Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems

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ISSN / EISSN : 2367-2617 / 2367-0983
Total articles ≅ 176
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Oghenewvogaga J. K. Oghorada, Li Zhang, Huang Han, Ayodele B. Esan, Mingxuan Mao
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00203-0

A new inter-cluster DC capacitor voltage balancing scheme for a delta connected modular multilevel cascaded converter (MMCC)-based static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is presented. A detailed power flow analysis of applying negative sequence current (NSC) and zero-sequence current (ZSC) injection methods in addressing the issue of inter-cluster DC voltage imbalance under unbalance grid voltage is carried out. A control scheme is proposed which integrates both inter-cluster methods using a quantification factor Q F . This is used to achieve the sharing of the inter-cluster active power between the NSC and ZSC injection methods. An accurate method of determining the quantification factor is also presented. The proposed method offers better sub-module DC capacitor voltage balancing and prevents converter overcurrent. The influence of unbalanced grid voltage on the delta connected MMCC-based STATCOM rating using this integrated cluster balancing technique is investigated. The control scheme is verified with a 5 kV 1.2MVA MMCC-STATCOM using 3-level bridge sub-modules, and the results show the advantages of the proposed method over other inter-cluster methods.
Cheng Yan, Yi Tang, Jianfeng Dai, Chenggen Wang, Shengjun Wu
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00200-3

Large-scale integration of wind power generation decreases the equivalent inertia of a power system, and thus makes frequency stability control challenging. However, given the irregular, nonlinear, and non-stationary characteristics of wind power, significant challenges arise in making wind power generation participate in system frequency regulation. Hence, it is important to explore wind power frequency regulation potential and its uncertainty. This paper proposes an innovative uncertainty modeling method based on mixed skew generalized error distribution for wind power frequency regulation potential. The mapping relationship between wind speed and the associated frequency regulation potential is established, and key parameters of the wind turbine model are identified to predict the wind power frequency regulation potential. Furthermore, the prediction error distribution of the frequency regulation potential is obtained from the mixed skew model. Because of the characteristics of error partition, the error distribution model and predicted values at different wind speed sections are summarized to generate the uncertainty interval of wind power frequency regulation potential. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the proposed model outperforms other state-of-the-art contrastive models in terms of the refined degree of fitting error distribution characteristics. The proposed model only requires the wind speed prediction sequence to accurately model the uncertainty interval. This should be of great significance for rationally optimizing system frequency regulation resources and reducing redundant backup.
Shirui Feng, Xi Wu, Zhenquan Wang, Tao Niu, Qiong Chen
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00199-7

With the continuous expansion of power systems and the application of power electronic equipment, forced oscillation has become one of the key problems in terms of system safety and stability. In this paper, an interline power flow controller (IPFC) is used as a power suppression carrier and its mechanism is analyzed using the linearized state-space method to improve the system damping ratio. It is shown that although the IPFC can suppress forced oscillation with well-designed parameters, its capability of improving the system damping ratio is limited. Thus, combined with the repetitive control method, an additional repetitive controller (ARC) is proposed to further dampen the forced power oscillation. The ARC control scheme is characterized by outstanding tracking performance to a system steady reference value, and the main IPFC controller with the ARC can provide higher damping, and further reduce the amplitude of oscillations to zero compared with a supplementary damping controller (SDC). Simulation results show that the IPFC with an ARC can not only greatly reduce the oscillation amplitude, but also actively output the compensation power according to the reference value of the ARC tracking system.
Zhenxing Li, Jialing Wan, Pengfei Wang, Hanli Weng, Zhenhua Li
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00194-y

Fault section location of a single-phase grounding fault is affected by the neutral grounding mode of the system, transition resistance, and the blind zone. A fault section locating method based on an amplitude feature and an intelligent distance algorithm is proposed to eliminate the influence of the above factors. By analyzing and comparing the amplitude characteristics of the zero-sequence current transient components at both ends of the healthy section and the faulty section, a distance algorithm with strong abnormal data immune capability is introduced in this paper. The matching degree of the amplitude characteristics at both ends of the feeder section are used as the criterion and by comparing with the set threshold, the faulty section is effectively determined. Finally, simulations using Matlab/Simulink and PSCAD/EMTDC show that the proposed section locating method can locate the faulty section accurately, and is not affected by grounding mode, grounding resistance, or the blind zone.
Lijuan Li, Yongdong Chen, Bin Zhou, Hongliang Liu, Yongfei Liu
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00198-8

With the increase in the proportion of multiple renewable energy sources, power electronics equipment and new loads, power systems are gradually evolving towards the integration of multi-energy, multi-network and multi-subject affected by more stochastic excitation with greater intensity. There is a problem of establishing an effective stochastic dynamic model and algorithm under different stochastic excitation intensities. A Milstein-Euler predictor-corrector method for a nonlinear and linearized stochastic dynamic model of a power system is constructed to numerically discretize the models. The optimal threshold model of stochastic excitation intensity for linearizing the nonlinear stochastic dynamic model is proposed to obtain the corresponding linearization threshold condition. The simulation results of one-machine infinite-bus (OMIB) systems show the correctness and rationality of the predictor-corrector method and the linearization threshold condition for the power system stochastic dynamic model. This study provides a reference for stochastic modelling and efficient simulation of power systems with multiple stochastic excitations and has important application value for stability judgment and security evaluation.
, Abdelhakim Deboucha, Larafi Bentouhami, Elkheir Merabet, Rachid Abdessemed
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00201-2

To enhance the robustness and dynamic performance of a self-excited induction generator (SEIG) used in a stand-alone wind energy system (WES), a virtual flux oriented control (VFOC) based on nonlinear super-twisting sliding mode control (STSMC) is adopted. STSMC is used to replace the conventional proportional-integral-Fuzzy Logic Controller (PI-FLC) of the inner current control loops. The combination of the proposed control strategy with space vector modulation (SVM) applied to a PWM rectifier brings many advantages such as reduction in harmonics, and precise and rapid tracking of the references. The performance of the proposed control technique (STSMC-VFOC-SVM) is verified through simulations and compared with the traditional technique (PI-FLC-VFOC-SVM). It shows that the proposed method improves the dynamics of the system with reduced current harmonics. In addition, the use of a virtual flux estimator instead of a phase-locked loop (PLL) eliminates the line voltage sensors and thus increases the reliability of the system.
Chaofan Song, Yang Li, Taha Rajeh, Ling Ma, Jun Zhao, Wenjia Li
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-18; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00195-x

Ground source heat pumps (GSHPs) are one of the renewable energy technologies with features of high efficiency, energy saving, economic feasibility and environmental protection. In China, GSHPs have been widely used for building heating and cooling in recent years, and have shown great potential for future energy development. This paper summarizes the classification, development history, and use status of shallow GSHPs. Several typical engineering cases of GSHP technology are also specified and analyzed. Finally, promising development trends and some advanced technologies are illustrated.
Pratap Chandra Nayak, Ramesh Chandra Prusty, Sidhartha Panda
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-1; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00196-w

Seyed Amir Hosseini, Behrooz Taheri, Hossein Askarian Abyaneh, Farzad Razavi
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-11; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00193-z

Power swing is an undesirable variation in power flow. This can be caused by large disturbances in demand load, switching, disconnection or reclosing lines. This phenomenon may enter the zones of distance relays and cause relay malfunction leading to the disconnection of healthy lines and undermining network reliability. Accordingly, this paper presents a new power swing detection method based on the prediction of current signal with a GMDH (Group Method of Data Handling) artificial neural network. The main advantage of the proposed method over its counterparts is the immunity to noise effect in signals. In addition, the proposed method can detect stable, unstable, and multi-mode power swings and is capable of distinguishing them from the variety of permanent faults occurring simultaneously. The method is tested for different types of power swings and simultaneous faults using DIgSILENT and MATLAB, and compared with some latest power swing detection methods. The results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in terms of response time, the ability to detect power swings of different varieties, and the ability to detect different faults that may occur simultaneously with power swings.
Abualkasim Bakeer, , Istvan Vokony
Protection and Control of Modern Power Systems, Volume 6, pp 1-13; doi:10.1186/s41601-021-00191-1

This paper describes the integration of a photovoltaic (PV) renewable energy source with a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system. The integrated system can improve the voltage stability of the utility grid and achieve power leveling. The control schemes employ model predictive control (MPC), which has gained significant attention in recent years because of its advantages such as fast response and simple implementation. The PV system provides maximum power at various irradiation levels using the incremental conductance technique (INC). The interfaced grid side converter of the SMES can control the grid voltage by regulating its injected reactive power to the grid, while the charge and discharge operation of the SMES coil can be managed by the system operator to inject/absorb active power to/from the grid to achieve the power leveling strategy. Simulation results based on MATLAB/Simulink® software prove the fast response of the system control objectives in tracking the setpoints at different loading scenarios and PV irradiance levels, while the SMES injects/absorbs active and reactive power to/from the grid during various events to improve the voltage response and achieve power leveling strategy.
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