Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2158-7027 / 2158-7043
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Former Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 350
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Latest articles in this journal

Dorothy Araba Yakoba Agyapong, Hanjia Jiang, XingJia Ni, Jingwen Wu, Hongjuan Zeng
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 12, pp 7-19; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2021.122002

In this study, gold nanoparticles and thermochromic composite films modified screen-printed carbon electrodes (TM-AuNPsSPCEs) were developed as a platform for the simultaneous detection of protein and temperature. The TM-AuNPs composited film had better sensitivity resulting from the gold nanoparticles amplification effect. A phase transition model analysis of TM-AuNPs films found that the TM-AuNPs films had three-phase transition intervals (80℃) which accommodated the temperature requirements for protein denaturation. When used to detect different concentrations of haemoglobin (Hb) solution, the TM-AuNPs modified SPCEs had a better sensitivity in detecting the different concentrations in comparison to TM and AuNP modified SPCEs which showed no clear sensitivity towards the different Hb concentrations. The dual detection and excellent sensitivity show a good application prospect for the study of the TM-AuNPs composite film.
Pierre Basmaji, Gabriel Molina De Olyveira, Mohamed M. Kanjou
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 12, pp 1-6; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2021.121001

Cancer cells can be proliferating in a few months and years. It depends on cancer stage. Chemotherapy, immunotherapy and anti-metabolic drugs have been used in order to kill cancer cells and prevent immune system weakly and metastasis. However, such drugs can damage healthy cells too. Natural ways to cancer treatments may help whole body to cancer cells. In this work, it was taking off cancer nodule to skin cancer by surgery and we treat the nodule as wound, using Nanoskin® advance cell therapy (ACT), natural extra cellular matrix which releases nutrients to the skin cancer. Our result shows that the cancer nodule disappears in few weeks in skin, because of natural membrane treatment. In addition, we obtained complete wound healing due anticancer nutrients (beta-glucan) delivery to skin.
Harleen Kaur, Pranav Pancham, Ramneek Kaur, Shriya Agarwal, Manisha Singh
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 11, pp 215-236; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2020.114014

Lemon oil (LO), also known as Citrus limonum is a highly volatile essential oil (EO) with potential therapeutic properties like anti-oxidative, anti-proliferative, anti-fungal and anti-cancerous. However, the efficacy of LO is limited due to its physiological factors such as high volatility, poor stability (particularly sensitive to sunlight) and quick degradability upon exposure. To overcome these challenges, we formulated lemon oil loaded nanoemulsion system (LO-NE) (oil-in-water), using aqueous titration method. The formulation comprised of lemon oil (LO), Tween 80 and ethanol as oil, surfactant and co-surfactant phases respectively. The existence zone of NE was established by constructing pseudo-ternary phase diagrams using different concentrations of LO, surfactant and co-surfactant (Smix). The quantitative estimation of LO was performed using a high throughput gas chromatography, revealing the presence of various compounds like Limonene, Alpha-Pinene and Linalyl acetate followed by the estimation of total phenolics and flavonoid content. The characterization of LO-NE indicated the particle size of 60 ± 2.5 nm along with the polydispersity index of 0.125 and zeta potential of −14.9 mV. The size range of the NE particles dispersed in the colloidal system was further verified by TEM micrograph which shows size range between 46.2 - 104.7 nm. All the anti-oxidant assays outcomes exhibited the higher activity of LO-NE in comparison to LO alone with lower IC50 values. The release kinetics statistical data showed that LO-NE had a sustained release and followed the Higuchi’s model in comparison to burst release of LO alone. Lastly, the stability analysis of the optimised formulation (LO-NE) and LO was estimated through antioxidant assay and subjecting them for thermodynamic stability after 6 months. The results attained, showed higher stability and anti-oxidant capability of LO-NE than LO alone. The study suggested that formulated nanoemulsion can be effectively used as a highly efficacious biologically active alternative nanoformulation against many transdermal disorders.
Zixuan Jiang
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 11, pp 237-244; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2020.114015

Drug release is a crucial process in treatment. Conventional drug administration requires patient’s compliance and has the risk of overdosing. In order to control drug release, several potential materials are develo0ped. In this paper, we focus on hydrogel material and simulate drug release process in MATLAB. We optimize the parameter for a seven-day release of a drug. The results show that the diffusion coefficient at approximately 4.00E−11 could ensure medicine to diffuse around 7 days and maintain its effects.
Hazim Aljewari, Raquel de Castro, Olivia Solomon, Quincy C. Moore Iii, Felecia Nave, Audie Thompson
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 11, pp 67-81; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2020.111005

This study investigates poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes as controlled release micro-matrices, which can be useful in therapeutic applications for optimizing the administration of drugs. Currently, the use of hydrogels is limited by protein size. This study investigates the delivery of PspA, a large protein of approximately 38 kD. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) has been shown to provide protective immunity against pneumococcal infection and is considered as a pneumococcal vaccine. The protein release experiments demonstrated that from an initial pH 7.4, approximately 60% of PspA diffuse into a neutral environment with an initial burst and a declining rate reaching equilibrium. The results indicate that the protein was successfully incorporated and released from the membrane over time. The hydrogel and protein interaction is temporary, and the membrane system is ideal for protein drug delivery. The data confirm that the protein did not aggregate and was active after release. The protein release is promising and a step forward to develop microneedles to facilitate high molecular weight protein delivery as well as vaccine delivery.
Pierre Basmaji
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 11, pp 179-187; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2020.113011

It’s well known that the cancer cell has tendency to grow fast. Chemotherapy drugs have been used in order to kill cancer growing cells and take immune system weakly. However, side effect can damage these healthy cells. Moreover, it is not natural treatment. Natural alternative cancer treatments may be able to help and open new way for cancer treatment. In this work, we transfer cancer nodule to wound and we treat the nodule as wound, using Nanoskin® advance cell therapy (ACT), natural extra cellular matrix which releases oxygen to the cancer tissue. Our result shows that the cancer nodule becomes like chronic wound opened and then disappeared. In addition, we obtained complete healing wound.
Igor Da Silva Brum, Marco Antônio Alencar De Carvalho, Paulo Gonçalo Pinto Dos Santos, Renan Lana DeVita, Jorge Luiz Da Silva Pires, Jorge José De Carvalho
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 11, pp 151-160; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2020.113009

Following the worldwide trend of developing heavy metal free materials, dental implants aren’t out of this tendency. Over the years, a number of techniques to condition the surface of dental implants have been designed and used such as oxide blasting, however the scientific medical community has been concerned about the use of these heavy metals which leads us to investigate and develop new conditioning techniques. The aim of the study was the analysis of the Systhex® implant surface in automatic system for the treatment of the surface with acid, where we can identify the surfaces purity level, pore size, deepness and especially the roughness proportionated by the technology of acid conditioning on the titanium surfaces of degree IV dental implants. We conclude that the automatic conditioning of acid attack promoted cleanliness, homogeneity and ideal roughness for the osseointegration process.
Ricardo Santana Cabello, , Robin Zuluaga, Piedad Gañán
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 11, pp 14-32; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2020.111002

The need to have an express regulation covering nanotechnology has been the subject of debate in the scientific literature and identified as one of the main subsets of nanotechnology field research. However, most countries still do not have regulatory framework in order to guarantee consumer safety. This is the case of Costa Rica, one of the most promising countries in Latin America in terms of biotechnology and nanotechnology. This article presents a statistical study about the position of industry, academia and government institutions on the need to expressly regulate nanotechnology in Costa Rica. A qualitative study consisting of a survey of 79 forms was done to individuals representing the community involved with nanotechnology and institutions responsible for ensuring the safety of the citizen’s health, to conclude that the nanotechnology regulation should be created to protect the consumer in Costa Rica. The research also proposes aspects that should be taken into account in its drafting as well as the variables on which decisions should be made to authorize the commercialization of nanomaterials based on the findings of the literature.
E. Russell Vickers
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 11, pp 245-259; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2020.114016

Biodegradable scaffolds have a major therapeutic advantage in regenerative medicine with their ability to include multiple compounds of drugs, growth factors and more recently, stem cells within the matrix. The scaffold can be programmed with mechanoresistive parameters targeted to the tissue to be replaced. Direct chemoattraction of in vivo stem cells to the implanted scaffold would be advantageous in the clinical setting. Large peptides such as vasculo-endothelial growth factor have demonstrated chemotaxis for angiogenesis from endothelial cells. This suggests other endogenous peptides may be present to directly attract stem cells to a scaffold. This exploratory study assessed if peptides from the blood peptidome would display chemotaxis to stem cells. Results showed that several short N-mer peptides demonstrated remarkable chemotaxis to blood and adipose tissue derived stem cells. Sodium alginate hydrogel was placed into 6-well, 24-well plate, and partitioned plates with channels between the wells. Connected wells were in series and spiked with peptides, biofluids containing stem cells and control wells. Images were recorded between three and nine days after incubation at 37°C. There were rapid migration and expansion of stem cells into the peptide wells. Cell analysis revealed activated stem cells on a number of parameters including autophagy, Ki67 and nitric oxide. Potentially, this enhanced method to bioscaffold design utilizing peptide chemoattraction could result in an improved approach for stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine applications. Specific patient groups (e.g. blood coagulation disorders) where surgery to acquire adipose tissue or bone marrow is contraindicated may benefit. In addition, the technology is portable and safe by using “on demand” peripheral blood derived stem cells and would be particularly suitable for specialized environments such as space medicine.
Vinayak Agarwal, Shriya Agarwal, Ramneek Kaur, Pranav Pancham, Harleen Kaur, Siddhi Bhardwaj, Manisha Singh
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology, Volume 11, pp 279-303; doi:10.4236/jbnb.2020.114018

Background: Recent decades witnessed a significant growth in terms of phytocompounds based therapeutics, extensively explored for almost all types of existing disorders. They have also been widely investigated in Neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) and Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a polyphenolic compound having potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties, emerged as a promising compound in ameliorating NDDs. Owing to its poor stability, bioavailability and release kinetics, CGA needed a suitable nanocarrier based pharmaceutical design for targeting NDDs. Objective: The current study is aimed at the in-silico validation of CGA as an effective therapeutic agent targeting various NDDs followed by the fabrication of polymeric nanoparticles-based carrier system to overcome its pharmacological limitations and improve its stability. Methods: A successful in-silico validation using molecular docking techniques along with synthesis of CGA loaded polymeric nanoparticles (CGA-NPs) by ionic gelation method was performed. The statistical optimisation of the developed CGA-NPs was done by Box Behnken method and then the optimized formulation of CGA-NPs was characterised using particle size analysis (PSA), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) along with in-vitro release kinetics analysis. Results & Conclusion: The results attained exhibited average particle size of 101.9 ± 1.5 nm, Polydispersibility (PDI) score of 0.065 and a ZP of −17.4 mV. On a similar note, TEM results showed a size range of CGA-NPs between 90 - 110 nm with a spherical shape of NPs. Also, the data from in-vitro release kinetics showed a sustained release of CGA from the NPs following the first-order kinetics suggesting the appropriate designing of nanoformulation.
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