World Journal of Vaccines
ISSN / EISSN : 21605815 / 21605823
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc, (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 125
Latest articles in this journal
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 22-36; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.91002
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 49-69; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.92004
Abstract:Identifying relevant animal challenge models adds to the complexity of human vaccine development. Murine challenge models have been the most utilized animal model for Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine development. The question arises as to whether the C. trachomatis or C. muridarum pre-clinical model is optimal. We compared C. muridarum and C. trachomatis intravaginal challenge models in a combined total of seventy-five studies evaluating potential vaccine candidates. In 100% (42/42) of C. muridarum studies, mice immunized with Chlamydia elementary bodies (EB) demonstrated a significant reduction in urogenital bacterial shedding as measured by qPCR (p C. trachomatis studies. We have evaluated proposed vaccine antigens in both models and observed immunization with Chlamydia major outer membrane protein (MOMP) vaccine formulations to be protective (p C. trachomatis model, and immunization with PmpD p82 translocator domain was not protective in either model. We also observed in both models that depletion of CD4+ T-cells in MOMP-immunized mice resulted in diminished protective immunity but animals were still able to reduce the infection level. In contrast, mice immunized with live EBs by intraperitoneal route did not require CD4+ T-cells to resolve urogenital infection from intravaginal challenge in either model. Overall, we have found the C. muridarum model to be a more robust, reliable, and reproducible model for vaccine antigen discovery.
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 1-21; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.91001
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 37-48; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.92003
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 71-83; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.93005
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 85-98; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.94006
Abstract:Background: The Maternal and Child Survival Program of United States Agency for International Development conducted a study in 2017 to assess the outcome of an initiative to strengthen Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) pre-service training. The pre-service training initiative was undertaken by the Ministry of Health (MOH) with support from partners in 2012-2016. The overall objective of the study was to assess the adoption and effectiveness of the initiative in the competency (knowledge, skills and attitude) of graduate nurses. Methods: The study included a conveniently selected sample of 14 pre-service training institutions, 23 field practicum sites, and 29 health facilities in western Kenya, and used quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. Results: All pre-service training institutions were found to have adapted the WHO EPI prototype curriculum. Overall, tutors followed training method in the classroom as suggested in the curriculum, except evaluation of students’ learning lacked tests or quizzes. Students had opportunities for hands-on practical experience in the field practicum sites. Graduate nurses were found to have acquired the skills for vaccinating children. However, some pre-service training institutions lacked functional skills labs for practical learning of students. In addition, students did not receive up-to-date information on EPI program, and lacked knowledge and skills on monitoring and documentation of EPI coverage during preservice training. Conclusions: It appears that the EPI pre-service training strengthening initiatives facilitated competency-based EPI training of nurses in Kenya. However, preservice training institutions still have scope for improvement in the skills lab, hand-washing practice, providing up-to-date information, and training students on coverage monitoring and documentation.
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 8, pp 21-29; doi:10.4236/wjv.2018.81003
Abstract:Ignoring the importance of receiving booster doses of vaccines in vast majority of adults could result in their lack of immunity against tetanus and diphtheria. In this prospective cohort study all immunocompetent adults ≥ 40 years old who were admitted for any reason during the time period of the survey were enrolled and antibody levels against tetanus and diphtheria were measured. 84 patients (48%) were 40 - 60 years old and 93 (52%) subjects aged older than 60 years. In general, anti-tetanus antibody titer was <0.1 IU/mL (non-immune range) in 83 people (46.9%). For anti-diphtheria antibody, 74 (41.8%) were considered non-immune. Of all people whose tetanus antibody level was <0.1, 19 had a complete history of childhood diphtheria and tetanus immunization and 64 had unknown vaccination history. Among people with diphtheria antibody levels < 0.1, 18 (24.3%) had complete history of childhood vaccination and 56 (75.6%) had unknown history.
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 8, pp 53-80; doi:10.4236/wjv.2018.83006
Abstract:Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by Taenia solium larvae is continuing being an important zoonotic neglected disease in many developing countries, is responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death in human and it poses a serious public health risk. In general estimated prevalence for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA was 29.7% (95% CI [4.8 - 58.2]), by EITB was 24.7% (95% CI [9.2 - 38.2]), by Tongue examination was 9.4% (95% CI [0.2 - 13.2]), and by postmortem examination was 15% (95% CI [0.2 - 27.4]). Average seroprevalence of human cysticercosis by circulating antibody detection (Ab-ELISA) was ranged from 1.3% to 45.3%. Average seroprevalence of human cysticercosis by circulating T. solium antigen detection (Ag-ELISA) was ranged from 4.6% to 11.9%. Average seroprevalence of human cysticercosis by EITB was ranged from 6.9% to 16.7%. Average prevalence of human cysticercosis by CT scan was ranged from 23.2% to 54.6%. A fundamental factor in the occurrence of infections in most of the article was lack of health education to the community on T. solium, cysticercosis and taeniasis complex as the key towards control and eradication. The major causal factors of the disease occurrence were free roaming pigs and poor sanitary conditions.
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 8, pp 89-97; doi:10.4236/wjv.2018.84008
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 8, pp 81-88; doi:10.4236/wjv.2018.84007