American Research Journal of English and Literature

Journal Information
EISSN : 2378-9026
Published by: American Research Journals (10.21694)
Total articles ≅ 100
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Ea Gamini Fonseka
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 7, pp 1-7; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.21003

Abstract:
Snake is a reptile, very much respected in many cultures throughout the world, depending on what species it is. Ornate snake sculptures in Sri Lanka, India, England, China, Greece, Rome, Egypt, Africa, America, Australia, etc. (Steel, 2021) are evidence of the respect the reptile earned in most of the ancient civilisations by becoming a seminal influence in the mythologies, folklores, beliefs, values, morals, rituals, and arts that have evolved in them. Coming from a Western Christian elite socio-cultural background, D.H. Lawrence gets fascinated by the asp rattler that he meets in Sicily in 1920, and in a while tries to kill it under the influence of his zoological knowledge and the warnings he has had on the deadliness of its venom. Later he feels relieved that his attack did not hurt the snake and yet regrets his being indecent to the creature. Lawrence’s delayed realisation of the snake’s right to existence tallies the example of unreserved compassion towards life, irrespective of what species it is, the Buddha sets during his two famous encounters with lethal snakes. Unlike Lawrence’s silent snake, one of the two snakes the Buddha encounters protects him from the rain, and the other vertically challenges him, spraying his deadly venom at him. Nevertheless, the Buddha’s only reaction to them both is to unveil his compassion indiscriminately. Unlike Lawrence, he concludes both encounters without regret. Taking the respective behaviours of Lawrence and the Buddha in the presence of snakes, this paper proposes that, in preventing regret, while managing interactions with other forms of life, compassion inspired by spirituality transcends all other emotions engendered by fascination and apprehension that are part and parcel of Lawrence’s religion, “flesh and blood”
Ms.Neenu C, D. Jaisankar
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 7, pp 1-4; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.21004

Abstract:
THE RESEARCH FEATURED BY A BRIEF STUDY OF THE AUTHOR AND HIS NOVEL A THOUSAND SPLENDID SUNS TO UNDERSTAND THE NOVEL. IT IS OUR HOPE THAT THE RESEARCH HERE WILL ELEVATE THE READER TO ENRICH THEIR QUEST FOR CRITICAL APPRECIATION. THE PERSISTENT CONDITIONS OF CONFLICT AND VIOLENCE IN AFGHANISTAN, CONTINUING FOR ALMOST FIFTY YEARS NOW, HAS CAUSED HUGE DESTRUCTION IN TERMS OF HUMAN AND MATERIAL LOSSES. IT HAS ALSO LED TO A RADICAL TRANSFORMATION IN ITS SOCIO-CULTURAL FABRIC ALMOST IRREVERSIBLY. BECAUSE OF THEIR VULNERABLE POSITION IN ITS SOCIETY, THE AFGHAN WOMEN HAVE ENDURED A TOUGH EXISTENCE AS THEY CAME TO GRIPS WITH A DOUBLE SUBJUGATION IN THE FORM OF PATRIARCHAL AUTHORITY AND THE OPPRESSION EMANATING FROM THE PERSISTENT CONDITIONS OF THE CONFLICT. HOWEVER, THERE IS OFTEN A TENDENCY TO CAST AFGHANISTAN AND ITS PEOPLE IN ESSENTIALIST TERMS BOTH IN ACADEMIC AND NON-ACADEMIC ENDEAVOURS. BY CONTEXTUALISING THE AFGHAN WOMEN’S EXPERIENCE IN A SPECIFIC SET OF HISTORICAL, POLITICAL AND SOCIAL FACTORS, THIS WOULD HOPEFULLY OFFER AN ALTERNATIVE VIEW OF THE CONDITION OF AFGHAN WOMEN RATHER THAN THE USUAL STEREOTYPED DESCRIPTIONS. I CONCLUDE THAT THE RESEARCH MAY BE IMPERFECT AS IT IS NOT ABLE TO SATISFY EVERY READERS AND THEIR TASTE.
Acheoah John Emike, Garba Azika Jega, Okoh Gloria Onyemariechi
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 7, pp 1-6; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.21002

Abstract:
This study is a socio-pragmatic analysis of selected utterances of interlocutors whose discourse subject is “Covid-19”. In using language, it is not enough to be grammatical; language use should be underpinned by contextual nuances because this is a good way of using language as actions that produce results or effects. Therefore, the analysis of the selected linguistic structures in this study is an investigation of linguistic competence demonstrated through lexical choices and speech act sequencing. The approach explored in the study is discursive and integrative; for example, instead of strictly listing the speech acts performed in each utterance, they are mentioned in terms of how they impinge on the on-going interaction. The study underscores who says “what?”, “how?” and “why?”. Although this study is mainly hinged on the Pragma-crafting Theory, Bach and Harnish’s [1] speech act taxonomy is explored in the classification of the speech acts performed in the utterances. On the whole, the study concludes that the socio-pragmatic use of language is underpinned by the psychological and situational context(s), and produces expected results due to speaker-hearer shared knowledge.
ms. Anwesa Chattopadhyay
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 7, pp 1-8; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.21001

Abstract:
The Orientalist psychology has been persistently shaped by an ideological demarcation between Westerners and Arab-Orientals; “the former are (in no particular order) rational, peaceful, liberal, logical, capable of holding real values without natural suspicion; the latter are none of these things” (Said, p. 49). The Orientalist perspective has remained ingrained in the Western mind across the decades, persistently shaping the colonialist ideology in an era of mass migration. The latter decades of the nineteenth century witnessed a rapid upsurge in the migration of Arabs, a major part of whom settled in the United States. The continuous upsurge in the Arab migration and settlement was concurrent with the growing spur of racism, which forms the basis of the victimization of the Arab-American populace. In this regard,Steven Salaita (an eminent critic of Islamophobia and a spokesperson for the “Anti-Arab Racism” in the USA) observes, “The origin of American racism is a combination of European colonial values and interaction with Blacks and Indians” (p. 5). In the light of the above statement, this paper aims to study Laila Halaby’s novel Once in a Promised Land (2007) from an orientalist perspective, and locate the traces of Islamophobia that had victimized the Muslim immigrants in America after the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.
Acheoah John Emike (PhD), Williams Ocheme, Alonge John Owamerinme
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 6, pp 1-9; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.20013

Harun-Ur Rashid, Naymul Islam, Mst. Ummay Tohfa, Nazmul Haque
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 6, pp 1-6; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.20012

Acheoah John Emike, Williams Ocheme, Nura Garba Dauran, Olaleye Joel Iyiola
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 6, pp 1-7; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.20011

Ea Gamini Fonseka
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 6, pp 1-8; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.20010

Milorad Ivanković
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 6, pp 1-14; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.20009

, Hamzah Abdurraheem, Shittu Fatai, Beatrice Osaro Oreoluwa
American Research Journal of English and Literature, Volume 6, pp 1-9; doi:10.21694/2378-9026.20008

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