World Nutrition Journal
ISSN / EISSN : 2580-7013 / 2580-7013
Current Publisher: Indonesian Nutrition Association (10.25220)
Total articles ≅ 140
Latest articles in this journal
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 53-60; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0008
Background: Human milk is known to be the best nutrition for infants as it provides many health benefits. For non-breastfed infants, cow's milk based infant formula is the most optimal option to provide the needed nutrition. However, approximately 2-5% of all formula-fed infants experience cow’s milk allergy during their first year of life. Partially hydrolyzed whey formula (pHF-W) have been widely recommended to prevent the development of allergic disease in infants. However, according to epidemiological data, approximately half of the infants developing allergy are not part of the at-risk group.Objectives and Methods: This article aims to review the effects of pHF-W in preventing allergy, especially atopic disease, in all non-breastfed infants, as well as the safety aspect of pHF-W if used as routine formula. The role of pHF-W in the management of functional gastro-intestinal (GI) disorders is also reviewed.Results: Several clinical studies showed that pHF-W decrease the number of infants with eczema. The strongest evidence is provided by the 15-year follow up of the German Infant Nutritional Intervention study which showed reduction in the cumulative incidence of eczema and allergic rhinitis in pHF-W (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.96 for eczema; OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47-0.95 for allergic rhinitis) and casein extensively hydrolysed formula group (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.46-0.77 for eczema; OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.41-0.84 for allergic rhinitis), compared to CMF as a control, after 15 years of follow-up. pHF-W was also found to be beneficial in the management of functional GI disorders such as regurgitation, constipation and colic.Conclusions: The use of pHF-W in allergic infants has been recommended in various guidelines across the countries, as a primary prevention of allergic disease. One pHF-W has been approved by the US FDA and the European Commission's European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) for its safety and suitability as a routine infant formula for all healthy infants. According to the data obtained in the management of functional GI disorders, pHF-W is better tolerated than formula with intact protein. Further studies assessing the effect of routine use of pHF-W in a larger population of non-breastfed infants should also be conducted, in order to observe any potential harm and to determine the benefit and cost-effectiveness ratio.
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 47-52; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0007
Indonesia is one of the largest producers of red seaweed in the world, but there is very little research done on the role of red seaweed in the health sector. This study is about red seaweed type Euchema cottoni and it’s potential as seaweed salt that has lower natrium and rich in other minerals.This research was divided into two phases and conducted from December 2016 to March 2017. The first phase is a safety analysis in terms of metal, mold and bacteria contamination of seaweed from three different places of Indonesia: Saumlaki, Maluku; Nusa Dua, Bali and Flores, Nusa Tenggara Barat. After the seaweed safety was selected, the seaweed was made into powder at Industrial Research and Development Agency (BPPT), Tangerang. The seaweed powder mixed with ordinary salt with four type of concentrations were subjected to a salty sensory test by nine panellists who have been working at the food production at Hospital for at least one year. The second phase was to do acceptance sensory test of the seaweed salt product taste against a concentration that was selected in first phase to first-degree hypertensive subjects aged 25–59 years by using soup as the meal-media. Chi-square test was used to analyse the difference.Seaweed from Saumlaki, Maluku was selected as the safest seaweed due to it’s lowest content of metal, mold and bacterial contaminations. The ratio of seaweed powder to ordinary salt powder 1:1 was selected by nine panellists in salty sensory test. Analysis of minerals from the seaweed salt product found that besides the lower sodium and Iodium content, it’s potassium and magnesium content were much higher than ordinary salt. Salty taste test by 62 respondents with first degree hypertension with age 25-59 years showed no significant difference in saltiness between seaweed salt and ordinary salt.In conclusion, the seaweed salt product with a 1:1 ratio to ordinary salt powder is safe and acceptable to be used as an alternative low Na salt.
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 95-105; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0013
Background: It has been estimated that about 10–20% of adolescents worldwide had experiences of mental health problems. Malnutrition, including overweight and obese, is one of the risk factors for mental health in adolescents. There is a knowledge gap regarding the nutritional status and its correlation with mental health among adolescents who live in boarding schools. This study aimed to determine nutritional status and its correlation with mental health among adolescents in Islamic boarding schools.Methods: A cross-sectional approach was used in this study in which two schools in South Tangerang City of Banten Province were purposively selected and 302 of students aged 15–18 years were completed this study. BMI-for-age Z-scores (BAZ) was used as the nutritional status indicator, and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to determine mental health of the subjects. Spearman correlation was used to determine the correlation between nutritional status indicator and mental health score.Results: Nearly 30% of the subjects were overweight and obese, and almost 20% had result of mental health score in categories “borderline” and “abnormal”. There was a significant correlation between nutritional status indicator and mental health score among adolescents in Islamic boarding schools (r=0.157, P=0.006).Conclusion: Adolescents who had higher BAZ, had higher total difficulties scores. The schools and policy makers should give attention to nutritional status of the students since it is correlated with mental health.
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 23-29; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0004
Background: Based on the Guideline of European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (ESPEN) in 2013, vitamin C is an additional therapy for burn patients during the resuscitation process and reduce the amount of fluid resuscitation but still needs further evidence. This study aims to find the effect of intravenous vitamin C administration to reduce the fluid requirements during first 24 hours resuscitation in burn patients.Methods: Electronic Literature search were performed in PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus and ProQuest databases. Hand searching was also performed. MesH Term was used in PubMed database searching. All literature obtained was screened based on inclusion and exclusion criteria.Results: Three articles were selected based on the eligibility criteria. Two Randomized Controlled Trial / RCT studies concluded that intravenous vitamin C administration reduced resuscitation fluid requirements in burn patients. But in the case control study there was no significant difference in resuscitation fluid requirements between the two groups. Other study reported that there were significant differences in resuscitation fluid requirements between the two groups. Both RCT studies did not use the blinding method and explained the side effects of therapy. A case control study reported an increase in cases of acute kidney failure in the vitamin C group compared to control (23% vs 7%) although it was not statistically significant.Conclusions: Intravenous vitamin C can reduce the resuscitation fluid requirements in the first 24 hours in burn patients (grade C recommendation).
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 121-130; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0016
Background: Children generally facing food avoidance or food refusal behaviour and it may affect their food consumption. But there is limited information on food avoidance behaviour among Indonesian children. Therefore, this study aimed to assess whether energy intake and body weight are influenced by food avoidance behaviour in children aged 2-6 years in North Jakarta.Methods: Participants (N=168) were recruited between February – March 2020. Data collection was obtained via interviews with the mother or caregiver of the children. Food avoidance behaviour consisting of satiety responsiveness, slowness in eating, emotional under-eating, and food fussiness was measured with the Child Eating Behaviour Questionnaire. The child’s weight and dietary intake were assessed using a digital weighing scale and 2 x 24 hours food recall. Spearman test was performed to analyse the correlation between these variables. Multivariate analysis was done using linear regression to determine predictors of a child’s body weight and energy intake.Results: Energy intake among children was below the recommendation, and it was significantly correlated with the child’s body weight. Satiety responsiveness was negatively correlated with the child’s body weight (r = -0.166; p-value < 0.05) and energy intake (r = -0.210; p-value < 0.05). After running a linear regression test, we found that satiety responsiveness along with family income and child’s age was a significant predictor of energy intake among children.Conclusions: Children who are more responsive to satiety had lower body weight and energy intake. Understanding the child’s food avoidance behaviour is useful for designing intervention programs related to optimizing intake in children and malnutrition.
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 6-14; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0002
Enterocutaneous fistula (ECF) management is a challenge that requires a multidisciplinary team approach in achieving optimal clinical output. Nutrition as a component of management plays a vital role in determining the prognosis, both as a predictor of morbidity and mortality. Malnutrition can also occurs as a preceeding situation or complication of ECF caused by the underlying disease, decreased food intake, increased protein requirements associated with systemic inflammation, and increased nutrient loss associated with the amount of fistula output. Thus, nutrition management can act as prevention, therapy, or both. Nutritional medical therapy in ECF cases aims to adequately estimate nutritional needs, maintain fluid and electrolyte balance, and stimulate spontaneous ECF closure whenever possible. To achieve optimal outcome, nutrition needs analysis must be done individually by considering the etiology, anatomical location of the fistula, and the amount of output. In the following article, we will discuss a comprehensive step-by-step nutrition treatment, both from the nutritional routes consideration, macronutrient and micronutrient requirements, specific nutrients, pharmacotherapy, and monitoring and evaluation that need to be done to achieve optimal clinical outcomes.
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 61-69; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0009
Introduction: Preterm birth (PTB) is a major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. Pregnant women is one of the most vulnerable groups for vitamin D deficiency, that increase the risk of PTB. Vitamin D has the role of immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory, and transcription of genes involved in placental function. Research results on the correlation between vitamin D supplementation and PTB risk are still inconsistent.Objective: To observe the effect of oral vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy on the risk of PTBMethods: Advanced search for relevant literatures in PubMed, Cochrane, and Willey was conducted. After assessing the relevancy and eligibility, articles were selected and critically appraised.Results: There were three articles that relevant with the eligibility criteria and clinical questions, they were randomized controlled trial, meta-analysis and systematic review. Three studies found that oral vitamin D supplementation in the form of cholecalciferol during pregnancy had a significant reduction on the risk of PTB. A systematic review found that supplementation with combination of cholecalciferol and calcium carbonate may increase the risk of PTB. The different dosages, frequencies, and time of initiation limit the generalizations for efficacy and safety doses.Conclusion: Oral cholecalciferol supplementation during pregnancy reduces the risk of PTB. While supplementation with combination of cholecalciferol and calcium carbonate requires consideration. Further research is needed to find out about the dose, frequency, time of initiation, adverse events and effects of vitamin D when combined with other vitamins and minerals. Keywords: Pregnancy, vitamin D, vitamin D3, cholecalciferol, preterm birth, preterm labor.
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 88-94; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0012
Background: Adequate fluid consumption and hydration status of students become a special concern because being dehydrated by just 1%-2% can impair cognitive performance. The objectives of this study were to assess the daily fluid consumption, and analyze the correlation of fluid consumption and other associated factors with hydration status of medical students in Universitas Sriwijaya.Methods: A total of 93 medical students in Universitas Sriwijaya were recruited to complete a 7-day cross-sectional study. Subjects were asked to complete a self-administered 7-day-24-hours fluid record and provide first morning urine sample on the last day. Gender information was collected. Physical activity was evaluated by self-administered long version of IPAQ. Body mass index was calculated using body weight and body height measurement. Urine specific gravity was determined by urinometer. The 7-day-24-hours fluid record and 1-day-24-hours urine specific gravity were calculated and analyzed.Results: Majority of the subjects were well hydrated, while 10.8% were slightly dehydrated, 6.5% were moderately dehydrated and 9.7% were severely dehydrated. The average of daily fluid consumption was 1789.28 (989.3-2930) mL. Coefficient correlation of fluid consumption from beverages with urine specific gravity was -0.651 (p=0.00) by Pearson correlation test. The hydration status showed no association with gender, physical activity and body mass index.Conclusions: Most subjects in this study were well hydrated. A strong association was found between fluid consumption and hydration status. It was feasible to use daily fluid consumption from beverages to predict hydration status.
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 40-46; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0006
Low grade inflammation has been recognized of being involved in the pathogenesis of chronic disease pandemic. Individual lifestyle plays a major role in the development of low grade inflammation. Sedentary workers are at risk of low grade inflammation due to the nature of their work. Dietary habit also contributes to inflammatory status in the body. Dietary fiber intake indirectly affects the immune system. It has been hypothesized that fiber has anti-inflammatory effects, both body weight-related and body weight-unrelated This review will focus more on body weight-unrelated anti-inflammatory effect of fiber, especially through fiber’s fermentation metabolites, the short chain fatty acid (SCFA). Its anti-inflammatory effect can be seen by monitoring a biomarker of inflammation in the body, the high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). This review’s objective is to cover the mechanisms and role of dietary fiber intake on serum hsCRP level as a marker of low grade inflammation on sedentary workers.
World Nutrition Journal, Volume 5, pp 131-138; doi:10.25220/wnj.v05.i1.0017
As a developing country, Indonesia is still burdened with high prevalence of child malnutrition including those in primary school. One of the main factors affecting nutritional status of children is snack consumption in school. School snacks are expected to be able to contribute to nutritional requirements. This narrative review is written to collect information and knowledge regarding nutritional status, nutritional requirements, factors determining nutritional status of primary school children and, lastly, recommended school snacks. This review also acts as a basic information for school snacks program establishment.