IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 17551307 / 17551315
Current Publisher: IOP Publishing (10.1088)
Total articles ≅ 31,520
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IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/011001

Abstract:On 24th and 25th September 2019 Cardiff University and Cynnal Cymru hosted the Sustainable Built Environment Conference: SBE19Wales Policy to Practice, at the Principality Stadium, Cardiff. The aim of SBE19Wales Policy to Practice was to bring together climate and energy researchers, built environment professionals, policy experts and government officials to focus on the transition of energy and low carbon policies into practice. The conference topics allowed delegates to increase their knowledge and skills related to climate change policies and actions, building design and retrofit issues and the performance of buildings and materials. The papers have been grouped according to themes. The International Sustainable Built Environment Conference Series began in 2000 and operates on a three year cycle starting with a year of planning, followed by a year of national or regional conferences, culminating in a single global event in year three. The series places a core emphasis on peer-reviewed papers, presentations of regional policy papers, displays of pre-evaluated projects and a small number of high-quality commercial exhibits. These events also provide fast-track inclusion of the best technical papers from national/regional conferences into the global event, as well as registration policies designed to encourage the attendance of students and delegates from developing countries. In all of these conferences, one or more local research-based organisations take on the financial and organizational responsibility while the international series owners, CIB, iiSBE, FIDIC and UN Environment provide organisational advice and use their networks to ensure a large multi-disciplinary audience for the events.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/011002

Abstract:All papers published in this volume of IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science have been peer reviewed through processes administered by the proceedings Editors. Reviews were conducted by expert referees to the professional and scientific standards expected of a proceedings journal published by IOP Publishing.
Emeli Lalesca Aparecida Da Guarda, Elaise Gabriel, Renata Mansuelo Alves Domingos, Luciane Cleonice Durante, Ivan Julio Apolonio Callejas, João Carlos Machado Sanches, Karyna De Andrade Carvalho Rosseti
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/012057

Abstract:The consequences of global warming have gained worldwide importance, also in the scope of built environment when related with the thermal comfort conditions of users. In this way, the objective of this research is to analyse the effects of global warming on the hours of thermal comfort of dwellings, with different thermal insulators in the external walls, considering the emission scenario A2 of the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the IPCC. The methodological procedures consist of four stages: preparation of climate files for Future Scenarios (2020, 2050 and 2080) from the base climate file (base scenario); definition of a dwelling for study object (Tbase); preparation of thermal insulating intervention proposals, such as: EPS (T1), rock wool (T2) and glass wool (T3) and evaluation of thermal comfort conditions using the adaptive thermal comfort method. The results indicate that the air temperature increases by 21.5% and the relative air humidity reduces by 22% until the 2080 scenario if compared to the base scenario. From these new conditions, the percentages of Tbase comfort hours suffer a reduction of 63.61%, increasing the hours of heat discomfort by 98.48%, in the scenario of 2080 in relation to the base scenario. With the adoption of insulation, the T1 typology presented comfort hours of 58.4%, reducing to 17.9%. However, typologies T2 and T3 presented similar behaviour, with 27.2% of hours in comfort and 67.4% of hours in heat discomfort, in the 2080 scenario in relation to the baseline scenario. Therefore, it can be concluded that typologies T2 and T3 presented greater resilience to the effects of global warming, but it is necessary to incorporate constructive interventions to absorb the impacts of climate changes and provide better conditions of thermal comfort.
M A Alshenaifi, S Sharples
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/012042

Abstract:Building energy consumption in the desert climate of Saudi Arabia is dominated by cooling demand. Electricity for this cooling is generated predominantly from finite fossil fuel reserves. To improve resource efficiency and decrease carbon emissions, reducing this demand by using more passive cooling approaches is desirable. One system is the passive downdraught evaporative cooling (PDEC) tower. PDEC captures hot, dry winds at the top of a tower and then cools the air by passing it through or over water. This cooler air then flows out from the base of the tower into the building. In this study, a PDEC system in a small Saudi public library was monitored for two summer months. A key aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between local wind speed and direction and the performance of the PDEC towers. A thermal comfort analysis investigated the acceptability limits of indoor temperature using the adaptive thermal comfort model. A parametric analysis of the wind effects was conducted by grouping wind data in to ranges of wind speed and direction and then correlating them against environmental conditions in the library. The results indicated that the PDEC towers could deliver significant cooling for library users. However, the towers' effectiveness was influenced by changes in wind speed, and in a counter intuitive way – stronger wind speeds tended to reduce the tower cooling efficiency.
Wang Shaosen, Shi Feng, Yan Shurui, Chen Hong
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/012051

Abstract:With an analysis of the project "In-Between Nature" for SDC2018 that got 3rd place in the competition, this paper explored a combined approach to achieve zero-energy consumption building: space strategy learning from local architecture prototypes which is mainly passive, and engineering strategy which covers life-cycle of the building. During the competition, statistics such as temperature, humidity, energy produced and consumed are measured, proving that this combined strategy is feasible and the house has achieved the goal of zero-energy in Dezhou during early August, when the temperature and humidity is highest of a year.
Qi Zhen, Qiong Huang, Qi Zhang
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/012014

Abstract:Healthy buildings are closely related to human health and comfort. Based on the literature survey, this paper explores the definition of comfort in healthy buildings. Through literature analysis and expert interviews, 16 building space factors affecting building indoor environment were identified. To introduce the building space factors into the research on the comfort evaluation of healthy buildings, 152 questionnaires were sent out and the relationship between these factors and building indoor environment comfort evaluation and their rankings were discussed. Data analysis includes the reliability analysis, normal distribution test, Pearson correlation coefficient and MANOVA. The results have shown that the perceived comfort is strongly influenced by the building space factors, and the relationship is complicated. The rankings from professionals and non-professionals were different. Several factors have been identified as key influencing factors. Besides, the perceived comfort is also related to other factors such as age, gender, etc. Such discovery primarily provides an ordering of building space design factors, which will contribute to the buildings' health, comfort and sustainable development through architectural design from an architect's perspective.
L Chen, H Du, Y Li
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/012041

Abstract:Solar energy, as a clear, renewable and promising resource, has brought tremendous value for carbon emission reduction in the last three decades. However, the uncertainty of solar radiation brings significant challenges to the renewable heat and electrical system for buildings. Thus, many different solar radiation forecasting methods, such as Numerical Weather Prediction Methods (NWP), Statistical Methods, Top-Down Methods, Bottom-Up Methods and Hybrid Methods have been developed to make the best guess on future solar radiations. Based on the meteorology definition, nowcasting refers to the forecast of the temporal horizon from the next few seconds up to six hours. Predicting solar radiation within this range are extremely challenging, but crucial for solar energy system operation. This paper firstly reviewed the state of art of solar radiation forecasting methods and compared the key features of each method. According to the advantage and costs of each method, this paper then proposed a methodology to generate high accuracy low-cost solar radiation nowcast data for optimising building solar thermal system performance and related control strategies. Note that this paper focused on the scoping study of methodology rather than field experiments, and further research with experiments data will be reported in a journal publication.
Gionatan Vignola, Ryan Kiracofe, Udo Dietrich
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/012009

Abstract:Cairo's dry and hot climate leads to challenges related to health, thermal comfort and energy consumption that its urban dwellers encounter daily. The informal apartment blocks in which most of the Cairene households live are generally poorly insulated against external heat gains, hardly shaded and poorly ventilated. Furthermore, especially during summer, about one-fifth of households experience constant power interruptions. This research shows to what extent it is possible, by using passive strategies, to optimise the architecture of informal apartment blocks, to meet the end user's thermal comfort expectations while being energy and environmentally sound. By using Primero, an EnergyPlus based software, existing informal and traditional Cairenes buildings have been modelled, and thermal comfort and energy performance simulated and compared. Performance of informal buildings has been optimised and improved by using passive strategies. This has been possible by changing the structure of the building (adding an overhang), and by experimenting with the use of different materials for external wall constructions (all of which available in Egypt).
Shouren Zhang, Qing Ye, Yawei Du, Kun Song
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/012013

Abstract:In this article, in order to have a better understanding of the current situation and supply-demand challenges with regard to the land use of educational space in primary and secondary schools in the downtown area, Tianjin and address the related problems, the comparative analysis is conducted on the land-use layout of 30 ordinary primary and secondary schools. In addition, for these primary and secondary schools, based on the information entropy, balance and dominance of land-use structure, and in conjunction with the actual conditions, spatial location and time of construction, efforts are made to analyze the diversity and balance of educational space. Generally speaking, the land-use layout of the surveyed schools falls into three types: ring-shaped with a center, linear, and group-based. Besides, thus, the main factors which exert certain influence on the pattern of spatial layout and the land-use structure of educational space in primary and secondary schools in the downtown area, Tianjin are identified by data analysis. It provides reference for the intensive use of educational space in primary and secondary schools, and lays a solid foundation for formulating a series of land-use planning and management policies targeted at primary and secondary schools.
Jianxiang Huang, Tongping Hao, Shan Shan Hou, Phil Jones
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 329; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/329/1/012047

Abstract:In many dense cities, urban heat and the interaction of buildings with their immediate urban environment emerges as a pressing issue due to growing urban heat island effect and climate change. Informed evidence based design decisions to mitigate heat stress becomes a priority for urban planning and design practitioners. The aim of the study is to develop informed design and development decisions using computer simulation tools concerning urban microclimate performance. In this study, academic researchers have worked with industrial partners in an urban renewal project in Hong Kong's high density urban area. In-house developed simulation software such as CityComfort+ and HTB2-Virvil were applied to assess urban microclimate conditions and risks of pedestrian thermal stress throughout key seasons. Simulation results were provided as feedback to project designers and managers at early stage, allowing timely design modification to improve performance while maintaining code compliance and design and fiscal priorities. The procedure is iterative until performance attributes converge. Preliminary results show that the informed design can deliver significant microclimate benefits compared with "business-as-usual scenarios". By shaping building mass, orientation, and strategic placement of shading and vegetation, the improved design is expected to reduce summer-time outdoor heat stress by 1°C measured in UTCI equivalent temperature, thus bringing the average conditions for the hot season into the "comfort zone" for the local community. Energy simulation can predict overall energy demand and the potential for renewable energy supply at an urban scale. The simulation-designer workflow shows promising potentials to improve urban microclimate performance of design outcomes and the potential for zero carbon urban blocks. The early-stage action, forward-looking partnership, and computing efficiency of the simulation tools are the keys.