Green and Sustainable Chemistry

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2160-6951 / 2160-696X
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 217
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Ibrahim Karume, Simon Tewolde, Emmanuel Tebandeke, Is’Harq Z. T. Mukasa, Ruth Mbabazi
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 73-82; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2022.123006

Abstract:
In this study, the metal coordination ability of alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) was employed to complex gold and thus isolate and extract it from different matrices of acid-digests of electronic waste and soil. The crude α-CD used was extracted from cassava and yam starch of the non-edible plant species using E. coli α-cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (α-CGTase), with yields ≥ 62%. The reaction was monitored progressively by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy and checked with infrared spectroscopy (IR) for the presence of α-CD. The crude α-CD extract without need for purification was refluxed with gold containing-electronic waste and soil predigested in a mixture of NaBr/HNO3 for 4 - 7 days. Recoveries of up to 22.9% and 70.8% gold were achieved from electronic waste and soil, respectively using 0.1 M α-CD. This approach is cheap, effective, and environmentally benign.
Bandana Ranamagar, Fasil Abebe
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 57-72; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2022.123005

Abstract:
Rhodamine 6G-chromone-derived compounds RD1 - RD4 have been synthesized by condensation of rhodamine 6G hydrazide and substituted chromone aldehydes in ethanol using microwave-assisted reaction. The structures of these synthesized rhodamine 6G derivatives were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR), carbon nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR), and high-resolution mass spectra data (HRMS). Colorimetric and photophysical studies show the synthesized compounds selectively detect copper (II) ion in aqueous acetonitrile solution.
Michael Bong Alang, Ndikontar Maurice Kor, Peter T. Ndifon
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 28-40; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2022.122003

Abstract:
Bio-glycerol was synthesized from Cameroon palm kernel oil (PKO) through the transesterification procedure. Palm kernel oil extracted from palm kernel seeds using mechanical expression and solvent extraction was purified and characterized by physico-chemical methods and used in the transesterification process to give biodiesel and bio-glycerol. The biodiesel was purified and characterized as reported in previous articles. Our focus in this article is on glycerol, an important by-product of the transesterification process which has potential pharmaceutical, cosmetic and engineering applications. The bio-glycerol was purified by acidification and the purified glycerol was subjected to physical and chemical characterization. The specific gravity of glycerol was obtained as 1.2 kg/L, viscosity at 40°C gave 1500 cSt and 500 cSt at 100°C; pH was 7.4; the flash point was 160°C, and the ASTM color was 2.0 before purification and zero after purification. The sulfur content was 0.016%w/v. This sulfur content is low thus posing no environment threat. The chemical composition of the synthesized bio-glycerol determined using IR spectroscopy and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) confirmed the known chemical structure of glycerol. The purification and analysis of bio-glycerol is important as it can find applications in the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries inter alia.
Tomoko Mineno, Daiki Takano, Saika Komiya, Azusa Sato, Hisao Kansui
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2022.121001

Abstract:
Esters are known as one of the most fundamental chemical moieties and also essentially useful components, especially for medicinal agents. Herein, using benzaldehyde and its derivatives as starting materials, Oxone-mediated preparation of ester derivatives in the presence of a catalytic amount of indium(III) triflate is described. Alcohols with various chain lengths, which functioned as solvents and substrates, were examined. Overall, the oxidative esterification starting with benzaldehyde derivatives possessing electron withdrawing groups proceeded smoothly and gave sufficient yields, in comparison to the reactions with the derivatives having electron donating groups.
Charlie L. Martin Jr., Clayton J. Clark Ii
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 41-56; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2022.122004

Abstract:
Simultaneous nitrification denitrification (SND) is a well-established phenomenon in biological nutrient removal activated sludge systems. Study at a municipal wastewater treatment facility sought to determine nitrogen removal effectiveness within a full-scale sequential batch reactor (SBR) system utilizing SND in conjunction with traditional nitrogen removal. In addition to characterizing extent of SND, the research examined the ability of SND to meet state-based effluent water quality standards. At the selected facility, the average SND efficiency during a two-month sampling period was 52.8%, paralleling results from similar SBR municipal wastewater systems. The observed SBR system had removal efficiencies > 99% for the influent to effluent -N concentrations. The SND process also resulted in average NO3-NO2-N concentration that was 82% lower than the theoretical concentration under comparable circumstances. Overall, nitrogen removal for this SBR system was >99% which typified results in other SND systems, but at a higher Total Nitrogen removal rate.
Ravindra V. Gadhave, Chaitali R. Gadhave, Pritam V. Dhawale
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 12, pp 9-27; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2022.122002

Abstract:
Hydrocarbon-derived polymers have been utilized in various packaging applications, such as pouches, films, foamed containers, rigid containers, and multiple components for medical, food, and other uses. However, mounting environmental considerations increased knowledge of the harmful consequences of greenhouse gas emissions, landfills, and disposal difficulties. Rising oil prices are forcing researchers and businesses to produce environmentally friendly packaging. These new sustainability requirements are particularly suited to biomass-based products, instead of petroleum sources; sourced from biomass entities. More functional and performance-oriented packaging is necessary despite the widespread usage of bio-based materials like paper. As a result, the transition to eco-friendly packaging will necessitate the improvement of existing bio-derived packaging and the development of new bio-derived materials like biopolymer paper coatings. The goal of this brief study was to give a synopsis of the present status of bio-derived packaging and an insight into ongoing and prospective developments in sustainable next-generation paper coatings for the packaging industry.
Acha Anna Afek, Desobgo Zangue Steve Carly, Nso Emmanuel Jong
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 107-123; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2021.113010

Abstract:
In African communities, traditional beer drinking remains a unifying factor within its populations both socially, commercially, culturally, politically, in health and nutrition and for some ritual practices. In this research a field survey was carried out to investigate the consumption of corn beer and in particular Nkang in the North-West Region of Cameroon. The tools that were employed to carry out these investigations included face-to-face interviews and the use of properly designed questionnaires. Results from the survey showed that three types of maize-based beverages are drunk in the North-West Region of Cameroon, which are locally called Kwacha (whitish, most viscous and most turbid), Sha-ah (cream white, viscous and turbid) and Nkang (dark brown, least viscous and least turbid) in terms of colour, viscosity and turbidity. The percentage awareness of the existence of these beers from the sampled population gave the following values; 60.9% for Kwacha, 100% for Sha-ah and 89.1% for Nkang. Nonetheless, 54.5% of the 60.9% of those who were aware of the existence of kwacha had at least tasted it. Also 98.2% out of the 100% for Sha-ah and 85.5% out of 89.1% for Nkang had tasted them, too. Nkang was found to be the most preferred to Sha-ah then Kwacha in that order by the consumers since Nkang is very tasteful, least alcoholic, least turbid, least viscous, has the most attractive colour than the others, has a significant impact on the culture of some localities in this region and as well as it is natural and nutritious. However, Nkang as well as the other two has varying organoleptic properties, unsatisfactory conservation and short shelf-life. Hence are consumed within a short period of time from their production. Because of the low alcoholic content of Nkang, the beverage is consumed by both adults (most elderly), children, those who have health problems and it is mostly preferred by some Christians though not frequently seen in the markets. It was equally observed that the little quantity of Nkang found in the markets is of poor quality which keeps dropping everyday thus an indication of its risk becoming extinct. Therefore, if Nkang is clarified and its quality improved, the problems can be solved as even attested by the consumers who say they will buy at even a higher price if clarify. As well as those who want it for their cultural reasons do not want it to face out too.
Mohammad Ateeq Aldosari
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 73-88; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2021.113007

Abstract:
The rate of Methanol synthesis over a Cu/ZnO/Al2O3 (60:30:10) catalyst has been measured using CO2/H2 (10:90) and CO/CO2/H2 (10:10:80) streams at 433, 443, 453, 463 and 473 K. Using the CO2/H2 stream, it requires 12 × 103 s to achieve steady-state performance; this time reduces to 5.4 × 103 s on increasing the temperature to 463 K. Using the CO/CO2/H2 stream, steady State performance is not achieved even after 14.4 × 103 s at 433 K but is achieved after 9 × 103 s at 463 K. Significant deviations from steady state behavior (~40% of steady state) are observed only at 453 K and only using the CO2/H2 feed when gas chromatography (GC) is the analysis system. When the reactor output is connected directly into a flame ionization detector (FID), oscillation is observed at all temperatures studied using a CO2/H2 stream. Injection of CO into the CO2/H2 stream, which is synthesizing methanol at 473 K, produces a sharply spiked increase in the rate of methanol synthesis followed by an oscillatory relaxation to steady state behavior. At 433 and 443 K, the injection of CO into the CO2/H2 stream again produces the sharply spiked increase in the rater of methanol synthesis, which returns to the baseline value without oscillations.
Yutaka Okada, Ryuichi Maeda
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2021.111001

Abstract:
Microwave-assisted reactions are an environmentally friendly approach for synthesizing organic compounds. In this study, oximation of acetylferrocene and acetophenone was conducted under both microwave irradiation and conventional heating conditions. Acetylferrocene and acetophenone were subjected to oximation under the two conditions in various solvent mixtures, and the extent of conversion was determined by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Microwave irradiation was found to accelerate the rate of oximation of both acetylferrocene and acetophenone. Acceleration of the reaction under microwave irradiation was attributed to the efficient absorption of microwaves by the ferrocene nucleus.
Helen Olayinka Ogunsuyi, Christiana Aanu Olawale
Green and Sustainable Chemistry, Volume 11, pp 59-71; https://doi.org/10.4236/gsc.2021.112006

Abstract:
This study investigated the viability of post-harvested plantain biomass as a promising feedstock for the production of Bioethanol. The properties of the derived bio-ethanol were determined to examine its suitability as a promising and sustainable alternative to petroleum-based ethanol The research revealed that Plantain biomass is made up of Lignocellulosic contents such as extractive, Lignin, cellulose, hemicelluloses, ash and moisture in different proportions. The different parts of the biomass such as the flower, stem and leaves were hydrolyzed using H2SO4. Optimum hydrolysis conditions of 6%w/v acid concentration, 30 min contact time and 80°C working temperature were established for Plantain stem and flower. However, hydrolysis of Plantain leaves was at the best under the experimental conditions of acid concentration (10% w/v), contact time (120 min) and temperature (120°C). The highest yield of the bio-ethanol produced was obtained from Plantain stem biomass with a record of 8.04% followed by Plantain flower with a yield of 7.73% and 757% from Plantain leaves The hydrolyzate was fermented using Baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at a room temperature of 25°C and pH of 4.5 for 4 D. The structural determination of the derived bioethanol was conducted using FT-IR analysis and the fuel properties were found to be consistent with those of the conventional ethanol. The SEM analysis conducted on the post hydrolysed biomass confirmed the effectiveness of the hydrolysis scheme adopted as evident on the surface morphology of the biomass. This study confirmed the viability of Plantain biomass as promising feedstock for Bio-ethanol production under the established hydrolysis conditions.
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