Carleton Review of International Affairs

Journal Information
EISSN : 2561-3251
Published by: Carleton University, MacOdrum Library (10.22215)
Total articles ≅ 48
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Christopher Wieczorek
Carleton Review of International Affairs, Volume 5, pp 47-60; https://doi.org/10.22215/cria.v5i0.1320

Abstract:
This paper takes as its starting point recent terror attacks in the European Union and seeks to understand why the EU has suffered such a wave of high-profile, damaging attacks. Specifically, the paper explores counter-terrorism policy at the EU level and investigates why the integration of EU counter-terrorism policy is not higher among individual member states. Following an examination of previous terrorist incidents in the history of the EU and a literature review on EU-level counter-terrorism policy, the paper explores counter-terrorism institutions and mechanisms within the EU. A substantial analysis of the level of integration (or lack thereof) of these institutions and mechanisms is then undertaken, before by a concluding section that offers policy revisions to increase the implementation of policies by member states. The paper ultimately argues that implementation of counter-terrorism policy is lacking because individual member states are reluctant to cede their sovereignty over such an important policy area. The suggestion is also made that future EU counter-terrorism efforts should both focus on demonstrating how EU-level efforts will make member states safer, and, importantly, on creating mechanisms and institutions that will be of practical benefit to member states within their own domestic arenas.
Jack Bowness
Carleton Review of International Affairs, Volume 5, pp 1-18; https://doi.org/10.22215/cria.v5i0.1317

Abstract:
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) was adopted with the hope that the accord would bring economic growth to Mexico, reducing poverty and social inequality. It is now 24 years later, and these development goals have not been achieved. Using primary source interview material from indigenous people of southern Oaxaca, along with a review of the literature and quantitative data, this article contends that NAFTA has contributed to an increase in rural poverty, regional disparities, and the emigration of campesinos from their native communities. With NAFTA 2.0 negotiations underway, this paper advocates that the voices of indigenous people should be heard at the negotiating table. Their insight on how the trade deal has impacted southern localities is of critical importance moving forward.
Laurie Chandler
Carleton Review of International Affairs, Volume 5, pp 19-30; https://doi.org/10.22215/cria.v5i0.1318

Abstract:
Why is it, that when we think about or see terrorism, we do not see women? Women, like men, are capable of violence. Women, like men, commit violence for a variety of reasons, some rational some irrational. Still, when women commit acts of violence, they have been characterized as anything but regular criminals or soldier or terrorists. Rather, women who are violent are discussed in one of three ways - the wife, the mother or the whore – which deny her agency and reify gender stereotypes and subordination. With the rise in global terrorism and female participation within such organizations, the implications of the terms we use to describe away a woman’s legitimate use of violence, are far reaching.
Mary Gramiak
Carleton Review of International Affairs, Volume 5, pp 31-46; https://doi.org/10.22215/cria.v5i0.1319

Abstract:
In 2016, 2.6 million people died prematurely from indoor air pollution as a result of the inefficient burning of biomass fuels for cooking and energy in the global south. The health and environmental impacts of indoor air pollution have been well documented throughout decades of literature, and governments and non-governmental organizations alike have taken steps to implement “safe stove” programs to upgrade cookstoves in developing regions and begin to address these issues. While largely effective in reducing indoor air pollution and improving energy efficiency, the qualitative impacts of implementing safe stove programs have not yet been explored. This article aims to fill a gap in this literature by investigating why safe stoves are important to the women who participate in the projects, and what the qualitative impacts of combatting indoor air pollution are for communities as a whole. The research draws on in-depth interviews with women from the rural highlands of Guatemala in the Quetzaltenango region, and addresses topics such as dignity and self-esteem within these populations. Not intended to be a binding pieced of literature, this research serves as a good reminder that the focus of development initiatives should always be on improving the overall wellbeing of the participants who purportedly benefit from these projects.
Natalia Paunic
Carleton Review of International Affairs, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22215/cria.v3i0.120

Abstract:
The circumstances of the American war in Iraq, the Arab Spring, and the international fight against Da’esh have provided an opportunity for the Islamic Republic of Iran to consolidate its power in the Middle East, as foretold by King Abdullah II of Jordan in his coining of the phrase “Shi’a crescent” in 2004. Iran’s successful resurgence can be attributed to its effective use of “smart power,” or the combination of soft and hard power tactics. Iran’s hard power, in the form of Shi’a militias and proxies, is supported with soft power tactics. These include Iran’s export of the ideals of the Revolution and its model of an Islamic Republic, its role as leader of the global Shi’ite community, and its investment in cultural diplomacy across the Middle East as well as its renewed engagement with the West.
Imaan Sandhu
Carleton Review of International Affairs, Volume 3; https://doi.org/10.22215/cria.v3i0.121

Abstract:
This paper assesses the validity of S.E. Finer’s “five conditions of military intervention in politics” in the context of the 1999 military coup in Pakistan. According to Finer, the professionalization of the officer corps, the rise of nationalism and the nation-state, popular sovereignty, the emergence of an “insurrectionary army” and the creation of “new, independent states” contribute to a military’s decision to supplant the civilian authority and intervene in the governance of a country. The findings of this paper confirm that while not all of Finer’s conditions are necessarily fully applicable to Pakistan, his overall framework nonetheless accounts for the major drivers of the 1999 coup.
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