Animal Health Research Reviews

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ISSN / EISSN : 1466-2523 / 1475-2654
Published by: Cambridge University Press (CUP) (10.1017)
Total articles ≅ 441
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Latest articles in this journal

, Oliver W. Stringer, Yanwen Li, Janine T. Bossé
Animal Health Research Reviews pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252321000074

Abstract:
Historically, the MISTEACHING (microbiome, immunity, sex, temperature, environment, age, chance, history, inoculum, nutrition, genetics) framework to describe the outcome of host−pathogen interaction, has been applied to human pathogens. Here, we show, using Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae as an exemplar, that the MISTEACHING framework can be applied to a strict veterinary pathogen, enabling the identification of major research gaps, the formulation of hypotheses whose study will lead to a greater understanding of pathogenic mechanisms, and/or improved prevention/therapeutic measures. We also suggest that the MISTEACHING framework should be extended with the inclusion of a ‘strain’ category, to become MISTEACHINGS. We conclude that the MISTEACHINGS framework can be applied to veterinary pathogens, whether they be bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites, and hope to stimulate others to use it to identify research gaps and to formulate hypotheses worthy of study with their own pathogens.
, Carla Maris Machado Bittar
Animal Health Research Reviews pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252321000062

Abstract:
This review aims to explain how microbial colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) in young dairy calves is related to health and, consequently, to the performance of these animals. The review addresses everything from the fundamental aspects of microbial colonization to the current understanding about the microbiota manipulation to improve performance in adult animals. The ruminal microbiota is the most studied, mainly due to the high interest in the fermentative aspects, the production of short-chain fatty acids, and microbial proteins, and its effects on animal production. However, in recent years, the intestinal microbiota has gained space between studies, mainly due to the relationship to the host health and how it affects performance. Understanding how the GIT's microbiota looks like and how it is colonized may allow future studies to predict the best timing for dietary interventions as a way to manipulate it and, consequently, improve the health and performance of young ruminants.
, Francisco Medeiros, Manuel Pequito, Ana I. Faustino-Rocha
Animal Health Research Reviews pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252321000050

Abstract:
Influenza is an extremely contagious respiratory disease, which predominantly affects the upper respiratory tract. There are four types of influenza virus, and pigs and chickens are considered two key reservoirs of this virus. Equine influenza (EI) virus was first identified in horses in 1956, in Prague. The influenza A viruses responsible for EI are H7N7 and H3N8. Outbreaks of EI are characterized by their visible and rapid spread, and it has been possible to isolate and characterize H3N8 outbreaks in several countries. The clinical diagnosis of this disease is based on the clinical signs presented by the infected animals, which can be confirmed by performing complementary diagnostic tests. In the diagnosis of EI, in the field, rapid antigen detection tests can be used for a first approach. Treatment is based on the management of the disease and rest for the animal. Regarding the prognosis, it will depend on several factors, such as the animal's vaccination status. One of the important points in this disease is its prevention, which can be done through vaccination. In addition to decreasing the severity of clinical signs and morbidity during outbreaks, vaccination ensures immunity for the animals, reducing the economic impact of this disease.
Pan Yang,
Animal Health Research Reviews pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252321000049

Abstract:
Vitamin D (VD) has been reported to play multiple and significant roles in improving pig health via modulating calcium and phosphorus homeostasis, skeletal muscle development and the immune system. Apart from food, photochemical action of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin is the main source of this molecule for pigs. The VD from dietary intake or photosynthesized via skin can be absorbed into the liver for hydroxylation, and further hydroxylated into the hormone form of VD (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 or 1,25(OH)2D3) in the kidney. As a sterol hormone, 1,25(OH)2D3 is able to bind with the VD receptor (VDR), and this ligand-receptor complex (VDR/retinoic X receptor) translocates from the cytoplasm into the nucleus to regulate gene expression, thus modulating metabolism. In this review, we summarized the recent studies regarding the non-skeletal health benefits of VD for pigs, and focused on the recent advances in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of VD that affects the immune system and reproductive health. This review provides a reference for future research and application of VD in pigs.
Zaharaddeen Lawan, , Alhaji Modu Bukar, Krishnan Nair Balakrishnan, Hassana Kyari Mangga, Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah, Mustapha Mohamed Noordin,
Animal Health Research Reviews pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252320000018

Abstract:
Contagious ecthyma (CE) is an infectious disease of small ruminants caused by a parapoxvirus of family Poxviridae subfamily Chordopoxvirinae. The disease is obviously distinguished by an establishment of scabby lesions and ulcerative formation on less hairy areas including muzzle, ears, nostril, and sometimes on genitalia. The disease is endemic in sheep and goats. The virus is transmissible to other ruminants and is a public health concern in humans. Although the disease is known as self-limiting, it may cause a significant economic threat and financial losses due to lower productivity in livestock production. Information with regard to the risk of the disease and epidemiology in most parts of the world is underreported. This paper aims to provide relevant information about the epidemiology of CE in selected regions of Europe, South America, North America, Asia, Africa, and Australia. An in-depth comprehension of virus infection, diagnoses, and management of the disease will enable farmers, researchers, veterinarians, abattoir workers, health personnel, and border controllers to improve their measures, skills, and effectiveness toward disease prevention and control, toward reducing unnecessary economic loss among farmers. A herd health program for significant improvement in management and productivity of livestock demands a well planned extension program that ought to encourage farmers to equip themselves with adequate skills for animal healthcare.
, Hu Suk Lee, Nguyen Hoai Nam, Chu Thị Thanh Huong, Hoang Minh Son, Barbara Wieland, Ulf Magnusson
Animal Health Research Reviews pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252321000013

Abstract:
Livestock production has increased in many emerging economies, but productivity is often substantially impaired by infectious diseases. The first step towards improved livestock health and productivity is to map the presence of livestock diseases. The objective of this review was to summarize studies conducted on such diseases in an emerging economy, Vietnam, and thereby identifying knowledge gaps that may inform the design of surveillance and control programs. Few studies were found to evaluate the distribution of infectious livestock diseases other than avian influenza. Also, many regions with dense livestock populations had received little attention in terms of disease investigation. A large proportion of the studies dealt with zoonoses and food-borne infections which might be due to funding agencies priorities. On the contrary, studies targeting infections that affect livestock and their productivity were few. We think that this limitation in scientific reports on infectious diseases that only affect livestock productivity is a common phenomenon in low and lower middle income countries. More science-based data on such diseases would help policymakers to prioritize which livestock diseases should be subject to animal health programs aimed to support rural livelihoods and economic development.
, Loren Skow
Animal Health Research Reviews pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252320000262

Abstract:
Odors may be pleasant or unpleasant and in practice, pleasant odors are attractive while unpleasant odors are repellent. However, an odor that is noxious to one species may be attractive to another. Plants, predators, and pathogens may enhance their transmission by manipulating these signals. This may be especially significant when odors attract arthropod disease vectors. Odor detection may also be important in small prey species for evasion of macropredators such as large carnivores. Conversely, pleasant odors may identify family members, parents, or sexual partners. They may also generate signals of good health or fitness and contribute to the process of mate selection. In this review, we seek to integrate these odor-driven processes into a coherent pattern of behaviors that serve to complement the innate and adaptive immune systems. It may be considered the ‘behavioral immune system’.
Hyun-Eui Park,
Animal Health Research Reviews pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252320000195

Abstract:
Mycobacterial infections are widely distributed in animals and cause considerable economic losses, especially in livestock animals. Bovine paratuberculosis and bovine tuberculosis, which are representative mycobacterial infections in cattle, are difficult to diagnose using current-generation diagnostics due to their relatively long incubation periods. Thus, alternative diagnostic tools are needed for the detection of mycobacterial infections in cattle. A biomarker is an indicator present in biological fluids that reflects the biological state of an individual during the progression of a specific disease. Therefore, biomarkers are considered a potential diagnostic tool for various diseases. Recently, the number of studies investigating biomarkers as tools for diagnosing mycobacterial infections has increased. In human medicine, many diagnostic biomarkers have been developed and applied in clinical practice. In veterinary medicine, however, many such developments are still in the early stages. In this review, we summarize the current progress in biomarker research related to the development of diagnostic biomarkers for mycobacterial infections in cattle.
, Ivan I. Kochish
Animal Health Research Reviews, Volume 21, pp 103-107; https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252320000183

Abstract:
In recent years, nanoparticles have become a fashionable subject of research due to their sizes, shapes, and unique intrinsic physicochemical properties. In particular for the last 5 years, nano-Se has received tremendous attention in terms of its production, characteristic, and possible application for poultry/animal science and medical sciences. Indeed, Nano-Se is shown to be a potential source of Se for poultry/animal nutrition. However, there is an urgent need to address the questions related to nano-Se absorption, assimilation, and metabolism. It is not clear at present if major biological effects of nano-Se are due to Se-protein synthesis, direct antioxidant/prooxidant effects, or both. It is necessary to understand how metallic nano-Se can be converted into H2Se and further to SeCys to be incorporated into selenoproteins. The aforementioned issues must be resolved before nano-Se finds its way to animal/poultry production as a feed supplement and clearly this subject warrants further investigation.
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