Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2572-7923 / 2572-7931
Published by: EnPress Publisher (10.24294)
Total articles ≅ 86
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Temulin Batjargal, Mengzhong Zhang
Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v5i2.1378

Abstract:
Although public-private partnership (PPP) is regarded as one of the key effective tools in the development of many countries, various challenges surrounding PPPs are not well understood. This paper explores nine key challenges in PPP implementation: (1) different organizational cultures and goals between the partners, (2) poor institutional environment and support, (3) weak political and legal frameworks, (4) unreliable mechanisms for sharing risk and responsibility, (5) inadequate procedures for the selection of PPP partners, (6) inconsistency between resource inputs and quality, (7) inadequate monitoring and evaluation of PPP processes, (8) lack of transparency, and (9) the inherent nature of PPPs. This paper aims to provide the perceptions in the existing literature on many of these challenges, as well as provide solutions to each challenge.
Frederick Bloetscher, John Renne, Serena Hoermann
Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v5i2.1271

Abstract:
Increasingly, U.S. cities are focusing on transit-oriented development (TOD) policies to expand the stock of higher-density, mixed-use development near public transit stations within the context of a transit corridor and, in most cases, a regional metropolis. A TOD zone relies on a regulatory and institutional environment, public and private participation and investment, and development incentives to create vibrant, people-oriented communities and mobility options and to support business development. TODs provide local governments with more tax revenues due to increased property values (and, as applicable, income and sales tax revenues), but most planning for TODs ignores the non-transit infrastructure costs of increasing development density. This study focused on determining the water and sewer infrastructure costs for TOD zones along a rail line in southeast Florida. The finding was that millions of dollars in funds are needed to meet those water and sewer needs and that few are currently planned as a part of community capital improvement programs.
Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v5i2.1290

Abstract:
The world has complex mega-cities and interdependent infrastructures. This complication in infrastructure relations makes it sensitive to disasters and failures. Cascading failure causes blackouts for the whole system of infrastructures during disasters and the lack of performance of the emergency management stakeholders is clear during a disaster due to the complexity of the system. This research aimed to develop a new concurrent engineering model following the total recovery effort. The objectives of this research were to identify the clustered intervention utilized in the field of resilience and developing a cross-functional intervention network to enhance the resilience of societies during a disaster. Content analysis was employed to classify and categorize the intervention in the main divisions and sub-divisions and the grouping of stakeholders. The transposing system was employed to develop an integrated model. The result of this research showed that the operations division achieved the highest weight of information interchange during the response to improve the resilience of the system. The committee of logistics and the committee of rescue and relief needed the widest bandwidth of information flow in the concurrent engineering (CE) model. The contributed CE model helped the stakeholders provide a resilient response system. The final model and the relative share value of exchanging information for each workgroup can speed up recovery actions. This research found that concurrent engineering (CE) is a viable concept to be implemented as a strategy for emergency management. The result of this research can help policymakers achieve a collaborative teamwork environment and to improve resilience factors during emergency circumstances for critical infrastructures.
Ambaw Desalegn, Nigussie Solomon
Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v5i2.1301

Abstract:
This paper analyzed the equitable allocation of infrastructure across regional states in Ethiopia. In general, in the past years, there has been a good start in the infrastructure sector in Ethiopia. However, the governance and equity system of infrastructure in Ethiopia is not flexible, not technology-oriented, not fair, and not easily solved. The results of in-depth interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs) showed that there is a lack of institutional capacity, infrastructure governance, and equity, which has negatively impacted the state- and nation-building processes in Ethiopia. According to the interviewees, so long as the unmet demand for infrastructure exists, it remains a key restrain on doing business in most Ethiopian regional states. This is due to the lack of integrated frameworks, as there are coordination failures (lack of proper government intervention, including a lack of proper understanding and implementation of the constitution and the federal system). In Ethiopia, to reduce these bottlenecks arising from the lack of institutional capacity, infrastructure governance, and equity and their effects on nation-building, first of all, the government has to critically hear the people, deeply assess the problems, and come to the point and then discuss the problems and the way forward with the society at large.
Alfredo M. Pereira, Rui M. Pereira, Pedro G. Rodrigues
Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v5i2.1377

Abstract:
We estimated how investment in 12 infrastructure types affects employment in Portugal. Using a vector-autoregressive specification at the industry level, we found a double dividend associated with ports and airports: investing in either delivers the greatest bang per euro, both on impact and in the long run. One million euros invested in ports and airports creates 717.1 and 290.5 jobs in the long run, respectively, and 535 and 253.3 jobs in the short run, respectively. Regarding long-term employment effects, these are followed by municipal roads, telecommunications, national roads, health structures, education facilities, refineries, railroads, and highways. Water infrastructures and electricity and gas infrastructures have negligible effects. With the long-term effects decomposed, sizable supply-side employment effects for health and education facilities exist, while demand-side effects dominate for airports, ports, municipal roads, and telecommunications. Employment following the investment in national roads is balanced across demand and supply channels. We found no significant employment-related location effects of infrastructure investments. Also, investing in either health facilities or in education buildings entails non-negligible job losses in the short run. These results suggest that the magnitude and the timing of job creation crucially depend on the type of infrastructure investment. Policymakers in Portugal need to be aware of this in choosing between countercyclical or structural targets.
Narendra N. Dalei, Avin Shekhar Chourasia, Narayan Sethi, , Upananda Pani
Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v5i2.1295

Abstract:
Sustainable ocean tourism is required to establish a balance between the environmental, economic, social and cultural aspects of ocean tourism development. Sustainable ocean tourism also contributes to local and national economies, enhancing the quality of social life and protecting the ecology. Sustainable ocean tourism expands the positive contribution of tourism to biodiversity conservation and poverty reduction and aims to attain the common goals of sustainable developments for ocean tourism. Sustainable ocean tourism is possible due to the roles of regulators and private and government institutions. Government policies, regulations and guidelines play vital roles towards achieving the sustainability of ocean tourism. However, the role of institutions also cannot be ignored, which provide support in the innovation of technologies and the implementation of policies. The paper targets to investigate the roles of regulations, policies and institutions in the sustainability of ocean tourism. A primary online survey on the perception of tourism experts was conducted for this study using Google Forms. The tourism experts were invited from all over the world to participate in the survey. The study received a total of 33 responses, out of which only 30 valid responses were considered. Using the Tobit regression model, the study found that, while regulations in India relative to foreign countries significantly boost the sustainability of ocean tourism, government policies and public institutions in India relative to foreign countries remain insignificant in predicting the sustainability of ocean tourism. Therefore, government policies and public institutions in India need to be revised and reformulated to make them important drivers of the sustainability of ocean tourism.
Anastasios Mouratidis
Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v5i2.1379

Abstract:
Municipal authorities in industrialized and in developing countries face unceasingly the issues of congestion, insufficiency of transport means capacity, poor operability of transport systems and a growing demand for reliable and effective urban transport. While the expansion of infrastructure is generally considered as an undesirable option, in specific cases, when short links or ring roads are missing, new infrastructure projects may provide beneficial solutions. The upgrading and renewal of existing networks is always a challenge to the development of a modern city and the welfare of citizens. Central governance and management of transport systems, the establishment of smart and digital infrastructure, advanced surveillance and traffic monitoring, and intra-city energy-harvesting policy are some of the steps to be taken during the transition to a green and sustainable urban future.Municipal authorities have also to consider other options and strategies to create a citizen-friendly setting for mobility: diminish the need for trips (digitalization of services, e-commerce, etc.), shift from private to public transport and transform the urban form to promote non-motorized transport in favor of the natural environment and public health. A citizen-friendly policy based on the anticipation of future needs and technological development seems to be a requisite for European cities searching for a smooth integration of their networks into urban space.
Sreyus Palliyani, Der-Horng Lee
Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v5i2.1338

Abstract:
Ride-hailing or private hire has been around the globe for a decade now but even less in Asia. Singapore has had more than three revisions to its ride-hailing regulation in the six years since the arrival of the disruptive technology, the most for an Asian city. Often quoted in the list of cities with a commendable public transport policy, Singapore still manages to find a viable and significant position for ride-hailing. Singapore, to a large extent, has formulated a successful model based on current market parameters and, more importantly, an adaptive one that evolves constantly with the continually disruptive technology. But how does this compare to cities around the globe? Global cities have formulated different policy regulations for the sector, with each one of them enjoying varying degrees of success and failure. Utilizing a mixed-methods approach using qualitative and quantitative data, Singapore’s ride-hailing sector was benchmarked with chiefly nine global cities. The qualitative data was analyzed using the 3-element model of the social practice theory as an alternative to conventional behavioral studies, thereby eliminating bias on the commuters and rather shifting focus to the practice. The findings were validated by statistical analysis of quantitative data, namely, trip information from the ride-hailing sector in Singapore and driver earnings. The unique addition of the research to ride-hailing policy is the comprehension of the commonalities and patterns across industrial and technological disruption, practice and policy irrespective of sectoral variations thanks to the utilization of the social practice theory. The first-of-its-kind policy exercise in the sector can be repeated for any city, which is a direct testament to the simplicity and exhaustivity of the methodology, benefitting both operators and investors through equitable policy formulation.
Sreyus Palliyani,
Journal of Infrastructure, Policy and Development, Volume 5; https://doi.org/10.24294/jipd.v5i1.1254

Abstract:
Ride-hailing or private hire has taken the Singapore transport network by storm in the past few years. Singapore has had more than three revisions of its ride-hailing regulation in the six years since the arrival of the disruptive technology. Often quoted in the list of cities with commendable public transport policy, Singapore still manages to find a viable and significant position for ride-hailing. Cities from around the world are all searching for a model of regulation for ride-hailing that can be elevated as a benchmark. Singapore, to a large extent, has formulated a successful model based on current market parameters and, more importantly, an adaptive one that evolves constantly with the constantly disruptive technology. The experts and regulators of the Singapore transport sector were interviewed in depth, tapping into their opinions and technocratic commentaries on the city-state’s Point-to-Point, or P2P, sector regulation. The data were analyzed using the three-element model of social practice theory as an alternative to conventional behavioral studies, thereby eliminating bias on the commuters and rather shifting focus to the practice. Content analysis utilizing QDA is executed for categorization through fine-level inductive matrix coding to elaborate upon the policy derivatives of the Singapore model. The unique addition of the research to ride-hailing policy is the comprehension of the commonalities and patterns across industrial and technological disruption, practice and policy irrespective of sectoral variations, thanks to the utilization of social practice theory. The first-of-its-kind policy exercise in the sector can be repeated for any city, which is a direct testament to the simplicity and exhaustivity of the methodology, benefiting both operators and investors through equitable policy formulation.
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