Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 1735-143X / 2383-2894
Published by: Kowsar Medical Institute (10.5812)
Total articles ≅ 1,721
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Afsaneh Astinchap, , Khadijeh Fereidoonfara, , Mehrali Rahimi
Published: 11 October 2021
Hepatitis Monthly, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.116513

Abstract:
Background: There is limited research on the effects of physical activity with moderate intensity on βklotho (BKL) and fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) proteins expression in diabetic patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Objectives: This study was aimed to determine the effects of eight weeks of endurance and resistance training on BKL and FGF-21 proteins expression in diabetic women with NAFLD. Methods: Forty-five diabetic women (age: 51 ± 8 years, height: 158 ± 2 cm, weight: 75 ± 8 kg) with NAFLD participated. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups, including control (n = 15), endurance training (n = 15), and resistance training (n = 15). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to measure BKL and FGF-21 proteins. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was applied to determine differences at a significant level of P < 0.05. Results: Eight weeks of endurance and resistance training reduced AST, ALT, and FGF-21 (25, 26, 19% and 13, 16, 13%, respectively) and increased BKL (16% and 18, respectively). However, in the variables of HDL, insulin, AST, ALT, FGF-21, and BKL, a significant difference was observed in the control group (P < 0.05). Also, there was a significant difference between the control and training groups in BKL and FGF21 proteins expression (P < 0.05), but no significant difference was observed between the two training groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions: The results suggest that both moderate-intensity endurance and resistance training can modulate the destructive effects of type 2 diabetes and NAFLD on BKL and FGF-21 proteins expression, and there is no difference between the two training methods.
Khadijeh Mansouri-Habibabadi, Mahnoosh Fatemi, Fereshteh Ghandehari
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/zjrms.96533

Abstract:
Background: The reaction of immune cells to the introduction of pathogens into the body is an increase in reactive oxygen species, which leads to the induction of oxidative stress. Reducing the level of oxidative stress through the use of antioxidants strengthens the immune system. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the antioxidant effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and selenium-enriched S. cerevisiae against the oxidative stress induced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in rats. Methods: A total of 36 rats were randomly divided into six groups, including control (A), S. cerevisiae (B), S. cerevisiae enriched with selenium (C), P. aeruginosa infection treated with S. cerevisiae (D), P. aeruginosa infection treated with S. cerevisiae enriched with selenium (E), and P. aeruginosa infection (F). At the end of the treatment period, the blood samples were collected to evaluate hematological parameters, total antioxidant capacity, glutathione concentration, and glutathione peroxidase activity. Results: The concentration and activity of antioxidant agents in group F were significantly decreased compared to those of the control group; however, in groups D and E, the levels of the aforementioned factors showed a significant increase compared to those of the infected group. The number of white blood cells in group F showed a significant increase, compared to that of the control group. In other groups, the observed differences in antioxidant factors and blood parameters were not significant, compared to those reported for the control group. Conclusions: The results showed that the induction of oxidative stress by P. aeruginosa was partially reduced by treatment with yeast and selenium-enriched yeast. Further studies are essential to confirm the aforementioned results.
Mustafa Cengiz, Seren Ozenirler
Published: 3 October 2021
Hepatitis Monthly, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.116687

Abstract:
Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) may remain asymptomatic or cause liver fibrosis and cirrhosis. Objectives: We aimed to assess the relationship between serum peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacted 1 (Pin1) levels and liver fibrosis due to HCV. Methods: Serum samples of successive patients with HCV genotype 1b and healthy volunteers were collected, and Pin1 levels were measured using ELISA kits. Liver fibrosis stages were calculated by the Ishak Scoring System and subdivided into two groups; stage < 3 (mild fibrosis) and ≥ 3 (advanced fibrosis). Correlation and area under receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) analysis were used to investigate the relationship between Pin1 and clinical and histopathological properties of HCV infection. Results: Ninety-four patients with HCV and 47 age- and sex-matched volunteers were included. The median age of the participants was 52, and 55% of whom were females. The mean (SD) of Pin1 serum level was significantly higher in the HCV group compared with healthy volunteers (33.94 (21.15) vs. 26.82 (8.85) pg/mL, respectively, P = 0.007). Seventy-seven (82%) and 17 (18%) of the participants showed mild and advanced fibrosis, respectively. Pin1 serum levels were significantly lower in the mild compared with advanced fibrosis group (29 (17.88) vs. 43.59 (7.98) pg/mL, respectively, P < 0.001). We found a significantly positive correlation between Pin1 serum level and liver fibrosis stage (r = 0.71, P < 0.001). The cut off of 33.04 pg/mL of Pin1 serum level showed the best sensitivity (100%) and specificity (68.4%) (AUROC = 0.81 [95% confidence interval: 0.72 - 0.90], P < 0.001) for distinguishing advanced from mild liver fibrosis. Conclusions: Serum Pin1 level may be a relevant marker for predicting liver fibrosis in HCV infected patients.
, Jafar Nikbakht
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/zjrms.109853

Abstract:
: During the past two decades, multiple viral epidemics have emerged, including the epidemics of H1N1 influenza in 2009 and the Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV) in 2002 - 2003. Moreover, the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was initially recognized in Saudi Arabia in 2012. Recently, cases of another lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) were discovered in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, on December 31st 2019, and reported to the WHO country office in the country. Studies in the field have referred to the identification of first symptomatic people in early December 2019. Since experts in the field could not determine the causative agent of the disease, they mistakenly categorized the first reported cases as pneumonia of unknown etiology (PUE). Therefore, the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention (China CDC), as well as local CDCs, arranged a full outbreak investigation plan, ascribing the etiology to a newly discovered virus of the coronavirus (CoV) family (i.e., the causative agent of COVID-19).
Reza Mohammadirad, Abas Ali Hosseinkhanzadeh, Azra Zebardast, Hamed Salimi
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/zjrms.104193

Abstract:
Background: Since there has been no research on music therapy in a systematic way so far to develop motivation and hope in the course of treating individuals who are addicted to drugs, especially stimulant drugs whose use has increased in Iran, the present research was conducted to examine the effect of music therapy on the sense of loneliness and life expectancy in methamphetamine-addicted individuals who were attempting to quit. Methods: The research is pretest, posttest, and test and control groups. The research sample includes 30 methamphetamine-addicted individuals who were quitting in a midterm residential center in Sowme'eh Sara who were selected by convenience sampling and allocated to two control (N = 15) and experiment (N = 15) groups randomly. UCLA sense of loneliness scale and Schneider statistical questionnaire (1991) were used for data collection. Results: Studies showed that music therapy could reduce the symptoms related to the sense of loneliness and increased life expectancy (P < 0.001). Conclusions: It is concluded that mental health professionals can use group music therapy to improve sense of loneliness and life expectancy in methamphetamine-addicted individuals attempting to quit. Also, it is suggested that future research should investigate the effectiveness of group music therapy in improving other psychological constructs in addicted females and males who are attempting to quit.
Miao Cheng, Zhe Zhu, Shuyuan Ye, Junfeng Chen, Xunjun Dong, Guosheng Gao
Published: 14 September 2021
Hepatitis Monthly, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.116525

Abstract:
Background: Secreted frizzled-related protein 4 (sFRP4) is elevated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, suggesting that it can be served as a candidate marker for diagnosing HCC. However, little is known about its role in the different stages of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Objectives: This study was conducted to explore the clinical value of plasma sFRP4 in the different stages of chronic HBV infection. Methods: A total of 303 patients with chronic HBV infection were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. They were classified into the chronic hepatitis B (CHB), liver cirrhosis (LC), HCC, and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) groups on admission. Additionally, 30 healthy subjects were included in the healthy control (HC) group. The clinical value of plasma sFRP4 in the different stages of chronic HBV infection was analyzed. Results: There were 54, 85, 105, 59, and 30 cases in the CHB, LC, HCC, ACLF, and HC groups, respectively. ACLF group had the highest plasma sFRP4 levels compared to the CHB, LC, and HCC groups (all P < 0.001), followed by the HCC and LC groups. LC and HCC groups were found with up-regulated sFRP4 than the CHB group (all P < 0.05). High levels of plasma sFRP4 were recognized as an independent risk factor for distinguishing patients with ACLF from patients with CHB and LC [adjusted odds ratio (OR):1.005, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.000 - 1.010, P = 0.043], with the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.790 (95% CI: 0.726 - 0.844, P < 0.001). However, in patients with ACLF, plasma sFRP4 levels in the deteriorated group were higher than in the improved group, with a marginally significant difference (P = 0.071). The AUC for predicting the 90 days prognosis in patients with ACLF was 0.640 (P = 0.064). Conclusions: Plasma sFRP4 might be a biomarker to reflect the progression of chronic HBV infection. However, it was not significantly related to the prognosis in patients with ACLF; we did not find this, which may be due to the small sample size.
Hossein Ghaderi-Zefrehi, Mohammad Gholami-Fesharaki, Amir Ghorbanzadeh,
Published: 12 September 2021
Hepatitis Monthly, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.109493

Abstract:
Context: Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection is a major cause of chronic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Approximately 30% of infected persons with HCV spontaneously clear the viral infection; but, some of the remaining patients develop chronic HCV. Studies show that HLA molecules play an important role in the outcome of HCV infection by influencing the efficiency of the antiviral immune response to HCV infection. It is now known that polymorphisms in HLA loci are associated with HCV susceptibility or clearance. The purpose of the present study was to systematically review the studies that reported the association of HLA class II alleles (HLA-DQ and HLA-DR) with the outcome of HCV infection. Evidence Acquisition: Studies were identified by searching electronic databases, including PubMed and Scopus. A total of 12,265 relevant studies were identified by the electronic search, of which a total of 19 eligible papers were identified that were meta-analyzed for the association between HLA class II alleles and the outcome of HCV infection. Results: Subjects carrying HLA-DQB1*0301, HLA-DQB1*0501, HLA-DRB1*1303, HLA-DRB1*1201, HLA-DRB1*0401, HLA-DRB1*0101, and HLA-DRB1*1101 alleles were significantly associated with higher spontaneous clearance of HCV infection. Conclusions: The data from the current study confirm that several polymorphisms in HLA-DQ and HLA-DR loci are correlated with the clearance of HCV infection. Identifying these polymorphisms may contribute to a better understanding of immune mechanisms of HCV clearance or persistence.
Batool Teimoori, Azar Khaefi Ashkzari, Farahnaz Farzaneh
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.5812/zjrms.106566

Abstract:
Background: Abnormal position and presentation are challenges for obstetricians in about 10% of all pregnancies. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare ultrasound with transvaginal finger examination in detecting abnormal position and presentation of fetal head. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study performed in Ali ibn-e Abitaleb Hospital of Zahedan in 2018. The women underwent vaginal finger examination in the first phase of delivery, and then trans-abdominal ultrasound was performed for pregnant women. All examinations and ultrasounds were performed by one person with the same ultrasound device. Data were analyzed with SPSS software. Results: In this study, 100 pregnant women were studied in the first phase of pregnancy. The mean age of the subjects was 24.7 ± 5.5 years old. Fetal head position was determined in 81 and 93% of women with vaginal examination and ultrasound, respectively. There was weak agreement (kappa = 0.416). Fetal presentation was determined by finger examination in 93% of cases and by ultrasound in 100% of cases. There was moderate agreement (kappa = 0.783). Conclusions: In general, the results of this study showed that there was no significant difference between ultrasound and finger examination in the presentation and position of fetal head.
Shaomei Zhu, Bochao Liu, Yuxia Xu, Ling Zhang, Zhengyuan Xia, Jihong Liu, Xiao Zhou, Yongshui Fu, Jean-Pierre Allain, Chengyao Li, et al.
Zahedan Journal of Research in Medical Sciences, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.115727

Abstract:
Background: The traditional ultracentrifugation purification method of hepatitis C virus (HCV) particles requires special equipment, limiting its wide application. Therefore, more effective and convenient methods for HCV are needed. Objectives: The present study aimed to establish simple and effective purification methods for HCV. Methods: The infectious clone of the HCV genome (JFH-1) was transfected to the human hepatoma cell line (Huh7.5.1) and cultured in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium/nutrient mixture F-12. The infectivity of JFH-1 culture was determined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence. After concentration by centrifugal filter devices, HCV particles were purified by heparin-affinity chromatography and magnetic separation technique. The purified viruses were detected by the western blot and immune-electron microscopy. Results: The infectious titer of JFH-1 transfected Huh7.5.1 in the serum-free culture medium was 4.5 × 104 FFU/mL, and HCV ribonucleic acid load was 3.946 × 106 IU/mL in 30 days of cell culture post-transfection. After purification by heparin-affinity chromatography or magnetic separation method, viral particles were visualized with spherical morphology and an average diameter of 55 nm assessed by electron microscopy. The viruses were confirmed by the western blot and immune-electron microscopy with specific antibodies to HCV. Conclusions: The heparin-affinity chromatography and magnetic separation methods were established for the purification of HCV, which were simple and efficient methods for the stable purification of HCV particles on a large scale.
Published: 8 September 2021
Hepatitis Monthly, Volume 21; https://doi.org/10.5812/hepatmon.115370

Abstract:
Background: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is one of the leading viral agents that can pave the way for serious complications and organ damage in solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients after transplantation. Strategies have been developed to protect at-risk patients from CMV infection following transplantation. Since more than 90% of adults in Turkey were positive for CMV IgG, universal CMV prophylaxis was applied, and the results were evaluated. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the results of universal CMV prophylaxis after liver transplantation in the long term. Methods: A total of 1,090 liver transplant patients were evaluated in terms of CMV infection in the Organ Transplantation Institute of Inonu University, Malatya, Turkey, from October 2014 to December 2019. In order to identify the CMV infections, quantitative nucleic acid amplification (QNAT) was used to detect potential CMV DNA. The cut-off value of CMV DNA was determined to be 1000 copies/mL after transplantation. Results: According to the clinical and laboratory assessments, 33 (3%) patients were diagnosed with CMV infection, and 25 (2.3%) patients were evaluated as possibly having CMV syndrome. Also, eight of the 33 patients were assessed as having end-organ CMV disease and 25 as probable CMV syndrome. In the late period following prophylaxis, CMV infection was observed in 10 (0.9%) cases. The infection rate after prophylaxis (0.9%) was lower than the infection rate (2.1%) seen during prophylaxis. Conclusions: Close clinical follow-up with CMV prophylaxis and strict monitoring of CMV DNA by determining a specific cut-off point are important in the follow-up of liver transplant patients.
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