Free Radicals and Antioxidants

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ISSN / EISSN : 2231-2536 / 2231-2536
Published by: EManuscript Services (10.5530)
Total articles ≅ 268
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Subramani Parasuraman, Venkateskumar Krishnamoorthy
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 27-28; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.2.6

Abstract:
Overweight and obesity are defined as “abnormal or excessive fat accumulation that presents a risk to health”.1 The prevalence of obesity is increasing every year and has nearly tripled since 1975. More than 19 billon adults in 2016 and about 89 million children under the age 5 years are obese in 2020.2 World Obesity Federation estimates suggest that about 250 million children ageing between 5 and 19 years old will be obese by 2030. Reports also predict that the population of obese children (5 and 19 years) are expected to rise to 62 million in China, 27 million in India, 17 million in the USA, 1.8 million in Malaysia, 1.3 million in the UK and 0.08 million in Singapore by 2030.3 The complete data on ‘Childhood Obesity’ is available in ‘Atlas of Childhood Obesity [2019 edition]’ published by the World Obesity Federation, London. Again, the COVID-19 pandemic had significantly affected children’s daily lives, reduced their physical activity, increased their stress levels and had contributed to such a high incidence of childhood obesity.4,5 Woolford et al., assessed the changes in body-mass index (increased) among children during COVID- 19 restrictions and reported an increase in pediatric obesity during the aforesaid period.6
Osebhahiemen Ibukun, Eniola Esther Oluwadare
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 42-45; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.2.10

Abstract:
Background:Zingiber officinale (ginger) and Curcuma longa (turmeric) are perennial herbs grown in tropical and sub- tropical regions. Both plants have unique aroma and are used for the treatment of various diseases. Their roots have been extensively studied by other researchers. Therefore, this current study focused on the leaves rather than roots, evaluating the phytochemical constituents, in vitro antioxidant activity and acute toxicity. Methods: Screening of phytochemicals and in vitro antioxidant activity were carried out spectrophotometrically using standard protocols. Acute toxicity testing was done by administering (orally) varying concentrations (100-2000mg/kg body weight) of extracts to Wistar rats weighing 120-140 (grams) Results: Flavonoids, tannins, phenolic compounds, saponinis, glycosides and steroids were qualitatively detected in both extracts. Quantitatively, methanol extract of leaves of Zingiber officinale had significantly higher (p< 0.05) concentrations of total phenol, total flavonoids, total tannins, total proanthocyanidins, total hydroxy cinnamic acids, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total antioxidant capacity, 1,1–diphenyl–2–picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity than extract of Curcuma longa. Furthermore, there was no physical sign of intoxication or mortality in rats that were administered the extracts. Conclusion: Leaves of Zingiber officinale and Curcuma longa may be good sources of safe phytochemicals and antioxidants that would be useful in the food and pharmaceutical sectors.
Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka Arawwawala, Tika Dewayalage Nimal Karunaratne, Kahapola Sugatharatana, Hettiarachchige Sammy Ariyawansa, Hapangama Asitha De Silva
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 35-37; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.2.8

Abstract:
Objectives:Sarasvatha choorna is one of the polyherbal preparations used for the management of dementia and contains 12 medicinal plants and rock salt. It is well known that free radicals attack the brain tissue and cause dementia which lead to impair the memory performance. Therefore, an attempt was taken to investigate the antioxidant activities of the water extract and the ethanol extract of Sarasvatha choorna. Methods:Via ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis (3 ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonicacid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assays. Results: FRAP (295.67 ± 5.48mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract), ORAC (45.09 ± 0.79mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract) and ABTS (99.22 ± 4.96mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract) values of the ethanol extract was significantly higher than those of the water extract (FRAP: 170.01 ± 1.17 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract; ORAC: 29.73 ± 2.60 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract and ABTS: 47.17 ± 1.24 mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract). In contrast, DPPH scavenging ability of the water extract (9.89 ± 0.32mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract) was significantly higher than that of the ethanol extract (6.69 ± 0.0mg Trolox equivalents/g of extract). Conclusion:Sarasvatha choorna has potent antioxidant activities and may play a major role to attack free radicals which is one of causes for dementia.
Venkatesan Natarajan, Vishwanath Ba
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 38-41; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.2.9

Abstract:
Objectives: To evaluate the in vivo antioxidant potential of various extracts of Dregea volubilis on chromium (VI)-induced oxidative stress in albino rats. Methods: Animals were treated with plant extracts for 28 days and then oxidative stress was induced with a single doses of Chromium 30mg/kg (p.o.). Treated with 200 mg/kg (p.o.) of alcoholic extract of Dregea volubilis and determine the glutathione, SOD, catalase, peroxidise and transaminase enzymes levels. Results: The present studies revealed that Dregea volubilis has significant in vivo antioxidant activity and can be used to protect tissue from oxidative stress. The result showed that the activities of glutathione, SOD, catalase and peroxidise and tranaminase enzymes in group treated with chromium (VI) declined significantly than that of compared with control group. Conclusion: Ethanolic extract of Dregea volubilis in the dose of 200 mg/kg, p.o., has improved the glutathione, SOD, catalase, and peroxidase and transaminase enzymes levels significantly, which were comparable with Vitamin-E. Based on this study we conclude that Alcoholic extract of Dregea volubilis possesses in vivo antioxidant activity and can be employed in protecting tissue from oxidative stress.
Salma Ghaffar, Shazia Jabeen, Tahir Mehmood, Muhammad Qasim Hayat, Mudassir Iqbal
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 46-51; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.2.11

Abstract:
Background: In humans, especially in elderly patients, free radicals and oxidative stress are one of the main reasons behind a number of diseases/disorders, such as cardiovascular, pulmonary and neuronal in nature. Therefore, it is imperative to investigate substances/compounds that possess potent free radical scavenging activity, especially, from the indigenous flora. Methods: The present study was aimed to screen the free radical scavenging activity of ethanolic and methanolic leaf extracts of three medicinal plants: Syzygium cumini,Psidium guajava and Callicarpa dichotoma. The antioxidant activity was determined using 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picryl hydroxyl (DPPH) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging assays. Various concentrations (250, 500, 750 and 1000μg/ml) of plant extract were used to carry out the assays and Ascorbic acid was used as the standard. The free radical quenching potential was expressed in inhibition percentage (%) and concentrations were expressed in μg/ml. Optical density of DPPH and H2O2 was measured using spectrophotometer at 517 and 230 nm, respectively. Results: Results from the DPPH and H2O2 assays showed that antioxidant activities were observed to be highest in P. guajava (89 and 81% respectively) followed by S. cumini (84 and 72% respectively) and C. dichotoma (83 and 70% respectively) in the ethanolic extracts. Conclusion: It is concluded that the selected plant materials used for the study have a powerful antioxidant potential and could be used in various therapeutic and medicinal applications.
Alok Kumar Soni, Ankita Soni, Neeraj Upmanyu, Gurusamy Mathu Kannan
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 29-34; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.2.7

Abstract:
This paper aims to review the basic concept of radiation biology and better understand the mechanism of toxicity when interacting with living tissue. The main content of this review includes the source of radiations, unit and measurement, mechanism of tissue injury and possible effects from that exposure; theoretic dose-response curves and their uses in radiation biology; stochastic versus non-stochastic effects of radiation exposure possible acute and chronic radiation exposure effects. Apart from that, we have also reviewed the recent development and progress available as well as under investigation, potential countermeasures compounds against the radiation-induced injury.
Aanuoluwa James Salemcity, Temitope Sekinat Agbaje, Magdalene Eno Effiong, Steve Osagie Asuelimen
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 52-57; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.2.12

Abstract:
Background: Infertility in male has been associated with oxidative stress which cause membrane damage. The presence of a wide array of secondary metabolites with enormous antioxidant potentials have resulted in the increased medicinal value placed on plants for treatment of various ailments. Ocimum gratissimum is a widely consumed herb well known for its nutritional and medicinal significance. Nevertheless, there is scarcity of information on the impact of Ocimum gratissimum on plumbagin-stimulated male reproductive dysfunction. Therefore this study was designed to determine the effect of aqueous fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (AFOG) leaf extract on sperm plasma membrane integrity and antioxidant status in plumbagin-induced infertility in male wistar rats. Methods: Twenty animals were divided into four equal groups: normal control, 8mg/kg plumbagin, groups administered Plumbagin and treated with 100mg/kg and 400mg/kg AFOG leaf by gavaging for 14 days. Results: The AFOG (100mg/kg and 400mg/kg) significantly (P<0.05) prevented plumbagin-mediated increase in lipid peroxidation but increased antioxidant parameters [such as glutathione reduced (GSH) levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT)] in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, AFOG significantly reversed decrease in testosterone and estradiol levels in plumbagin-induced sterility in male rats and this was corroborated by a significant improvement in sperm features and testes histo-architectures of the co-treated animals. Conclusion: It could therefore be inferred from the above data that Ocimum gratissimum exhibited its cytoprotective role in male reproductive dysfunction via prevention of oxidative stress and maintenance of membrane stability.
Subramani Parasuraman, Vanishya A/p Raipan
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 24-26; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.1.5

Abstract:
Objectives: To study the antioxidant activity of methanolic and ethanolic extracts of seeds of Macrotyloma uniflorum. Methods: The seeds of M. uniflorum were extracted with methanol and ethanol and used for the phytochemical analysis and determination of antioxidant activity. The in vitro antioxidant activity was studied using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and hydroxyl radical scavenging methods. Result: Ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum showed more phenolic content (63.48 mg GAE/g) than methanolic extract of M. uniflorum (45.84 mg GAE/g). In total flavonoid content analysis, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum showed the presence of flavonoid content of 15.31 mg Rutin/g and 15.44 mg Rutin/g, respectively. In DPPH assay, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum exhibited 50% free radical scavenging activity at 797.71 ± 34.38 μg/mL and 938.80 ± 66.05 μg/mL (mean ± standard deviation; n = 3), respectively. In hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum exhibited 50% fee radical scavenging activity at 770.27 ± 11.64 μg/ mL and 844.94 ± 35.12 μg/mL (mean ± standard deviation; n = 3), respectively. Ascorbic acid exhibited potent free radical scavenging with IC50 value of 60.54 ± 5.23 μg/mL in DPPH method and 207.98 ± 14.26 μg/mL (mean ± standard deviation; n = 3) in hydroxyl radical scavenging method. Conclusion: Ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum showed more phe­nolic content than methanolic extract of M. uniflorum. In both, DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging assay, methanolic and ethanolic extracts of M. uniflorum exhibited antioxidant activity at higher concentration.
Mamita Debnath, Susmita Das, Shovonlal Bhowmick, Swagata Karak, Achintya Saha, Bratati De
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 13-18; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.1.3

Abstract:
Introduction: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are used to prevent symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease which is initiated due to oxidative stress. Piper betle L. is a tropical evergreen perennial vine whose leaves are widely consumed as masticator in Asia and has medicinal properties. Objectives: The present study is aimed to investigate acetylcholinesterase inhibitory property of methanolic extracts of different varieties of Piper betle leaves and chemometrically identify different bioactive ingredients in vitro and in silico. Materials and Methods: Methanol extracts of the leaves collected in February and October from eight varieties of P. betle (Chhanchi, Bagerhati, Manikdanga, Kalibangla, Bangla, Ghanagete, Meetha and Haldi) were studied for acetylcholinesterase inhibitory properties. Chemical components were analyzed by Gas Chromatography – Mass spectrometry and High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography. Active metabolites were identified chemometrically. The activities were proved in vitro and in silico. Results: All the extracts inhibited acetylcholinesterase. Statistical analysis suggested that several phenolic compounds were correlated to anti-cholinesterase activity. Piceatannol, hydroxychavicol, benzene-1,2,4-triol, and 4-methylcatechol are reported here to have such enzyme inhibitory properties. These four small molecules were further subjected to molecular docking analysis to explore their binding mechanism with the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. All the four small molecules are found to interact with the targeted enzyme in similar fashion like the molecular interactions observed for the standard inhibitor, Donepezil, at the active site of acetylcholiesterase. Conclusion: Thus, consumption of P. betle leaves may have a beneficial effect in the prevention and treatment of this neurodegenerative disease.
Sanjib Bhattacharya
Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 11, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.5530/fra.2021.1.1

Abstract:
Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) is an essential micro-nutrient, an outstanding antioxidant and an essential co-factor in different mammalian enzymatic processes. There is considerable clinical attestation that, high dose of intravenous ascorbic acid can improve cancer patients with or without extant therapeutic involvements. Ascorbic acid in high intravenous doses serves as pro-oxidant and promotes the generation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) with oxidative stress-induced toxicity selectively to cancer cells. This effect also hampers the bioenergetics and angiogenesis of malignant cells, resulting in cancer cell death. Large doses of ascorbic acid are safe and well-tolerated. On account of its antioxidant effect, ascorbic acid supplementation may be applied as an adjuvant with regular cancer therapy to minimize complications. Nevertheless, there is a necessity for further mechanistic studies and randomized controlled clinical trials to evaluate the benefit of ascorbic acid in the treatment of cancer.
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