre greater than or equal to 10 mIU/mL is considered as protective immunity and any titre less than 10 mIU/mL as non-protective following HBV vaccination. Results: Age of the children was 1 - 12 years with mean age of 5.6 ± 1.7 years and male: female ratio was 1.1:1. Among the children, 56 (46.6%) were from 1 - 5 years age, 36 (30.1%) children from 6 - 10 years age group and 27 (23.3%) children from 11 - 12 years age group. Out of 120 children, presence of Anti-HBs protective titre was in 63 (52.5%) children and non-protective level in 57 (47.5%) children. Among protective level, 34 (60.7%) children were in 1 - 5 years age group, 18 (50.0%) children in 6 - 10 years age group and 11 (39.3%) children in 11 - 12 years age group. Total 24 (20%) children were completely non-responder (antibody titre 0.00 mIU/mL). Out of 120 mother, 06 (5%) were HBV positive. Among them 05 (83.33%) children had Anti-HBs less than 10 mIU/mL. Conclusion: After primary vaccination, a good immune response was detected against hepatitis B virus but it goes below even up to non-protective level with the increase of age. Half of the studied children had non-protective titre after 5 years and one-fifth children totally non-responder after primary hepatitis B vaccination. A booster dose may be recommended after 5 years for optimum seroprotection.
Seria Masole Shonyela, Wentao Yang, Guilian Yang, Chunfeng Wang
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 10, pp 17-31; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2020.101002

Abstract:
The significant function of Toll-like receptors (TLR) is the detection of microbes by host guard cells that guide to the innate immune responses and to the successive adaptive. The current study patterns of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR9 expressing antigen presenting cells (APCs) in blood of mice after colonization with L. plantarum NC8 strain were assessed. The power of L. plantarum on serum innate cytokine and TLR responses stimulated by recombinant NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP6-DCpep, NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP7-DCpep and NC8-pSIP409-pgsA were also assessed. We confirmed that L. plantarum NC8 stimulated powerful TLR2 expressing APC responses in blood Recombinant strain stimulated a TLR3 response in spleen, and TLR9 responses were stimulated in blood or in spleen. Recombinant NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP6-DCpep, NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP7-DCpep on TLR2 and TLR9 expressing APC responses has a preservative outcome, reliable with the DCpep adjuvant outcome. In serum the recombinant NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP6-DCpep, NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP7-DCpep has increased the IL-4 and IFN-γ responses, except that on the TLR3 and TLR9 expressing CD14 APC responses it had an oppressive consequence in spleen and the IFN-α response in serum-stimulated by PRV. Our results give details that following PRV infection after immunization with NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP6-DCpep, NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP7-DCpep, the systemic TLR2, TLR3, and TLR9 expressing cDC and macrophage/monocyte responses.
Parnia Jabbari
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 10, pp 33-42; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2020.102003

Abstract:
Anti-cancer therapies over the few decades, faced with many challenges. And bacterial vaccine vectors have shown a potential to be replaced as the cutting-edge technology for such aspects. Bacterial vaccine vectors with a suitable DNA can be a potential option for cancer treatment as a carrier for tumoricidal agents or bacterially directed Enzyme Prodrug treatment. Throughout this study, it is planned to have a review of the use of bacteria as vehicles by different ways for cancer treatment, detailing the systems of function and achievements at preclinical and clinical levels.
Melissa A. Boddicker, Robin M. Kaufhold, Kara S. Cox, Bob J. Lucas, Jinfu Xie, Deborah D. Nahas, Sinoeun Touch, Amy S. Espeseth, Kalpit A. Vora, Julie M. Skinner
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 10, pp 55-75; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2020.104005

Abstract:
We evaluated novel Chlamydial vaccines, consisting of major outer membrane protein (MOMP) alone or in combination with polymorphic membrane proteins D (PmpD) and G (PmpG) using a C57BL/6 mouse model. Native MOMP (nMOMP) isolated from C. muridarum elementary bodies (EBs) and recombinant PmpD and PmpG proteins were adjuvanted with Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), with either lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) or the cationic lipid dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDA). Antibody titers to C. muridarum nMOMP, and EBs were evaluated by ELISA, and T-cell responses were analyzed by intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Protection from challenge was determined by qPCR. Vaccine immunized mice showed significantly higher antibody titers to nMOMP (P C. muridarum EBs (P C. muridarum EBs and PmpG. ICS analysis showed more robust CD4 + T-cell responses (IFN-γ/IL-2/TNF-a) in the DDA and LNP groups compared to the adjuvant alone group. The DDA + MPLA gave robust Th17 responses in comparison to MPLA and LNP group. Mice immunized with Chlamydia antigens also showed protection from C. muridarum challenge, by reduction in bacterial shedding for all groups (P < 0.003) compared to shedding from the adjuvant control. Both vaccine formulations generated robust immunological responses, and both were protective by reducing bacterial shedding after challenge. This data indicates equal protection can be achieved without the induction of Th17 responses.
Muhammad Danish Mehmood, Huma Anwarul-Haq, Faisal Amin, Sajjad Hussain, Ejaz Rafique, Muhammad Usman Ghani, Muhammad Ismail, Fareeha Ghaffar
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 10, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.4236/wjv.2020.101001

Abstract:
Hydro-Pericardium Syndrome (HPS) is viral problem of commercial poultry caused by aviadeno virus type-4. In Pakistan the problems have been controlled by administering inactivated infected liver homogenate vaccine (ILHV). The use of liver based HPS vaccines remained potential threat for having hypersensitivity reactions in poultry. The current study was carried out to compare the serological potency of HPS ILHV to vero cell line adopted vaccine in term of anti HPS-ELISA antibody titers. 14 HPS virus vaccines were prepared based on different concentration of antigen, type of adjuvants and source of virus substrate. Total of 160 birds were divided into 16 groups each containing 10 birds. At day of 14th age each bird of every group was injected with 0.3 ml dose of respective vaccine. It was observed that HPS infected liver based vaccine having 1 × 105.6, 1 × 105.6 and 1 × 103.6 bird lethal dose 50 induced 1092.10, 875.25 and 702.2 anti-HPS ELISA antibody titer respectively. The 20, 25 and 30 doses/gm HPS infected liver vaccine induced 110.4, 1071.9 and 1037.8 anti-HPS ELISA antibody titer respectively. Montanide based tissue culture HPS vaccine showed significantly higher 1148.45 anti-HPS ELISA antibody titer to aluminium hydroxide based vaccine (137.2) (P 5.6 TCID50 is serological potent against field infection. The vaccines based on such formulation could be prepared in future for effective immuno-prophylaxis against HPS virus.
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