International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities

Journal Information
EISSN : 2168-0620
Current Publisher: Pacific University Library (10.7710)
Total articles ≅ 103
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Latest articles in this journal

Kyle Levin
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0312

Abstract:
Although time is a topic that humans have discussed at length for ages, only recently have sociologists examined time and its relationship to society. The goal of this study aims to investigate the relationship between the time schemes of individuals in everyday life to the macrostructures under dominant control. The study uses qualitative in depth interviews and found (1) a common sense of productivity permeates everyday life and interactions (2) respect and timeliness are linked through expectations of productivity (3) people change their expectations about timeliness given certain contexts. This work suggests that more research is needed that takes into account how everyday routines are embedded and reinforced through hegemonic time.
Sawyer James Henry
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0311

Abstract:
The modernist period ushered forth numerous scientific and philosophical theories that had a notable influence on art, literature, psychology, and philosophy. Discoveries such as Einstein’s general theory of relativity inspired theologians, philosophers, and psychologists to focalize new concepts of self, identity, time, reality, and human experience. These shifts in contemporary human understanding developed in concurrence with increased global travel and intellectual exchange between Western and Eastern countries. As a result, writers, philosophers, and artists became more interested in Buddhism and other Eastern philosophical beliefs. Virginia Woolf, while being a self-proclaimed atheist, was deeply influenced by Eastern philosophy and well versed in contemporary scientific theories. Drawing on literary and biographical criticism of Virginia Woolf, I trace the intersections of Eastern philosophical beliefs and Western scientific theories through the stream of consciousness narration of Mrs. Dalloway by analyzing both what and how things are experienced by individual characters. In the novel, the integration of each character's stream of consciousness fabricates a dissonant medium in which singular moments in the present time are experienced through the minds of multiple characters, while they simultaneously navigate past spans of time within their individual narrative consciousness. Through the analysis of narrative form and narrative consciousness in Virginia Woolf’s Mrs. Dalloway, it is possible to track the impact of Eastern philosophies and Western scientific theories in the novel’s exploration of external and internal perceptions of reality.
Kaira L. Bird, Heide D. Island
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0303

Abstract:
Gender and sexual identity discrimination are commonly reported among persons of non-heterosexual or non-cisgender identities. Sexual and gender minority (SGM) students are more likely to experience discrimination, hate crimes, poverty, sexually transmitted infections, anxiety, and depression compared to heterosexual and cisgender individuals. These marginalized experiences create a unique need for education, resources, support, and community. Greater awareness of sexual and gender minorities encourages college students to feel comfortable sharing their experiences, and openly identifying as a sexual and/or gender minority. Consequently, to retain the full breadth of diversity within university communities, centers on campus that provide programming, education, and advocacy for minority students are essential for an inclusive campus climate that nurtures diverse student populations. Given the dearth in empirical instruments to support social inclusion among Sexual and Gender Minorities on college campuses, the purpose of this research was to, 1.) Develop a meaningful measure for use in the evaluation of gender identity and sexuality among college students and their perceived social inclusion through the lens of a social inclusion center; and 2.) Include questions addressing efficacy of relevant social inclusion centers for SGM students, staff, faculty, and their allies. This research focuses on self-report data collected through the Gender and Sexual Inclusion, Knowledge, and Attitude Survey from staff, faculty, and undergraduate students from a small liberal arts college in the Pacific Northwest (N = 218).
Gillian Gauer, Elizabeth E. Tavares
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0300

Abstract:
While the Western novel is typically associated with cowboys and overarching masculine accomplishments of “settling,” the representation of women’s work beyond narratives of being “tamed” and the settling-down of motherhood has been overlooked by writers and ecocritics alike. Ecofeminist scholarship of the late 1980s and ‘90s, primed to take up such questions, focused primarily on the relationship between women and nature in abstract terms rather than on regionally-specific interpretations. This thesis, therefore, examines the representation of female-identifying protagonists in pioneer narratives of North America in three popular novels of the last century: Zane Grey’s posthumous Woman of the Frontier (1940/1998), Mrs. Mike (1947) by Benedict and Nancy Freedman, and the Oregon-specific Little Century (2011) by Anna Keesey. Using principles from feminist and ecocritical literary theory in combination, I consider the ways in which landscape is conscripted to convey a character’s interiority—an anthropocentric tactic that ultimately equates the objectification of women with the conquest of territory. As a twenty-first century pioneer woman born and raised on a rural Oregon ranch, identifying the significance of pioneer women and interrogating their representations beyond being extensions of the tamed landscape helps rewrite the conventional masculine lens of Manifest Destiny and the “West.”
Daniel B. Eisen, Aimee Wodda, Elizabeth E. Tavares
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0319

Abstract:
The articles included in this special issue represent a selection of the thirty four gender and sexuality related projects that were scheduled to be presented at the 2020 Senior Projects Day event at Pacific University’s Forest Grove campus. The papers included in this special issue come from a variety of academic disciplines and speak to a wide range of topics, but unable to be disseminated due to the novel coronavirus pandemic.
Emily Spalding, Dawn M. Salgado
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0295

Abstract:
Every 73 seconds another person in America is sexually assaulted. For my senior practicum, I worked at Sexual Assault Resource Center, which provides advocacy and support services, including crisis intervention and counseling, for survivors of sexual violence. My goals for my time with SARC included developing knowledge and skills related to being a trauma therapist, learning about how a nonprofit operates, and gaining an understanding of sex education and sexual violence prevention programs. As a Sexual Assault Advocate and Education and Prevention Intern at SARC, my primary responsibilities involved engaging in community outreach events, delivering educational workshops, and presenting prevention curriculum in schools. As a result of my participation, I became interested in researching school-based prevention strategies and programs aimed at reducing sexual violence, as well as their focus areas, strengths, and limitations. My research and practicum experience reframed the way I viewed prevention work, provided insight into effective prevention strategies, and reminded me of why I believe so strongly in early prevention education to reduce sexual violence.
Sophia G. O'neal, Jim Moore
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0301

Abstract:
Founded in 2013, College Democrats of Oregon (CDO) is one of 47 state federations under the official youth branch of the Democratic Party, College Democrats of America. For several years, the majority of leadership positions in the organization have been held by women. Scholarship has established that women are at a distinctly gendered disadvantage when running for office, and this study shows its roots begin in student-led political parties like College Democrats, even when women’s leadership seems to thrive. Interviews conducted with current and former women officeholders in CDO have shown that despite the abundance of female leadership, women still experience hesitancy to run. Furthermore, socioeconomic status can either positively or negatively influence a woman’s sense of qualification and availability for involvement. What has moved to women to run for office in their chapter and the state is direct recruitment by those in power and appointment to office.
Micaela C. Frick, Rebecca Schoon
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0302

Abstract:
College students are at high risk for experiencing sexual violence. Living without parents, lack of understanding of consent, new relationships, high stress, and experimenting with drugs and alcohol are some factors that increase the risk of sexual violence among college students. Pacific University has existing prevention programs aimed to decrease the incidence of sexual violence, but existing workshops only target first year students and athletes. There is a gap for students who don’t fit in either category. Post-test surveys from these existing prevention programs shows that students favor peer-led workshops. Other sexual violence prevention programs report the benefits of peer-education and find that students need information repeated to them to retain new information. New research involving intersectionality in health education programs report higher student involvement within workshops and improve education around varying identities. Using an intersectional model, TAT aims to reduce the incidence of sexual violence among undergraduate Pacific University students through a multi-year, peer-based education program. Pacific University undergraduate students will be required to attend this program each school year to improve retention rates of the material. TAT will educate on topics of sexual violence prevention, healthy relationships, consent, root causes, bystander intervention, and available resources. As a result of this program, we foresee a 30% decrease in sexual violence incidence and a 40% increase in student’s self-efficacy by believing that they can successfully intervene in a potentially dangerous situation.
Rae Martinez, Jennifer Bhalla
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0299

Abstract:
There is a lack of representation of women athletes from professional to collegiate sports in U.S. media. For example, Fink (2015) studied the inequities between male and women athletes to understand the harmful nature of the implication of these inequities. Other social constructs arise with the objectification of women athletes. Harrison and Fredrickson (2013) found a connection between aging of adolescent girls to women and an increase of self-objectification. They explained their results using Objectification Theory, which teaches young women to “regard themselves in an objectified gaze” from adolescence. The purpose of this study was to examine women collegiate athletes’ thoughts and feelings about the ways their elite representatives are presented within sports media. Women collegiate athletes viewed images displaying four different types of identity portrayals, and were then interviewed about their perceptions of the images. Each participant asked to answer five questions, and that data was analyzed using open coding methods.
Gina Kaye Kelley, Jim Moore
International Journal of Undergraduate Research and Creative Activities, Volume 12; doi:10.7710/2168-0620.0297

Abstract:
Dr. Christine Blasey Ford and Supreme Court nominee Judge Brett Kavanaugh appeared before the Senate Judiciary Committee in September 2018 to testify about Ford’s allegation of a previous sexual assault by Kavanaugh. This thesis asks and answers the question of what does this hearing reveal about the relationship between party identity and gender performance in male senators. Structural power and gender performativity built a theoretical context for this question, while pre-existing research on the intersection of nonverbal behavior, gender, and politics outlined a path to answering it. Fifty randomly selected clips from each testimony were coded for facial displays, gestures, and mirroring. Previous research would hypothesize that all men would employ the same behaviors, regardless of political affiliation; however, the results of this coding revealed that Republicans conformed to traditionally masculine behavior, while Democrats did not. These findings demonstrate the way in which party identity influences gender behavior.
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