Applied and Environmental Microbiology

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ISSN / EISSN : 0099-2240 / 1098-5336
Current Publisher: American Society for Microbiology (10.1128)
Total articles ≅ 19,607
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Latest articles in this journal

Raquel G. Barbosa, H. Pieter J. Van Veelen, Vanessa Pinheiro, Tom Sleutels, Willy Verstraete, Nico Boon
Applied and Environmental Microbiology; doi:10.1128/aem.02439-20

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Natalie A. Rumball, HannahRose C. Mayer, Sandra L. McLellan
Applied and Environmental Microbiology; doi:10.1128/aem.02473-20

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Audrey Rachlin, Manophab Luangraj, Mirjam Kaestli, Sayaphet Rattanavong, Phonelavanh Phoumin, Jessica R. Webb, Mark Mayo, Bart J. Currie, David A. B. Dance
Applied and Environmental Microbiology; doi:10.1128/aem.02112-20

Abstract:
Melioidosis is a disease of significant public health importance that is being increasingly recognized globally. The majority of cases arise through direct percutaneous exposure to its etiological agent, Burkholderia pseudomallei. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos), the presence and environmental distribution of B. pseudomallei are not well characterized, though recent epidemiological surveys of the bacterium have indicated that B. pseudomallei is widespread throughout the environment in the center and south of the country and that rivers can act as carriers and potential sentinels for the bacterium. The spatial and genetic distribution of B. pseudomallei within Vientiane Capital, from where the majority of cases diagnosed to date have originated, remains an important knowledge gap. We sampled surface runoff from drain catchment areas throughout urban Vientiane to determine the presence and local population structure of the bacterium. B. pseudomallei was detected in drainage areas throughout the capital, indicating it is widespread in the environment and that exposure rates in urban Vientiane are likely more frequent than previously thought. Whole-genome comparative analysis demonstrated that Lao B. pseudomallei isolates are highly genetically diverse, suggesting the bacterium is well-established and not a recent introduction. Despite the wide genome diversity, one environmental survey isolate was highly genetically related to a Lao melioidosis patient isolate collected 13 years prior to the study. Knowledge gained from this study will augment understanding of B. pseudomallei phylogeography in Asia and enhance public health awareness and future implementation of infection control measures within Laos. IMPORTANCE The environmental bacterium B. pseudomallei is the etiological agent of melioidosis, a tropical disease with one model estimating a global annual incidence of 165,000 cases and 89,000 deaths. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos), the environmental distribution and population structure of B. pseudomallei remain relatively undefined, particularly in Vientiane Capital from where most diagnosed cases have originated. We used surface runoff as a proxy for B. pseudomallei dispersal in the environment and performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) to examine the local population structure. Our data confirmed that B. pseudomallei is widespread throughout Vientiane and that surface runoff might be useful for future environmental monitoring of the bacterium. B. pseudomallei isolates were also highly genetically diverse, suggesting the bacterium is well-established and endemic in Laos. These findings can be used to improve awareness of B. pseudomallei in the Lao environment and demonstrates the epidemiological and phylogeographical insights that can be gained from WGS.
Chi Zhang, Yiran Ren, Lu Gao, Huiyu Gu, Ling Lu
Applied and Environmental Microbiology; doi:10.1128/aem.02571-20

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Sven Lahme, Jaspreet Mand, John Longwell, Ramsey Smith, Dennis Enning
Applied and Environmental Microbiology; doi:10.1128/aem.01819-20

Abstract:
Methanogenic archaea have long been implicated in microbially influenced corrosion (MIC) of oil and gas infrastructure, yet a first understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms has only recently emerged. We surveyed pipeline-associated microbiomes from geographically distinct oil field facilities and found methanogens to account for 0.2 – 9.3% of the 16S rRNA gene sequencing reads. Neither the type nor the abundance of the detected methanogens correlated to the perceived severity of MIC in these pipelines. Using fluids from one pipeline, MIC was reproduced in the laboratory, both under stagnant conditions and in customized corrosion reactors simulating pipeline flow. High corrosion rates (up to 2.43 mm Fe0 yr−1) with macroscopic, localized corrosion features were attributed to lithotrophic, mesophilic microbial activity. Other laboratory tests with the same waters yielded negligible corrosion rates (< 0.08 mm Fe0 yr−1). Recently a novel [NiFe] hydrogenase, from Methanococcus maripaludis strain OS7, was demonstrated to accelerate corrosion. We developed a specific qPCR assay and detected the gene encoding the large subunit of this hydrogenase (labeled micH) in corrosive (> 0.15 mm Fe0 yr−1) biofilms. The micH gene on the other hand was absent in non-corrosive biofilms despite an abundance of methanogens. Reconstruction of a nearly complete Methanococcus maripaludis genome from a highly corrosive mixed biofilm revealed micH and associated genes in near-identical genetic configuration as strain OS7, thereby supporting our hypothesis that the encoded molecular mechanism contributed to corrosion. Lastly, the proposed MIC biomarker was detected in multiple oil fields, indicating a geographically widespread involvement of this [NiFe] hydrogenase in MIC. IMPORTANCE Microorganisms can deteriorate built environments, which is particularly problematic in the case of pipelines transporting hydrocarbons to industrial end users. MIC is notoriously difficult to detect and monitor and as a consequence, is a particularly difficult corrosion mechanism to manage. Despite the advent of molecular tools and improved microbial monitoring strategies for oil and gas operations, specific underlying MIC mechanisms in pipelines remain largely enigmatic. Emerging mechanistic understanding of methanogenic MIC derived from pure culture work allowed us to develop a qPCR assay that distinguishes technically problematic from benign methanogens in a West African oil field. Detection of the same gene in geographically diverse samples from North America hints at the widespread applicability of this assay. The research presented here offers a step toward a mechanistic understanding of biocorrosion in oil fields and introduces a binary marker for (methanogenic) MIC that can find application in corrosion management programs in industrial settings.
Constantin N. Takacs, Molly Scott, Yunjie Chang, Zachary A. Kloos, Irnov Irnov, Patricia A. Rosa, Jun Liu, Christine Jacobs-Wagner
Applied and Environmental Microbiology; doi:10.1128/aem.02519-20

Abstract:
The spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi causes Lyme disease, an increasingly prevalent infection. While previous studies have provided important insight into B. burgdorferi biology, many aspects, including basic cellular processes, remain underexplored. To help speed up the discovery process, we adapted a CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) platform for use in B. burgdorferi. For efficiency and flexibility of use, we generated various CRISPRi template constructs that produce different basal and induced levels of dcas9 and carry different antibiotic resistance markers. We characterized the effectiveness of our CRISPRi platform by targeting the motility and cell morphogenesis genes flaB, mreB, rodA, and ftsI, whose native expression levels span two orders of magnitude. For all four genes, we obtained gene repression efficiencies of at least 95%. We showed by darkfield microscopy and cryo-electron tomography that flagellin (FlaB) depletion reduced the length and number of periplasmic flagella, which impaired cellular motility and resulted in cell straightening. Depletion of FtsI caused cell filamentation, implicating this protein in cell division in B. burgdorferi. Finally, localized cell bulging in MreB- and RodA-depleted cells matched the locations of new peptidoglycan insertion specific to spirochetes of the Borrelia genus. These results therefore implicate MreB and RodA in the particular mode of cell wall elongation of these bacteria. Collectively, our results demonstrate the efficiency and ease of use of our B. burgdorferi CRISPRi platform, which should facilitate future genetic studies of this important pathogen. IMPORTANCE Gene function studies are facilitated by the availability of rapid and easy-to-use genetic tools. Homologous recombination-based methods traditionally used to genetically investigate gene function remain cumbersome to perform in B. burgdorferi, as they often are relatively inefficient. In comparison, our CRISPRi platform offers an easy and fast method to implement as it only requires a single plasmid transformation step and IPTG addition to obtain potent (>95%) downregulation of gene expression. To facilitate studies of various genes in wild-type and genetically modified strains, we provide over 30 CRISPRi plasmids that produce distinct levels of dcas9 expression and carry different antibiotic resistance markers. Our CRISPRi platform represents a useful and efficient complement to traditional genetic and chemical methods to study gene function in B. burgdorferi.
Harold L. Drake
Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 86; doi:10.1128/aem.02467-20

Applied and Environmental Microbiology, Volume 86; doi:10.1128/aem.02513-20

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
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