Free Radicals and Antioxidants

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ISSN / EISSN : 2231-2536 / 2231-2536
Published by: EManuscript Services (10.5530)
Total articles ≅ 261
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Subramani Parasuraman, Vanishya A/p Raipan
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 24-26; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.1.5

Abstract:
Objectives: To study the antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of seeds of Macrotyloma uniflorum. Methods: The seeds of M. uniflorum were extracted with methanol and ethanol and used for the phytochemical analysis and determination of antioxidant activity. The in vitro antioxidant activity was studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging methods. Result: Ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum showed more phenolic content (63.48 mg GAE/g) than methanolic extract of M. uniflorum (45.84 mg GAE/g). In total flavonoid content analysis, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum showed the presence of flavonoid content of 15.31 mg Rutin/g and 15.44 mg Rutin/g, respectively. In DPPH assay, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum exhibited 50% free radical scavenging activity at 797.71 ± 34.38 μg/mL and 938.80 ± 66.05 μg/mL (mean ± standard deviation; n = 3), respectively. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum exhibited 50% fee radical scavenging activity at 770.27 ± 11.64 μg/ mL and 844.94 ± 35.12 μg/mL (mean ± standard deviation; n = 3), respectively. Ascorbic acid exhibited potent free radical scavenging with IC50 value of 60.54 ± 5.23 μg/mL in DPPH method and 207.98 ± 14.26 μg/mL (mean ± standard deviation; n = 3) in hydroxyl radical scavenging method. Conclusion: Ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum showed more phe­nolic content than methanolic extract of M. uniflorum. In both, DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum exhibited antioxidant activity at higher concentration.
Mamita Debnath, Susmita Das, Shovonlal Bhowmick, Swagata Karak, Achintya Saha, Bratati De
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 13-18; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.1.3

Abstract:
Introduction: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used to prevent symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease which is initiated due to oxidative stress. Piper betle L. is a tropical evergreen perennial vine whose leaves are widely consumed as masticator in Asia and has medicinal properties. Objectives: The present study is aimed to investigate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory property of methanolic extracts of different varieties of Piper betle leaves and chemometrically identify different bioactive ingredients in vitro and in silico. Materials and Methods: Methanol extracts of the leaves collected in February and October from eight varieties of P. betle (Chhanchi, Bagerhati, Manikdanga, Kalibangla, Bangla, Ghanagete, Meetha and Haldi) were studied for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties. Chemical components were analyzed by Gas Chromatography – Mass spectrometry and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography. Active metabolites were identified chemometrically. The activities were proved in vitro and in silico. Results: All the extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Statistical analysis suggested that several phenolic compounds were correlated to anti-cholinesterase activity. Piceatannol, hydroxychavicol, benzene-1,2,4-triol, and 4-methylcatechol are reported here to have such enzyme inhibitory properties. These four small molecules were further subjected to molecular docking analysis to explore their binding mechanism with the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. All the four small molecules are found to interact with the targeted enzyme in similar fashion like the molecular interactions observed for the standard inhibitor, Donepezil, at the active site of acetylcholiesterase. Conclusion: Thus, consumption of P. betle leaves may have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease.
Sanjib Bhattacharya
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.1.1

Abstract:
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is an essential micro-nutrient, an outstanding antioxidant and an essential co-factor in different mammalian enzymatic processes. There is considerable clinical attestation that, high dose of intravenous ascorbic acid can improve cancer patients with or without extant therapeutic involvements. Ascorbic acid in high intravenous doses serves as pro-oxidant and promotes the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) with oxidative stress-induced toxicity selectively to cancer cells. This effect also hampers the bioenergetics and angiogenesis of malignant cells, resulting in cancer cell death. Large doses of ascorbic acid are safe and well-tolerated. On account of its antioxidant effect, ascorbic acid supplementation may be applied as an adjuvant with regular cancer therapy to minimize complications. Nevertheless, there is a necessity for further mechanistic studies and randomized controlled clinical trials to evaluate the benefit of ascorbic acid in the treatment of cancer.
Rohit Singh, Shreshtha Kaushik, Pramod Yadav, Pradeep Kumar Prajapati
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 19-23; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.1.4

Abstract:
Introduction: The superoxide radical (O2-), hydroxyl radical (OH) are generated in physiochemical pathways. All biological systems have innate antioxidant defence mechanisms but these mechanisms can be inefficient due to poor diet intake, pollution, stress and chemicals etc. Therefore, it is imperative to consume antioxidants to shield cells from destruction by free radicals. Shilajatu is such a drugs of prime importance that has been advocated in the management of various ailments ranging from Diabetes to Immunomodulation and Antioxidant. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant potential of Shuddha Shilajatu along with impact of geography and processing media on it, was determined by using DPPH i.e. 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl Free Radical Scavenging Assay. Test was performed at the wavelength of 517 nm using 1 cm optical path cuvette at room temperature. The ultraviolet spectrum of Shuddha Shilajatu and Ascorbic acid was performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer at different concen­trations. The experiment was carried out in triplicate. The result was compared with ascorbic acid as it was taken as standard control under the same conditions. The sample concentration at which initial absorbance of DPPH solution get lowered by 50% has been considered as the endpoint for evaluating the antioxidant potential. Results: It has been found that Shilajatu samples processed in Triphala kwatha have shown better antioxidant profile than water processed samples. Moreover, sample procured from Amritsar showed much better antioxidant activity in comparison to Shilajatu sample procured from Nepal. Conclusion: Processing media and geography significantly modulate the effect and activities of Shilajatu.
Regina Gomes Dare, Lilian Dos Anjos Oliveira Ferreira, Fabianne Martins Ribeiro, Jesui Vergilio Visentainer, Celso Vataru Nakamura, Maria da Conceicao Torrado Truiti
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 7-12; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.1.2

Abstract:
Objectives: Unprotected exposure to ultraviolet radiation causes oxidative damages to skin cells. Topical administration of antioxidants is a feasible strategy to prevent oxidative alterations. Therefore, the present study evaluated the photodamage attenuating potential of plant materials from Senegalia polyphylla leaves, due to previous studies relating Senegalia species as a source of antioxidant phenolic compounds. Materials and Methods: The ethanolic extract (EE) and its ethyl acetate (EAF), hydromethanolic and hexane fractions were evaluated for their total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity. The photochemoprotective effects of plant materials with higher antioxidant potential were assessed in L929 fibroblasts against ultraviolet-B (UVB) and Ultraviolet-A (UVA) radiations. Phytochemical investigation of bioactive plant material was performed and compounds identified by nuclear magnetic resonance analysis. Results: The EE and EAF presented the highest total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, showing ferric reducing power and ability to scavenge free radicals DPPH•, ABTS•+, O2•− and ROO•. The EE and EAF treatments prior to UVB and UVA irradiation prevented the decrease in cell viability, and attenuated reactive oxygen species generation, reduced glutathione depletion, lipid peroxidation and plasma membrane disruption, especially with EAF treatment. Vitexin and isoquercetin, known antioxidant compounds, were isolated from EAF, which may be correlated with its photochemoprotective ability. Conclusion: Findings indicate the potential of polyphenol-enriched botanical materials, such as EAF from S. polyphylla, in preventing UVB and UVA-induced oxidative damages, due to its effective antioxidant activity and ability to attenuate redox imbalance and reduce cell damages.
Ravi Sahukari, Jyothi Punabaka, Praveen Kumar Yamala, Shanmugam Bhasha, Venkata Subbaiah Ganjikunta, Sathyavelu Reddy Kesireddy
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 10, pp 56-62; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2020.2.11

Abstract:
Background: A highly valued medicinal plant belonging to the family Apiaceae is Trachyspermum ammi L. The seeds of this plant are used as spice and are traditionally used for the treatment of many human and animal illnesses. Objectives: In this research study, we aimed at quantitatively estimating the phytochemicals, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of different solvent extracts of T. ammi seeds. Methods: Quantification of phenol and flavonoid phytochemicals have been estimated in different solvent extracts of seeds. Further, the antioxidant activity was determined by performing DPPH, lipid peroxidation, reducing capacity and total antioxidant activity assays. Additionally, antibacterial activity was assessed against three bacterial species using well-diffusion method. Results: The findings showed in quantitative estimation that phenols and flavonoids were rich in extracts. Acetone, Methanol and Ethanol extracts were potentially scavenged DPPH radical, lipid peroxidation nullified and metal ions such as Fe and Mo reduced. At the same time, effective antibacterial activity on E. coli, S. aureus and Pseudomonas bacterial species was seen in Chloroform and Methanol extracts and synthesized silver nanoparticles. Conclusion: In conclusion, free radical scavenging, reduction of metals and antibacterial activity of different extracts of T. ammi was indicative of the presence of enormous amounts of phenols and flavonoids. Further work on these extracts needs to be done to isolate the active compounds and, to treat free radicals and related bacterial diseases.
Prasoon Kumar Saxena, Shagun Upadhyay, Shivani Lodha
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 10, pp 52-55; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2020.2.10

Abstract:
Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the antimicrobial property of the solvent extracts of flowers and aerial parts of S. indicus. Methods: The flowers and the aerial parts of Sphaeranthus indicus were extracted with n-hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone respectively. The extracts were analyzed for the antimicrobial effect by disc diffusion method at concentrations of 5, 2.5 and 1.25 mg/disc. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was tested using broth micro dilution method at concentrations ranging from 5 to 0.039 mg/ml. Results: There was a significant antibacterial and antifungal activity in hexane extract of flower and aerial parts. The MIC was seen at 0.15 mg/ml against Staphylococcus aureus and the highest MIC (5 mg/ml) was noted for S. epidermidis. The n-hexane extracts of flower and aerial parts showed MIC as 0.15 and 1.25 mg/ml respectively against Candida albicans. Conclusion: Concluding it can be said that the S. indicus flower n-hexane extract showed promising antimicrobial agent.
Tilahun Alelign, Asfaw DeBella, Beyene Petros
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 10, pp 63-68; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2020.2.12

Abstract:
Introduction: Free radicals are capable of inducing oxidative damage, which causes various human diseases. However, antioxidants reduce the risk of diseases related to reactive oxygen species. Medicinal plants such as Achyranthes aspera leaves, Satureja punctata aerial parts, Aloe pulcherrima gel, Gomphocarpus fruticosus leaves and Commiphora myrrha resins were claimed to treat various ailments including urolithiasis in Ethiopia. Objectives: This study was intended to determine phytochemicals and antioxidant activities of the aforementioned plants. Materials and Methods: Plants were collected and the aqueous crude extracts were prepared. Phytochemicals were screened qualitatively and DPPH(2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay was measured at 517nm using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA, Dunnett’s comparison test of the Graph Pad Prism version 6. Results: The plant extracts exhibited various phytochemicals such as phenols, flavonoids and tannins, while these were absent in C. myrrha. Steroids and terpenoides were absent in A. pulcherrima and G. fruticosus extracts, respectively. DPPH scavenging capacities of S. punctata, G. fruticosus, A. pulcherrima and A. aspera aqueous extracts were 92.3%, 81.6%, 72.3% and 54.9%, respectively compared to control (Ascorbic acid) showed 87.6%, 94.5%, 92.3% and 95.6%, respectively at inhibitory concentrations of 0.20 mg/ml, 0.78 mg/ ml, 3.13 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml, respectively. The IC50 antioxidant values of S. punctata, A. pulcherrima, G. fruticosus, and A. aspera extracts were 0.01 ±0.003 mg/ml, 0.42 ±0.047 mg/ml, 1.64 ±0.147 mg/ml, and 13.51 ±1.08 mg/ml, respectively compared to Ascorbic acid (0.03 ±0.007 mg/ml). Conclusion: The phytoconstituents in S. punctata aqueous extract has the best capability to scavenge DPPH free radicals. Future characterizations of compounds responsible for the antioxidant activities will be required.
Fazlina Mustaffa, Subramani Parasuraman, Geethaa Sahgal
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 10, pp 86-88; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2020.2.15

Abstract:
Objectives: To evaluate wound healing activity of herbal ointment containing the extracts of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis flowers and Curcuma longa rhizomes. Methodology: H. rosa-sinensis flowers and C. longa rhizomes were extracted using 95% ethanol. H. rosa-sinensis and Hibiscus rosa-sinensis ointment were prepared using paraffin wax, lanolin and petroleum jelly. Ointment formulation was applied once daily on the excision wound made on Sprague Dawley rats for 20 days. Results: On day 20, the treatment group showed a significant increase in wound contraction which was 93.52 ± 1.38% when compared to control (87.62 ± 1.48%). Conclusion: Herbal ointment exhibited significant wound healing activity in rat excision wound model.
Towseef Ahmad Tantry, Nazir Ahmad Wani
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 10, pp 69-76; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2020.2.13

Abstract:
Objectives: This study investigated the effect of grape seed extract on swim exercise and oxidative stress in acute and chronically exercised rats. Methods: This study was attempted on one month old male albino Wistar rats. Rats were exposed to swim exercise daily for duration of 30 min Day-1. During the experiment estimation of blood parameters, lipid profile, antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress parameters were evaluated. Results: The endurance capacity was increased by 2.7-fold in the supplemented trainees as compared to the unsupplemented swim trainees which showed an increase by 1.9 fold by the end of 9 weeks compared to the first week. Plasma lactate showed a significant reduction by 25% and 37% in swim trained and supplemented trainees compared to the sedentary. The haemoglobin level showed an increase in the swim trained rats by 19% and 28% in the supplemented trainees compared to the sedentary animals. The packed cell volume increased in swim trained rats by 10% and 19% in the supplemented trainees compared to the sedentary animals. Supplemented trained rats showed a reduction in total cholesterol by 13 % and 15.55% in swim trainees with and without supplementation compared to the sedentary rats respectively. The catalase activity exhibited a significant change in supplemented trainees compared to the sedentary by 20% in Soleus and 71% in extensor digitorum longus compared with the respective sedentary muscle and by 7.5% and 28% compared to the unsupplemented trainees. Conclusion: In conclusion, grape seed extract reduces oxidative stress by increasing antioxidant enzymes activity.
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