Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental da Alta Paulista

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EISSN : 1980-0827
Total articles ≅ 1,289
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Joyce Éllen Santos de Oliveira, Heidy Rodriguez Ramos
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718220223195

Abstract:
With the increase of energy consumption and the environmental changes caused by energy generation, it is essential that different sectors of society seek alternative, sustainable and efficient ways to develop their activities. In this context, renewable energies generate less environmental pollution when compared to fossil sources. Among the renewable energy alternatives, solar energy has grown all over the world, thanks to new technologies, easy installation and energy collection, since it is powered by an abundant source with an inexhaustible impact on the earth's surface. Large buildings are considered potential polluters, as they can cause damage to the environment due to the amount of energy they use. The present study aims to analyze the photovoltaic solar system installed in a public building located in the city of São Paulo, specifically the project implemented in the Fazenda do Carmo Municipal Natural Park (PNMFC). A qualitative, single-case study, was the adopted methodology. Data collection was via the analysis of documents and semi-structured interviews with managers and those responsible for the PNMFC projects. The results showed that the generation of energy close to the place of consumption (distributed generation) is a determining factor for energy savings and minimization of environmental impacts. We conclude that public policies of fiscal and regulatory incentives are fundamental for the growth of the use of photovoltaic energy in urban centers
Letícia Morais Neres, Heidy Rodriguez Ramos
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718220223194

Abstract:
One of the main challenges for the present and future of citiesare new energy sources that allow good efficiency and low environmental impact. In this sense, this study analyzed biogas, an energy source from the decomposition of organic matter. A theoretical essay was carried out from bibliographical research, with the aim of presenting the current scenario of the different perspectives of production and application of biogas in Brazil, in urban and rural areas of the country. The observed results showed that, in rural areas, the input for the production of biogas comes mainly from animal husbandry, and that the form of use is mainly directed towards obtaining thermal energy. In urban areas, practically all biogas production is carried out in sanitary landfills and sewage treatment plants, given the large amount of excess organic matter from the waste treatment activity. However, even though the country has relatively important indices of biogas production and use, it was clear from the theoretical framework analyzed that not only is the amount generated very low for generation potentials in Brazil, but there is also an evident lack of technologies in relation to biodigesters, in addition to a weak legislation to promote Brazilian biogas, which led to the conclusion that biogas production in the country is proceeding at a very slow pace. The study is limited in terms of detailing the barriers observed, and, therefore, it is suggested that future studies seek an in-depth analysis of these barriers.
Gisele Herbst Vazquez, Andréa Cristiane Sanches, Mateus Leonardo Welika dos Santos
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718220223197

Abstract:
Acidity is one of the main factors capable of reducing the productive potential of Brazilian soils, as it promotes the release of toxic elements for plants and reduces the availability of nutrients. Recycled civil construction and demolition waste (R-CCW class A) is a major environmental problem in Brazilian cities, especially in terms of its illegitimate disposal, causing floods, clogging of galleries and silting of channels, in addition to the proliferation of vectors and pollution. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of recycled sand (R-CCW) as a corrective of soil acidity, through soybean cultivation, in an experiment installed in PVA1 yellow-reddish with sandy/medium texture, acid and of low fertility with doses of 10, 20 and 40% of R-CCW, by mass, in Fernandópolis/SP. Variables related to soil fertility and to plants that were subjected to analysis of variance by F and comparison of averages by the Skott-Knott test at 5% probability were evaluated. The results obtained allowed us to conclude that recycled sand from civil construction R-CCW class A has favorable effects in terms of its ability to neutralize H+ ions in the soil solution and those adsorbed to negative soil charges, important effects as an acidity corrective, in addition to providing increases in the contents of Ca, Mg, SB, CEC and V%, greater development of soybean plants, which indicates that this use is an environmentally correct alternative for the disposal of these residues.
Cecilia Emi Yamanaka Matsumura, Heidy Rodriguez Ramos, António José Guerner Dias
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718220223193

Abstract:
Cities are like living organisms that, to function, need resources and goods such as energy, raw materials, water, and food. After being used, the surplus of these resources is discarded, being directly responsible for most of the environmental impacts caused by human actions on the planet and not only in the territory where urban agglomerations are concentrated. Circular Economy arises to meet the need to reverse and contain the current scenario of exhaustion of natural resources and loss of biodiversity, introducing sustainable production and consumption. Its concept has been explored by different segments of society such as industries, academia, NGOs, government entities, among others, with multiple approaches and applications. Thus, this article, from a theoretical framework, explores the origins of the Circular Economy concept, providing a review of the main schools of thought that preceded it, and analyzes the common point of view on the Circular Economy concept. The article also identifies some scenarios in Brazil and in the world, whose countries and regions have stood out for their representativeness in the global context. It concludes with an insight on the current “status”, the future, and transition to Circular Economy.
Eduardo Soares Nascimento, Maria De Lourdes Bueno Trindade Galo, Sandra Medina Benini
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718220223236

Abstract:
Italy has been dealing with a major environmental problem in recent times – the water crisis. It is known that this environmental problem can be caused by droughts, lack of rain, and pollution. In July 2022, the Italian government declared a state of emergency in five regions due to the intense water crisis, which coincided with one of the most severe droughts experienced in the last 70 years by the Italian territory. The 652 km-long Po River is the main and longest Italian river and has suffered greatly from the lack of water in its surroundings. This study aims to detect the changes that occurred in the Po River watershed by means of multispectral images (pre- and post-water crisis) obtained by the Sentinel-2 satellite. A methodology different from conventional ones is implemented, which highlights changes by the analysis of images acquired before and after the water crisis. The method is compared to conventional techniques that use subtraction of indexes for the detection of changes. The results obtained here are promising, as the proposed method is a fast and effective approach to mapping the effects of water crisis, besides potentiating the application of the methodology in other areas.
Helder Henrique de Faria, Andréa Soares Pires, Fernanda D. Abra
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718120223103

Abstract:
Although being conceived with economical and social significance, building roads is a high impact mechanism of landscape fragmentation, in which the involved environmental factors are not fully considered. The SP-613 highway segments the forest and divides in half the 34000 ha of Morro do Diabo State Park (MDSP), representing the major source of disturbance to the protected area’s wildlife. A random monitoring was performed between 1989-1999 and counted 158 animals and 23 wild species killed in collisions with vehicles. Among these, 16% were endangered species. Data compiled between 2002 and 2010, following the same previous methodology, counted 46 dead animals and 15 species, indicating the geographic localizations of the collisions. A new stage of the monitoring was performed, with systematic data collection throughout two different periods: the first one with 197 days of monitoring and 56 days of sampling; the second one with 292 days of monitoring and 83 days of sampling. The species, sex, when possible, date, place and carcass conditions were registered, resulting in 29 individuals and 16 wild species. The three rounds of monitoring totaled 233 registered animals among 15 orders, 28 families and 33 impacted species. In this work, we revisit the data from the first two monitorings and present the analysis of the last survey, the most impacted species and the mortality rates after the adoption of measures aiming to diminish the fauna mortality along the highway.
Isabel Cristina Moroz Caccia Gouveia, Luciane Maria Dos Santos
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718120223149

Abstract:
Given all the transformation that man produces on the environment, the original characteristics of the environments are modified or destroyed, resulting in environmental degradation, especially in places where once existed rich ecosystems and today are characterized by accelerated growth. In this sense, it is considered important to conduct an analysis of the use and occupation of land and its socio-environmental impacts, diagnosing the environmental quality of the watershed of the Taquaruçu stream in the municipality of Sandovalina - SP. In this way the methodology of this work were evidenced through analyses of the hydric behavior of the stream Taquaruçu, analyses of the state of the environmental quality of the spring and of the water and the physical and biotic characteristics of the areas, the identification of the uses and conflicts in relation to the hydric resources, and the transgressions to the environmental legislation. Finally, it is concluded that after the analyses made and carried out in the Taquaruçu stream and in the municipality of Sandovalina, it was possible to prove that greater supervision and awareness of the entire population about these areas is necessary, since they are in a critical situation, even though they are of total importance for the municipality and the entire region.
Josimar Dos Reis De Souza, Hamanda Santos Sousa, Laís Naiara Gonçalves dos Reis
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718120223146

Abstract:
In view of the importance of morphometric studies for the planning and management of watersheds, this study aimed to carry out the morphometric assessment of the Santana River Basin, located in the municipality of Itapuranga, Goiás. The study area was chosen due to the basin is extremely important for the region, as it is responsible for the irrigation of large areas of cultivation. This fact led to the realization of this study, in order to be able to contribute to the planning and management of the hydrographic basin. The methodology consisted of eight steps, using ArcGis 9.2 software. The results showed the hierarchy of drainage channels in the Santana River basin in four orders. The slope mapping in conjunction with the hypsometric mapping showed areas of steep slopes and interfluves that appear as flattened tops, with considerable elevation. The valley bottoms are at an elevation of 540 to 570 meters. The unevenness of the hydrographic basin was 360 meters, 540 meters at the lowest point and 900 meters from the highest point. The Santana River basin can be fragmented into three distinct landscape units: hills, alluvial plains and top areas. Thus, this study showed basic characteristics of the physical environment that can enable, and support studies aimed at the planning and management of that basin, helping to reduce and mitigate the socioeconomic impacts on water sources.
Josimar Dos Reis De Souza, Edgar Campos Ferreira, Laís Naiara Gonçalves dos Reis
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718120223145

Abstract:
This study aimed to measure the flow of the Canastra River, located in the municipality of Itapuranga (Goiás), from 2017 to 2018, using the float method. This river plays an important role in providing water for the urban area, for industry and for the irrigation of extensive areas of cultivation. Thus, the analysis focused on showing how these results can contribute to the planning and management of river basins. The methodology used for data collection was the estimation by the float method. The results obtained showed that in the wettest months the flow rate reached a relative average of 200 m³/s, with a maximum flow rate of 450 m³/s. In the dry months, especially in October 2018, the flow reached a minimum of 4.1 m³/s. The flow data of the watercourse allowed to show the extremes of the water source capacity, which has been increasingly under pressure from increasing demand for supply in the urban area of Itapuranga and also from industries and agricultural activities. Furthermore, this experimental study demonstrated how the use of techniques considered simple and cheap, such as the one used, emerge as possibilities for the practice of watershed management, available to managers, especially in small municipalities in the country with limited financial resources.
Michael Guimarães de Souza, Leandro Félix de Castro, Adoréa Rebello Da Cunha Albuquerque
Periódico Eletrônico Fórum Ambiental Da Alta Paulista, Volume 18; https://doi.org/10.17271/1980082718120223141

Abstract:
In 2003, the African snail was found for the first time in the city of Manaus, receiving from the Brazilian Institute of Environment and Renewable Resources the attribution of Achatina fulica, a species classified among the hundred worst invaders in the world. The present work presents the results of a study developed on the occurrence and the spatial distribution of this species in the capital of Amazonas. The methodological procedures were conducted through field collections, georeferencing and data projection on cartographic bases. As well as information on the conditions of precipitation, relative humidity and temperature, considering the influence of abiotic factors on the distribution of the species. The survey included 1,855 individuals, collected. The results reveal that temperature values ​​of 25 ° C accompanied by relative humidity rates of around 80% and average precipitation volumes of 17 mm bring together climatic conditions that favor the appearance of the mollusc in the city Manaus.
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