World Journal of Vaccines
ISSN / EISSN : 21605815 / 21605823
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 127
Latest articles in this journal
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 10, pp 1-16; doi:10.4236/wjv.2020.101001
Hydro-Pericardium Syndrome (HPS) is viral problem of commercial poultry caused by aviadeno virus type-4. In Pakistan the problems have been controlled by administering inactivated infected liver homogenate vaccine (ILHV). The use of liver based HPS vaccines remained potential threat for having hypersensitivity reactions in poultry. The current study was carried out to compare the serological potency of HPS ILHV to vero cell line adopted vaccine in term of anti HPS-ELISA antibody titers. 14 HPS virus vaccines were prepared based on different concentration of antigen, type of adjuvants and source of virus substrate. Total of 160 birds were divided into 16 groups each containing 10 birds. At day of 14th age each bird of every group was injected with 0.3 ml dose of respective vaccine. It was observed that HPS infected liver based vaccine having 1 × 105.6, 1 × 105.6 and 1 × 103.6 bird lethal dose 50 induced 1092.10, 875.25 and 702.2 anti-HPS ELISA antibody titer respectively. The 20, 25 and 30 doses/gm HPS infected liver vaccine induced 110.4, 1071.9 and 1037.8 anti-HPS ELISA antibody titer respectively. Montanide based tissue culture HPS vaccine showed significantly higher 1148.45 anti-HPS ELISA antibody titer to aluminium hydroxide based vaccine (137.2) (P 5.6 TCID50 is serological potent against field infection. The vaccines based on such formulation could be prepared in future for effective immuno-prophylaxis against HPS virus.
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 10, pp 17-31; doi:10.4236/wjv.2020.101002
The significant function of Toll-like receptors (TLR) is the detection of microbes by host guard cells that guide to the innate immune responses and to the successive adaptive. The current study patterns of TLR2, TLR3 and TLR9 expressing antigen presenting cells (APCs) in blood of mice after colonization with L. plantarum NC8 strain were assessed. The power of L. plantarum on serum innate cytokine and TLR responses stimulated by recombinant NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP6-DCpep, NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP7-DCpep and NC8-pSIP409-pgsA were also assessed. We confirmed that L. plantarum NC8 stimulated powerful TLR2 expressing APC responses in blood Recombinant strain stimulated a TLR3 response in spleen, and TLR9 responses were stimulated in blood or in spleen. Recombinant NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP6-DCpep, NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP7-DCpep on TLR2 and TLR9 expressing APC responses has a preservative outcome, reliable with the DCpep adjuvant outcome. In serum the recombinant NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP6-DCpep, NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP7-DCpep has increased the IL-4 and IFN-γ responses, except that on the TLR3 and TLR9 expressing CD14 APC responses it had an oppressive consequence in spleen and the IFN-α response in serum-stimulated by PRV. Our results give details that following PRV infection after immunization with NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP6-DCpep, NC8-pSIP409-pgsA-VP7-DCpep, the systemic TLR2, TLR3, and TLR9 expressing cDC and macrophage/monocyte responses.
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 85-98; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.94006
Background: The Maternal and Child Survival Program of United States Agency for International Development conducted a study in 2017 to assess the outcome of an initiative to strengthen Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) pre-service training. The pre-service training initiative was undertaken by the Ministry of Health (MOH) with support from partners in 2012-2016. The overall objective of the study was to assess the adoption and effectiveness of the initiative in the competency (knowledge, skills and attitude) of graduate nurses. Methods: The study included a conveniently selected sample of 14 pre-service training institutions, 23 field practicum sites, and 29 health facilities in western Kenya, and used quantitative and qualitative methods of data collection. Results: All pre-service training institutions were found to have adapted the WHO EPI prototype curriculum. Overall, tutors followed training method in the classroom as suggested in the curriculum, except evaluation of students’ learning lacked tests or quizzes. Students had opportunities for hands-on practical experience in the field practicum sites. Graduate nurses were found to have acquired the skills for vaccinating children. However, some pre-service training institutions lacked functional skills labs for practical learning of students. In addition, students did not receive up-to-date information on EPI program, and lacked knowledge and skills on monitoring and documentation of EPI coverage during preservice training. Conclusions: It appears that the EPI pre-service training strengthening initiatives facilitated competency-based EPI training of nurses in Kenya. However, preservice training institutions still have scope for improvement in the skills lab, hand-washing practice, providing up-to-date information, and training students on coverage monitoring and documentation.
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 1-21; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.91001
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 49-69; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.92004
Identifying relevant animal challenge models adds to the complexity of human vaccine development. Murine challenge models have been the most utilized animal model for Chlamydia trachomatis vaccine development. The question arises as to whether the C. trachomatis or C. muridarum pre-clinical model is optimal. We compared C. muridarum and C. trachomatis intravaginal challenge models in a combined total of seventy-five studies evaluating potential vaccine candidates. In 100% (42/42) of C. muridarum studies, mice immunized with Chlamydia elementary bodies (EB) demonstrated a significant reduction in urogenital bacterial shedding as measured by qPCR (p C. trachomatis studies. We have evaluated proposed vaccine antigens in both models and observed immunization with Chlamydia major outer membrane protein (MOMP) vaccine formulations to be protective (p C. trachomatis model, and immunization with PmpD p82 translocator domain was not protective in either model. We also observed in both models that depletion of CD4+ T-cells in MOMP-immunized mice resulted in diminished protective immunity but animals were still able to reduce the infection level. In contrast, mice immunized with live EBs by intraperitoneal route did not require CD4+ T-cells to resolve urogenital infection from intravaginal challenge in either model. Overall, we have found the C. muridarum model to be a more robust, reliable, and reproducible model for vaccine antigen discovery.
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 22-36; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.91002
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 37-48; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.92003
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 9, pp 71-83; doi:10.4236/wjv.2019.93005
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 8, pp 89-97; doi:10.4236/wjv.2018.84008
World Journal of Vaccines, Volume 8, pp 53-80; doi:10.4236/wjv.2018.83006
Porcine cysticercosis (PC) caused by Taenia solium larvae is continuing being an important zoonotic neglected disease in many developing countries, is responsible for severe health disorders such as seizures and death in human and it poses a serious public health risk. In general estimated prevalence for porcine cysticercosis by Ag-ELISA was 29.7% (95% CI [4.8 - 58.2]), by EITB was 24.7% (95% CI [9.2 - 38.2]), by Tongue examination was 9.4% (95% CI [0.2 - 13.2]), and by postmortem examination was 15% (95% CI [0.2 - 27.4]). Average seroprevalence of human cysticercosis by circulating antibody detection (Ab-ELISA) was ranged from 1.3% to 45.3%. Average seroprevalence of human cysticercosis by circulating T. solium antigen detection (Ag-ELISA) was ranged from 4.6% to 11.9%. Average seroprevalence of human cysticercosis by EITB was ranged from 6.9% to 16.7%. Average prevalence of human cysticercosis by CT scan was ranged from 23.2% to 54.6%. A fundamental factor in the occurrence of infections in most of the article was lack of health education to the community on T. solium, cysticercosis and taeniasis complex as the key towards control and eradication. The major causal factors of the disease occurrence were free roaming pigs and poor sanitary conditions.