Indian Journal of Dental Research

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ISSN / EISSN : 0970-9290 / 1998-3603
Published by: Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 2,549
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Lalitkumar P Gade, Snehal D Lunawat, Kiran S Jagtap, Sneha H Choudhary, Monica Mahajani, Vishwas D Kadam
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 115-119; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_649_19

Abstract:
Grinspan syndrome is characterised by presence of the triad: hypertension, diabetes mellitus (DM) and oral lichen planus (OLP). OLP, seen in hypertension and diabetes mellitus, is caused by drugs used to treat these diseases according to literature, however the incidence of this syndrome in India has not yet been reported anywhere. Hence the present study was conducted with the following objectives: (i) To determine the incidence of Grinspan syndrome amongst tribal and suburban study population of Maharashtra in different gender and age groups (ii) To correlate occurrence of OLP with DM type 2 and hypertension (iii) To find out the number of patients with OLP, DM type 2 and hypertension either alone or in combination. The present study was conducted on 4681 new patients attending the routine outpatient department (O.P.D.) of the dental hospital between January 2017 and December 2018. Patients with OLP or DM (type-2) or hypertension or any combination of these diseases were included in the present study. Brief case history of each patient was recorded. Data thus collected were analysed using SPSS version 20 for Chi-square test. Grinspan syndrome was found in 1.62% of the study population. Syndrome was seen in 1.02% of female and 0.59% of male. Maximum patient affected by syndrome were in 35-50 years of age group. Incidence of Grinspan syndrome was 1.62%, mainly seen in sub-urban females of 35-50 years and OLP seen in hypertension and diabetes mellitus has different etiology and is not caused by drugs used to treat these diseases.
Ajinkya Pawar, Bhagyashree Thakur, Ricardo Machado, Sang W Kwak, Hyeon-Cheol Kim
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 104-109; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_782_19

Abstract:
The root and canal morphology of maxillary first permanent molars (MFPMs) is a very widely studied issue in endodontics. However, only one study has been conducted to date on this issue using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in India, and the sample consisted of extracted teeth. To investigate the root and canal morphology of MFPMs in an Indian population, by using CBCT. 487 bilateral MFPMs (974 teeth) were assessed and the root and canal morphology were determined according to Vertucci's classification. In addition, the prevalence of a second mesiobuccal canal in the mesiobuccal root (MB2) was correlated with gender, age and arch side. Three roots were most commonly found in the MFPMs regardless of gender (P > 0.05), but this prevalence varied according to the side of the dental arch (P < 0.05). MB2 was present in 77.5% of 3-rooted teeth. Patients above 60 years had a higher incidence of these canals (84.7%) (P < .05). The occurrence of bilateral MB2 was 71.8% in 3-rooted MFPMs. Gender had no significant impact on the occurrence of bilateral MB2 in 3-rooted MFPMs (P > .05). The most common canal configuration was type IV (46.5%) and I (98.9%) in the mesiobuccal and distobuccal roots, respectively (P < .05). The prevalence of MB2 in 3-rooted MFPMs was higher in patients above 60 years of age. The root and canal morphology of MFPMs in an Indian population may have significant variations depending on the dental arch side and patient age.
Vijay Wadhwan, Arvind Venkatesh, Preeti Sharma, Sangeeta Malik, Chitrapriya Saxena
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 27-30; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_718_18

Abstract:
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is a chronic progressive scarring oral disease caused due to areca quid chewing. The constituents of areca nut can enter into the circulation by swallowing the liquid mixture of areca quid which evokes oxidative stress on RBC membrane integrity. To study the morphometric characteristics of erythrocytes under light microscopy and to assess the role of areca quid constituents on the morphology of circulating erythrocytes. Peripheral blood smears prepared from blood samples of 50 patients selected according to Lai's classification. Group I: Normal individuals (10 cases); Group II: Mouth opening > 35 mm (10 cases); Group III: Mouth opening 30-35 mm (10 cases); Group IV: Mouth opening 20-30 mm (10 cases) and Group V: Mouth opening < 20 mm (10 cases). The slides were stained with Leishman's stain and assessed by light microscopy. A total of 100 randomly selected RBCs from 5 different fields in each smear were selected and the RBC circumference was measured and tabulated. Data was analyzed using GraphPad Prism 5.03 software. Tukey's multiple comparison test showed statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between groups I and IV; I and V; II and IV; II and V; III and IV; III and V. These results suggest the possibility of cytotoxic effect of areca quid constituents on circulating erythrocytes in advanced cases of OSMF, which might result in microcytic anaemia.
Ratheesh Rajendran, K Radhakrishnan Nair, Raghu Sandhya, Anandhu V Krishnan, Aadit Anilkumar, P V Rakhi
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 92-97; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_238_19

Abstract:
To develop and evaluate the efficacy of synthesised strontium-doped nano hydroxyapatite dentifrice and compare its remineralizing potential with a topical cream containing Casein Phospho Peptide - Amorphous Calcium Phosphate, in remineralizing artificial carious lesion on enamel. Enamel specimens of 4 x 4 x 1 mm were prepared from 90 freshly extracted teeth. Specimens were divided into 3 groups of 30 samples each, based on the type of dentifrice applied that is a control group (Group I) and two experimental groups (Groups II, III). Surface topography and the calcium/phosphorous ratio of all sound specimen were evaluated using Scanning electron microscope and Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (SEM-EDAX). The samples in group I and each of the experimental groups were subjected to demineralisation and the calcium/phosphorous ratio of the demineralized specimen were analysed. The samples were then subjected to remineralisation using different agents in each group. Samples in the control group (Group I) were brushed with a conventional dentifrice. In the experimental groups, Group II topical cream with Casein Phosphopeptide and Amorphous Calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) was used and in Group III laboratory synthesized Strontium-doped nanohydroxyapatite paste (Sr-nHAP), respectively for 28 consecutive days. The samples in the both the control and the two experimental groups were again subjected to SEM-EDAX analysis to analyse the calcium phosphorus ratio following remineralisation cycle. Groupwise comparison of the data was done with one way ANOVA followed by Tukeys Post hoc Test. Both experimental groups (II, III) showed statistically significant remineralisation potential after demineralisation, compared to the control group I. Intergroup comparison showed that the samples in Group III showed the higher remineralisation potential than Group II and was statistically significant. Both CPP- ACP containing tooth cream as well as Sr doped nHAp showed remineralisation potential. Sr doped nanohydroxyapatite showed better remineralisation than CPP ACP and can be considered for enamel repair in incipient carious lesions.
M V Mavishna, Kondas Vijay Venkatesh
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 79-86; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_328_20

Abstract:
To compare and evaluate the retreatability of calcium silicate-based root canal sealers and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers in curved canals using micro-CT scanning. Forty-five maxillary molars with curved roots were selected after confirming with the Schneiders test. Teeth were decoronated near the cemento-enamel junction and moderate to severely curved canals were selected for the study using cone-beam computed tomography. All the samples were subjected to pre-operative micro-CT scanning. Cleaning and shaping were done using step-back preparation, obturation was done using lateral compaction technique, and homogeneous obturation was achieved. All the specimens were kept in 10 mL of phosphate buffered-saline solution at a pH of 8.4 for 48 h and transferred to a plastic container containing moistened foam with 10 mL of phosphate- buffered saline solution, and stored at 37 °C with 100% relative humidity for 4 months. Retreatment was performed for all the samples using Protaper universal retreatment files. Micro-CT scanning was performed to compare and evaluate the remaining sealer volume and resultant cracks formed in the root canal after retreatment. The volume of sealer remaining in the root canal and the length of a crack within the groups were analysed using kruskal-Wallis test and among the groups using post-hoc scheffe test showed that more sealer present in the Diaproseal sealer followed by MTA Fillapex and Bioroot RCS and more crack length was seen in Diaproseal sealer followed by MTA Fillapex and no visible cracks were seen in Bioroot RCS, which had statistically significant results with a P value of < 0.05. Within the limitations of the study it was concluded that in-terms of retrievability, Diaproseal sealer was the best among the tested groups followed by MTA Fillapex and Bioroot RCS.
Vijay Kumar, Bhavna Sabbarwal, Amrita Jaggi, Pratibha Taneja
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 56-60; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_904_19

Abstract:
Effective tobacco cessation programs using advice and counselling, have helped a substantial proportion of people quit smoking. Effectiveness of this tobacco cessation counselling needs to be evaluated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of tobacco cessation counselling and behavioural changes using Multi Theory Model (MTM). A non-randomised uncontrolled trial was conducted on 100 tobacco users visiting dental college in Bangalore. A 28 item questionnaire multi-theory model (MTM) for health behaviour was administered at baseline, 2 weeks, 6 weeks and 12 weeks after providing standardized tobacco cessation counselling (TCC) intervention at baseline. Data were analysed and comparison were made using repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni adjustment (p < 0.05). A total of 64 participants completed the 12 week follow-up. The mean age was 44.3 ± 10.1 years and 75.8% were males. There was significantly increase in mean MTM behaviour change score from baseline (32.78 ± 4.8) to 2 weeks (52.37 ± 5.27), 6 weeks (49.81 ± 4.34) and 12 weeks (48.7 ± 3.50) (p < 0.001). There was increase in MTM model scores in subsequent follow up suggesting behavioural changes and overall effectiveness of the Tobacco cessation counselling (TCC) among tobacco users.
Manu Raj Mathur, Matthew Sunil George, Deepti Nagrath, Richard G Watt
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 39-43; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_607_20

Abstract:
To understand perceptions, attitudes and experiences of school-going adolescents, their parents, teachers and school management towards sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). An exploratory qualitative study was undertaken. The study was conducted in selected, mixed, unaided schools in the state of Delhi. Students of classes 8 to 12th, principals of schools, teachers, parents and school canteen owners. SSBs formed an integral part of the diet of adolescents due to its taste and role as a thirst quencher. Respondents had a fair knowledge of health effects of SSBs. However, they were not aware of the range of drinks that constitute SSBs. Respondents associated SSBs with positivity and happiness. Promotion of SSBs by sports and film stars was cited as a major driver influencing consumption of SSBs by young people. SSBs were readily available even though schools had put in measures to restrict their availability in the premises. Peer pressure emerged as a key factor that drove the consumption of SSBs. Advertisements for SSBs involved individuals who were considered role models and these focused on themes that were important for young people such as belongingness, machismo and friendship among others. On the contrary, health promotion messages around obesity or the consumption of SSBs hardly had any brand ambassador or the visibility of campaigns that promoted SSBs.
Radhey Shyam, B C Manjunath, Adarsh Kumar, Ridhi Narang, Geeta Rani, Saumya Singh
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 110-114; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_835_18

Abstract:
Dental fluorosis is a major endemic oral disease characterized by hypo mineralization of enamel caused due to consumption of water containing high concentration of fluoride during developmental stages of teeth. To assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis among 11-14 years old school children in endemic fluoride areas of Haryana and to find their treatment needs. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2200 school children in endemic fluoride areas of Haryana (India) for a period of six months. Dental fluorosis was recorded by the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF index) given by Thylstrup A, Fejerskov O. Data entry and analysis were performed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS) software version 18.0. Chi square test was used to find association between TFI scores and gender, age categories. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Prevalence of dental fluorosis (TFI) reached 96.6% with most children falling in TFI score 2, 3, 4 and 5 categories. Mean TFI score of study population was found to be 3.19 ± 1.551. There was significant difference found between gender and prevalence of dental fluorosis (P = 0.00). Our findings showed the increased prevalence of dental fluorosis in endemic fluoride areas with mild to moderate level of dental fluorosis.
Lakshanika Yogesh, Nalini Aswath
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 69-73; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_18_18

Abstract:
An individual's risk towards development of cancer depends not only on environmental factors or extrinsic exposure to carcinogens but also on individual's genetic susceptibility. To determine two genetically established parameters such as prevalence of GSTM1 null polymorphism and analysis of Palmar dermatoglypics (PD) in patients with Oral Leukoplakia (OL) and Controls. Group I (cases) 30 patients with established histopathological diagnosis of OL and Group II (controls) 30 patients without any habits of tobacco, alcohol usage and without OL were selected. After informed consent, the palm prints were recorded using a Canon PIXMA MP250 scanner and 2 ml of blood was collected and transported under cold cycle and taken for evaluation of GSTM1 null polymorphism using Multiplex PCR. There exists a highly significant difference in GSTM1 null polymorphism (p-0.002), Finger ridge patterns (arches- p-0.027, loops p-0.001, whorls p-0.001), hypothenar pattern (p-0.015), ATD angle (p-0.001), AB count (p-0.007) between cases and controls. Similarly, when analysing the GSTM1 null polymorphism with PD among cases, there exists a significant association between loops (p-0.001), AB count (p-0.058) and hypothenar pattern (p-0.076), respectively 43% of OL cases had alteration in both which implies that those patients are at a higher risk of developing cancer. Not all patients who smoke or chew tobacco develop cancer. This could probably be due to the individual's genetic susceptibility. Environment gene interactions, in the form of GSTM1 polymorphism, and carcinogenesis, share links that can help in the prediction of risk for oral cancer development, and use of such markers can aid in prediction of oral cancer susceptibility in exposed individuals. Palm prints once formed do not change throughout life and are not influenced by environment. It can also serve as genetic markers to predict the risk of occurrence of oral cancer.
Farhin A Katge, Devendra P Patil, Pooja J Khakhar, Manohar S Poojari, Paloni B Koticha
Indian Journal of Dental Research, Volume 32, pp 51-55; https://doi.org/10.4103/ijdr.ijdr_613_18

Abstract:
Dental trauma is a serious oral health problem that can impair function and aesthetics, which affects the overall quality of life in children. The aim of the present study was to identify the level of knowledge and awareness of school teachers regarding emergency management of dental trauma in school children of Navi Mumbai. The second objective was to correlate it with demographic characteristics and evaluate the need for oral health education programs for teachers. The present study is a cross-sectional survey and involved the completion of a self-administered anonymous questionnaire by teachers. A total of 559 school teachers of primary and secondary sections completed the questionnaire comprising 19 questions. These included demographic data, knowledge regarding teeth most frequently affected by trauma, immediate action to be taken, awareness about storage media and the use of mouth guards. The questionnaire also assessed the willingness of teachers to participate in future training programs on dental trauma management. Data were statistically analysed using Chi-square test for any correlation. Among 559 school teachers who completed the questionnaire, 75.3% were females and 24.7% were males. Merely 6.6% of them agreed to have received prior training in dental trauma management. The majority of teachers (87.5%) were willing to attend training programs on dental trauma management. The knowledge and awareness of school teachers about dental trauma management and storage media for avulsed teeth is poor. Overall, they have a fair knowledge of dental trauma management in school children.
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