The Science of Nature

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ISSN / EISSN : 0028-1042 / 1432-1904
Current Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1007)
Former Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media LLC (10.1007)
Total articles ≅ 34,795
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Latest articles in this journal

Corrine Edwards, William Cornwell,
The Science of Nature, Volume 108, pp 1-6; doi:10.1007/s00114-021-01720-6

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Pouria Abrun, Ahmad Ashouri, Anne Duplouy,
The Science of Nature, Volume 108, pp 1-12; doi:10.1007/s00114-021-01727-z

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Frédéric Beau,
The Science of Nature, Volume 108, pp 1-8; doi:10.1007/s00114-021-01723-3

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The Science of Nature, Volume 108, pp 1-16; doi:10.1007/s00114-021-01722-4

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, Lucimar Gomes Dias, José Eduardo Serrão
The Science of Nature, Volume 108, pp 1-5; doi:10.1007/s00114-021-01721-5

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Published: 12 February 2021
Die Naturwissenschaften, Volume 108, pp 1-8; doi:10.1007/s00114-021-01717-1

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Published: 3 February 2021
Die Naturwissenschaften, Volume 108, pp 1-8; doi:10.1007/s00114-021-01718-0

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, Molly C. Bletz, Galo Quezada, Robert Geffers, Michael Jarek, Miguel Vences,
Published: 2 February 2021
Die Naturwissenschaften, Volume 108, pp 1-15; doi:10.1007/s00114-020-01714-w

Abstract:
Gut microorganisms are crucial for many biological functions playing a pivotal role in the host’s well-being. We studied gut bacterial community structure of marine iguana populations across the Galápagos archipelago. Marine iguanas depend heavily on their specialized gut microbiome for the digestion of dietary algae, a resource whose growth was strongly reduced by severe “El Niño”-related climatic fluctuations in 2015/2016. As a consequence, marine iguana populations showed signs of starvation as expressed by a poor body condition. Body condition indices (BCI) varied between island populations indicating that food resources (i.e., algae) are affected differently across the archipelago during ‘El Niño’ events. Though this event impacted food availability for marine iguanas, we found that reductions in body condition due to “El Niño”-related starvation did not result in differences in bacterial gut community structure. Species richness of gut microorganisms was instead correlated with levels of neutral genetic diversity in the distinct host populations. Our data suggest that marine iguana populations with a higher level of gene diversity and allelic richness may harbor a more diverse gut microbiome than those populations with lower genetic diversity. Since low values of these diversity parameters usually correlate with small census and effective population sizes, we use our results to propose a novel hypothesis according to which small and genetically less diverse host populations might be characterized by less diverse microbiomes. Whether such genetically depauperate populations may experience additional threats from reduced dietary flexibility due to a limited intestinal microbiome is currently unclear and calls for further investigation.
, Miguel A. Bedoya-Pérez, Christopher R. Dickman, Mathew S. Crowther, Chris R. Pavey, Edward J. Narayan
Published: 7 January 2021
Die Naturwissenschaften, Volume 108, pp 1-15; doi:10.1007/s00114-020-01716-8

Abstract:
Understanding wild animal responses to stressors underpins effective wildlife management. In order for responses to stressors to be correctly interpreted, it is critical that measurements are taken on wild animals using minimally invasive techniques. Studies investigating wild animal responses to stressors often measure either a single physiological or behavioural variable, but whether such responses are comparable and concordant remains uncertain. We investigated this question in a pilot study that measured responses of wild-caught urban brown and black rats (Rattus norvegicus, Rattus rattus) to fur-based olfactory cues from a predator, the domestic cat (Felis catus); a novel herbivore, the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus); and a familiar herbivore and competitor, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula). Physiological responses, measured by assaying faecal glucocorticoid metabolites, were compared to behavioural responses observed via video recordings. We found that physiological and behavioural responses to stressors were expressed concordantly. There was no sizeable physiological response observed, and the behavioural response when considered across the night was negligible. However, the behavioural response to the predator and competitor cues changed across the observation period, with activity increasing with increasing hours of exposure. Our results indicate that responses of wild rodents to cues are nuanced, with stress responses modulated by behaviour changes that vary over time according to the severity of the perceived threat as animals gather further information. If the physiological response alone had been assessed, this moderated response may not have been evident, and in terms of wildlife management, vital information would have been lost.
Published: 7 January 2021
Die Naturwissenschaften, Volume 108, pp 1-6; doi:10.1007/s00114-020-01712-y

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