Iranian Journal of Radiology
ISSN / EISSN : 1735-1065 / 2008-2711
Published by: Kowsar Medical Institute (10.5812)
Total articles ≅ 1,033
Latest articles in this journal
Iranian Journal of Radiology; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.113845
Background: Digital mammography (DM) is one of the most common and effective radiological methods for breast cancer screening and detection. A dense fibroglandular breast tissue can lead to false negative results by superimposing on the lesion margins. Therefore, adjunctive imaging methods, such as digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and ultrasonography (US), are needed to increase mammographic sensitivity. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the contribution of US and DBT to DM in different patient groups (patients group of BI-RADS 0 and 3-4 lesions, patients with dense breast parenchyma, patients with non-dense breast parenchyma).. Whether US and DBT can upgrade or downgrade the BI-RADS category of uncertain lesions detected on DM was also investigated. Patients and Methods: Forty-six patients, who were classified as BI-RADS categories 0, 3, and 4 in DM, according to DBT and US findings, were included in the study. DM followed by DBT was performed for the patients, and the BI-RADS classification system was applied. Subsequently, the patients were evaluated sonographically, and the BI-RADS system was applied according to the US results. Each BI-RADS category was compared with the histopathological and multimodality follow-up results. The diagnostic performance of all modalities was also examined alone and in combination. Results: The sensitivity and specificity of DM alone was 42% and 87%, respectively. DBT detected the lesions with 92% sensitivity and 68% specificity. The modality with the highest sensitivity for the detection of malignant lesions was US (100%). Besides, the specificity of DBT was significantly high for dense breasts (P < 0.001). There was no significant difference in terms of the diagnostic accuracy of US measurements between dense and non-dense breasts. For indeterminate lesions, the integration of DBT and US to DM increased the diagnostic accuracy. Conclusion: The contribution of DBT is more valuable than US in patients with dense breast parenchyma.
Iranian Journal of Radiology; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.113846
Background: Digital mammography (DM) and digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) are important radiological modalities, which increase the survival of breast cancer patients. Breast cancer is a morphologically heterogeneous disease with various histopathological parameters and multiple receptors in its biological profile. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the morphological features of invasive breast cancer on DM and DBT, to investigate the contribution of DBT to DM, to examine the association of DBT findings with pathological molecular subtypes, Bloom-Richardson grade, and Ki-67 index, and to determine the effect of breast parenchyma density on the relationship between DBT findings and hormone receptors. Patients and Methods: A total of 36 patients with malignant lesions were evaluated in this study. According to the American College of Radiology (ACR) classification, the lesion features were divided into subgroups based on DM and DBT, and the findings were compared. The relationships between DBT findings and the hormone receptor status, molecular classification, and Bloom-Richardson grade were also investigated, and the effect of density on these relationships was assessed. Results: The mean age of the patients (n = 36) was 53 years. Based on the comparison of DM and DBT findings, spiculated margins, mass density, architectural distortion, and microcalcifications were significantly more frequent in DBT. Lesions with indistinct margins on DM were observed as mass lesions with spiculated margins on DBT (P < 0.001). Regarding the relationship between DBT findings and hormone receptor status and Ki-67 proliferation index, in PR-positive patients, an irregular tumor shape was more common (89.7%). In PR-negative patients, skin changes and nipple retraction were more frequently seen (P = 0.03 for skin changes, and P = 0.049 for nipple retraction). Regarding the association between Bloom-Richardson grade and DBT findings, tumors with a higher grade were more likely to be associated with a high tumor density (P = 0.032). Also, considering the relationship between molecular classification and DBT findings, skin changes and nipple retraction were significantly more frequent in triple-negative masses compared to other subtypes (P = 0.011 for skin changes and P = 0.016 for nipple retraction). Conclusions: DBT is superior to DM, as it reveals the lesion margins, density, and architectural distortion more accurately. The majority of PR-positive tumors were irregular, while most PR-negative cases were round. The mass density also increased as the tumor grade increased. Skin change and nipple retraction were frequently seen in triple-negative tumors compared to other subtypes. Therefore, DBT is a promising diagnostic tool for showing molecular subtypes in dense breasts.
Iranian Journal of Radiology; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.110963
Background: The histopathological differentiation of renal neoplasms can be challenging via imaging. Objectives: To evaluate differences in histogram parameters on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps and to investigate the efficacy of histogram analysis in differentiation of oncocytomas from malignant renal neoplasm (MRN) subgroups. Patients and Methods: In this cross-sectional, retrospective study, the texture parameters of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images (DW-MRI) were evaluated in 65 patients with renal tumors (nine cases of oncocytoma and 59 cases of MRN) for a histological analysis. Results: A total of 68 lesions from 50 male and 15 female patients, with a median age of 55.4 years, were examined in this study. There were significant differences in the mean, median, and peak ADC values, as well as ADC percentiles, between the oncocytoma and MRN subgroups. Regarding the histopathological features of the lesions, 9 (11.5%) cases of oncocytomas, 23 (29.5%) cases of clear cell renal carcinoma (ccRCC), 14 (17.9%) cases of papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC), 12 (15.4%) cases of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (chRCC), and 10 (12.8%) other tumors (including four cases of transitional cell carcinoma, four cases of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and two cases of primitive neuroectodermal tumor) were identified. Significant differences were found in the mean and median ADC values between the oncocytoma, pRCC, chRCC, and other MRN subgroups. Moreover, significant differences were found in the mean and median ADC values between the ccRCC, pRCC, and chRCC subgroups. There were also significant differences in the percentiles of mean and median ADCs between oncocytomas and pRCC, chRCC, and other MRN subgroups. However, there were no significant differences in the mean and median ADCs (including the percentile histogram analysis) or the peak ADC between the oncocytoma and ccRCC groups. The mean, median, and percentile of ADC for renal masses were superior to kurtosis, skewness, and entropy. Conclusion: Although differentiation between ccRCC and oncocytoma was not possible by only measuring the mean, median, and peak ADC values, the histogram analysis of ADCs may improve differentiation between the MRN subgroups. Clearly, ADC cannot be used to differentiate between oncocytomas and MRNs.
Iranian Journal of Radiology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.114397
Background: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with gadolinium (GAD)-based contrast agents has been the imaging modality of choice for early detection and monitoring of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of multiple injections of linear GAD-based contrast agents on the signal intensity of the dentate nucleus (DN) in MS patients. Patients and Methods: A cohort of 122 MS patients with GAD-enhanced MRI scans and 61 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The final standard GAD-enhanced MRI scans were acquired using 1.5T MRI systems. Non-enhanced T1-weighted MRI was performed to assess the DN hyperintensity. The signal intensity ratio (SIR) was also calculated by setting the regions of interest (ROIs) on the DN and pons and dividing the signal intensity of DN to that of pons. The patients were also divided into two subgroups, based on the total number of MRI exposures (> 4 times vs. others), and the subgroups were compared in terms of the mean SIR and hyperintensity. Results: Overall, 68% (n = 83) of the patients were exposed to a contrast agent more than four times. Of these patients, 31.3% (n = 26) showed DN hyperintensity, while no hyperintensity was found in other patients or healthy controls (P < 0.02 for both). The mean SIRs were 1.10 ± 0.07 and 1.04 ± 0.02 in the patients and healthy controls, respectively (P < 0.001). Besides, the mean SIR was 1.14 ± 0.04 in patients with DN hyperintensity and 1.09 ± 0.07 in other patients (P < 0.001). Based on the results, the mean SIR was 1.12 ± 0.7 in patients with > 4 contrast injections, while it was 1.06 ± 0.04 in patients with < 4 contrast injections (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The SIR and visible DN hyperintensity increased by increasing the number of GAD injections, which could be due to the tissue deposition of GAD.
Iranian Journal of Radiology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.108875
Background: Although intra-arterial chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery has been the standard of care for patients with advanced maxillary sinus squamous cell carcinoma (MSSCC), concurrent intra-arterial chemotherapy and high-dose radiotherapy without surgery has emerged as a promising alternative. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the ability of intra-arterial CRT alone to increase the overall survival (OS) of patients with MSSCC. Patients and Methods: Forty patients with histologically confirmed MSSCC, who were treated at Tokyo Medical University Hospital (Tokyo, Japan) between February 1999 and June 2015, were enrolled in this study. Twenty-seven patients were treated with intra-arterial CRT (median dose of 60 Gy) without surgery (CRT group), whereas 13 patients were treated with neoadjuvant intra-arterial CRT (median dose of 40 Gy), followed by surgery (S group). The association of OS with age, performance status, T factor (mean tumor size according to the tumor-node-metastasis [TNM] grading system), N factor (mean lymph node involvement according to the TNM grading system), and treatment method was assessed. Results: The median follow-up duration was 36.0 months. There were no significant differences regarding the patients’ characteristics between the two groups. The treatment method was the only significant prognostic factor for OS. The five-year OS rates were 92% and 55% in the CRT and S groups, respectively (P = 0.01). Conclusion: The intra-arterial CRT (60 Gy) without surgery yielded improved survival outcomes in patients with advanced MSSCC as compared to the neoadjuvant intra-arterial CRT (40 Gy) followed by surgery.
Iranian Journal of Radiology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.107225
Background: Asymptomatic subacute thyroiditis (aSAT) without inflammatory features is often difficult to distinguish from papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), even with ultrasonography. Under certain circumstances, a fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) is performed, which is known to increase the patient’s physical pain. Objectives: To investigate the value of quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in discriminating aSAT from PTC nodules. Methods: A total of 30 aSAT and 23 PTC patients were systematically reviewed. Quantitative CEUS parameters, including the rise time (RT), time to peak (TTP), maximum intensity (IMAX), as well as their extension indicators (ΔRT and ΔTTP), were determined in various nodule areas (total, central, peripheral, and control regions of nodules). Chi-square test and independent-samples t-test were performed to compare significant differences between PTC and aSAT. A receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis was also performed to assess the diagnostic efficacy of each parameter, as well as diagnostic efficacy indices, including sensitivity and specificity, in discriminating aSAT from PTC nodules. Results: Compared to the PTC group, patients with aSAT had a longer ∆RT1 (RT of the control area − RT of the whole area; 0.12 ± 0.69 vs. -0.2 ± 0.57, P = 0.03) and ∆RT3 (RT of the control area − RT of the central area; 0.43 ± 0.72 vs. 0.04 ± 0.94, P = 0.049). Besides, compared to the PTC group, the aSAT group had a shorter RT in the total area (RT1: 4.05 ± 1.56 vs. 4.91 ± 2.09, P = 0.045); a shorter TTP in the total (TTP1: 4.91 ± 1.76 vs. 7.30 ± 3.92, P = 0.005), peripheral (TTP2: 5.06 ± 1.97 vs. 7.00 ± 3.48, P = 0.01), and central (TTP3: 4.90 ± 1.68 vs. 7.57 ± 4.41, P = 0.004) areas; and a lower IMAX in the peripheral area (IMAX2: 0.74 ± 0.36 vs. 1.09 ± 0.57, P = 0.009). Based on the ROC curve analysis, the area under the curve was significantly larger for TTP1 as compared to RT1 (P = 0.027). Conclusion: Conventional ultrasound and CEUS examinations were inadequate in distinguishing PTC from aSAT. Overall, a quantitative analysis may indicate more biological characteristics of nodules, which can be helpful in the differential diagnosis.
Iranian Journal of Radiology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.113603
Background: Diagnosis of an inflamed appendix is commonly based on clinical, laboratory, and diagnostic imaging data. Ultrasonography (US) is the leading diagnostic modality for these patients. However, an inconclusive US examination suggests the application of non-enhanced computed tomography (NECT). Objectives: This study aimed to compare US, NECT, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) examinations for an accurate diagnosis of acute appendicitis with the rate of proven appendicitis by surgery. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study was performed on 70 patients, diagnosed with acute appendicitis between February 2018 and January 2020. The diagnostic accuracy of US, CT, and DW-MRI for acute appendicitis was examined in relation to the demographic and clinical variables. Results: Age and gender were not significantly associated with surgically proven appendicitis. However, the appendix diameter had a significant association with surgically proven appendicitis. All DW-MRI–positive patients with acute abdominal symptoms were surgically diagnosed with acute/subacute appendicitis (even those with < 6 mm in diameter). Based on the ROC curve analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of DW-MRI in predicting acute appendicitis was 100% and 90.90%, respectively. Conclusion: The appendix diameter was an important factor in diagnosing acute appendicitis. However, DW-MRI is an advanced technique that may exclude the need for the appendix diameter measurements.
Iranian Journal of Radiology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.114832
Background: Obstructive nephropathy is a common clinical disease. Objectives: To explore the value of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in obstructive nephropathy. Methods: Forty healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were examined in this study. Thirty-two animals underwent complete obstruction of the left ureter, while eight animals underwent a sham surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed before surgery and within different intervals after surgery. Eight rats from the experimental group and two rats from the sham group were used in each interval. Following MRI, the animals were sacrificed and sent for medical examinations. The scanning sequences included positioning, transverse T2-weighted (T2W), coronal, and coronal DTI sequences. Image postprocessing was performed after DTI to measure DTI parameters, including apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA), and to reconstruct DTI fiber traces. One-way analysis of variance was used to compare the parameters between the cortex and medulla and between different intervals. Results: The fiber tracing showed that the obstructed renal fiber bundles were sparse and disordered. The ADC and FA values of the renal cortex, extrarenal medulla, and inner medulla decreased with prolonged hydrops and were negatively correlated with the expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and the renal tubulointerstitial lesion grade (r < 0, P < 0.001). Comparison of the cortex, extrarenal medulla, and inner medulla showed the following trends for the ADC and FA values: cortex > extrarenal medulla > inner medulla and cortex < extrarenal medulla < inner medulla, respectively. Conclusions: DTI in obstructive nephropathy not only can reflect the degree of renal interstitial fibrosis and accurately indicate the renal function, but also can provide information regarding renal blood perfusion, water metabolism, and ultrastructural changes.
Iranian Journal of Radiology; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.112648
Background: Brain injury in premature infants (BIPI) is a severe brain damage in premature infants, resulting in a series of neurological sequelae. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), as a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique, is more widely used for premature infants. It is of paramount importance to improve the early diagnosis, treatment, and intervention for this population by using DTI. There are few reports on the application of DTI for the evaluation of BIPI in low-birth-weight (LBW) and very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. Objectives: To analyze the clinical characteristics of BIPI in LBW and VLBW infants and to explore the value of MRI-based DTI in the evaluation of BIPI in LBW infants. Patients and Methods: This prospective study was conducted on 31 cases of BIPI (16 LBW and 15 VLBW infants) and 20 normal control premature infants, undergoing MRI-based DTI at the postmenstrual age (PMA). Differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) between the BIPI and control groups and also between the LBW and VLBW groups with BIPI were analyzed. Also, differences with normal controls in terms of the FA and ADC values were investigated in different brain regions. Results: The FA values in the central white matter of the frontal lobe, central white matter of the occipital lobe, centrum semiovale, posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC), and ventral thalamus were significantly lower in the BIPI group as compared to the control group (P < 0.05). The ADCs were lower in the BIPI group compared to the control group, and there was a significant difference (P < 0.05). Comparison of FA and ADC values in the central white matter of the frontal lobe, central white matter of the occipital lobe, centrum semiovale, PLIC, and ventral thalamus did not show any significant differences between the LBW and VLBW groups with BIPI (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The FA and ADC values of DTI can be used for the quantitative evaluation of BIPI in LBW and VLBW infants. The FA value was found to be more accurate than the ADC. Overall, different FA values in different brain areas reflect differences in the brain development of normal premature infants.
Iranian Journal of Radiology, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.5812/iranjradiol.106717
Background: Automatic detection and classification of breast masses in mammograms are still challenging tasks. Today, computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) systems are being developed to assist radiologists in interpreting mammograms. Objectives: This study aimed to provide a novel method for automatic segmentation and classification of masses in mammograms to help radiologists make an accurate diagnosis. Materials and Methods: For an efficient mass diagnosis in mammograms, we proposed an automatic scheme to perform both mass detection and classification. First, a combination of several image enhancement algorithms, including contrast-limited adaptive histogram equalization (CLAHE), guided imaging, and median ﬁltering, was investigated to enhance the visual features of breast area and increase the accuracy of segmentation outcomes. Second, the density of discrete wavelet coefficient density (DDWCs), based on the quincunx lifting scheme (QLS), was proposed to find suspicious mass regions or regions of interest (ROIs). Finally, mass lesions that appeared in the mammogram were classiﬁed into four categories of benign, probably benign, malignant, and probably malignant, based on the morphological shape. The proposed method was evaluated among 1593 images from the Curated Breast Imaging Subset-Digital Database for Screening Mammography (CBIS-DDSM) dataset. Results: The experimental results revealed that the suspected region localization had 100% sensitivity, with a mean of 6.4 ± 4.5 false positive (FP) detections per image. Moreover, the results showed an overall accuracy of 85.9% and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.901 for the mass classification algorithm. Conclusion: The present results showed the comparable performance of our proposed method to that of the state-of-the-art methods.