IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 1755-1307 / 1755-1315
Current Publisher: IOP Publishing (10.1088)
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Latest articles in this journal

Hussein A. Ismael, Eman J. Mohammad, Abbas J. Atiyah, Salih H. Kadhim, Kuhdair J. Kahdum
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 722; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/722/1/012007

Abstract:
This work involves preparation of activated carbon (ACs) that is derived from Iraqi zahdy date palm seeds (IZDPS). This ACs then were functionalized using HNO3 as an oxidizing agent to yield functionalized activated carbons (FACs). The obtained FACs then combined with zinc oxide nanoparticles to produce activated carbon/zinc oxide(AC/ZnO). The obtained composites were investigated using different methods such as X-rays diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and specific surface area (BET). The adsorption activity of these materials were conducted by following removal of Celestin blue B (CBB) dye from simulated textile wastewaters. Different reaction conditions were investigated such as pH effect, the effect of both contact time and the mass of the used adsorbent on the efficiency of dye removal. Removal of CBB dye over the suspension was investigated by measuring the absorbance of supernatant liquid at a wavelength of 644 nm. Adsorption isotherms were investigated using both by Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms and the results were more fitted with Langmuir model. The kinetics of adsorption was investigated and the obtained results were fitted with pseudo second order kinetics model.
, Ayad Mohammed Jebur Al-Mamoori
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 722; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/722/1/012009

Abstract:
Current study included the use of immobilization technique (using sodium alginate and calcium chloride) for Fungi (Aspergillus niger) and studying their efficiency in treating some heavy metals such as Lead and cadmium. Standard solutions of lead and cadmium at concentrations (10, 20 and 30) ppm were used. Heavy metals concentrations were measured by atomic absorption device and the correlation between the heavy metals and the immobilized cells was measured by FTIR &SEM techniques. The results of current study show the lead concentrations after treatment by immobilized Aspergillus niger were (6.75, 11.6 and 13.9) ppm respectively, and the removal efficiency was (32.4,42and 54)%. Cadmium Concentrations after treatment were (3.7, 6.16 and 8.62 ) ppm respectively, whereas removal efficiency in was (63,69 &71)% respectively. Current study showed a correlation between cells & heavy metals which principally included with bioadsorption surface for it and that morphological alterations in cells were occur because of the bioadsorption for heavy metals and the porous that found on cells surface that lead to enter the heavy metals to inner surface and increase the removal efficiency, all results of SEM were appear alteration in the surface cells shape by binding the lead and cadmium at the surfaces.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 722; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/722/1/012011

Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to design a Whatman paper based sensor for quantitative measurement of iodide anion by its quenching effect on the fluorescence intensity of the nitrogen doped carbon quantum dots (N-doped CQDs) using a smart phone as a detection system. In this project, N-doped CQDs were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using citric acid as a source of carbon and hexamethylenediamine as a source of nitrogen. In order to characterize of the synthesized N-doped CQDs, Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry (FT-IR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used. After designing of the paper based sensor, an aliquot of the mixture of the N-doped CQDs:Glue (glue roles as the stabilizing agent) was injected on the hydrophilic zone of the paper and then by injection of different concentrations of iodide anion, the reduction of the fluorescence intensity was measured using the smart phone camera. By optimizing the critical parameters affecting the quenching efficiency of the N-doped CQDs including the size of the hydrophilic zone, the volume ratio of the N-doped CQDs:Glue, type of the Whtaman filter paper and the pH of sample solution, the proposed method was used for determination of iodide ion. The results show that two calibration curves in the ranges of 1-10 and 15-200 mmol L-1 iodide were obtained for determination of iodide anion. Also, the detection limit (LOD) of 3 mmol L-1 and the relative standard deviation (RSD) in the range of 2.6-2.9 % were obtained for the iodide anion in the range of 50-150 mmol L-1. The main advantages of the propsed method are rapidity, inexpensively, simplicity, availability and no need of expert for operation.
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 755; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/755/1/012061

Abstract:
The demand of oil not only has contributed the economy and foreign exchange of a country, it has also caused environmental pollution. The negative impact caused by the oil spills were due to the hydrocarbon compound or Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) contaminates the environment. Oil contamination, despite of low concentration of hydrocarbon, affects the smell and taste of the groundwater. One of the alternatives to overcome environmental contamination from oil that is environmental-friendly is with bioremediation technology. The rehabilitation efforts of the oil-contaminated environment biologically with the bioremediation technology has an advantage as it is more environmental-friendly and the operational cost is more affordable than physics and chemical recovery techniques. This research utilizes study of literature and SWOT analysis to comprehend the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats of the use bioremediation. The outcome of analysis illustrated that bioremediation could reduce the TPH value as the bacteria could decompose the oil where it generally is difficult to be degraded. However, there is also potential use of microorganism utilized on bioremediation to mutate thus creating a new and unknown product that could harm the environment. The implementation of bioremediation technology examined by sustainable indicators still have weaknesses and threats that could be further examined so that the use of bioremediation could be implemented as one of the ways to have a sustainable oil spill cleanup.
, Buanasari
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 755; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/755/1/012062

Abstract:
Parkia biglobosa contains various ingredients such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids. The flavonoid content in kedawung is thought to have an antioxidant effect. Antioxidants have the ability to provide electrons, bind and have a free radical chain reaction chain. Currently, the microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method is widely used because extraction using MAE can increase the mass transfer rate of solutes from the sample matrix into the solvent compared to the Soxlet method. One of the factors affecting microwave-assisted extraction is temperature because a higher temperature will increase the solubility of the solute in the solvent. The temperature is limited by the boiling point of the solvent used. This study aims to determine the effect of temperature on the solvent in order to get the best extraction results. This method uses temperature variations to determine the highest levels of flavonoids from microwave-assisted extraction of leaves and bark of kedawung, the temperature used is 30°C, 40°C, 50°C, 60°C with ethanol solvent at a wavelength of 300 W. The results of this study say that there is an effect of temperature on the extraction results. microwave-assisted to the yield of kedawung leaf extract (Parkia biglobosa) at the best temperature of 40°C. Kedawung leaves (parkia biglobosa) have high levels of flavonoids so they have antioxidant activity.
, Meitiyani, Susilo
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 755; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/755/1/012066

Abstract:
This study aims to see the effect of Kepok banana peel on the growth of white oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). The research was conducted in the white oyster mushroom kumbung Sawangan, Depok between February and July 2018. The research method used was an experimental method with a research design using a completely randomized design (CRD). The study was conducted by giving 6 treatments and five replications where there were 3 parameters used, namely fresh weight, dry weight and number of oyster mushroom fruit bodies. The treatments referred to were treatment A (control), B (1 gram of Kepok banana peels), C (3 grams of Kepok banana peels), D (5 grams of Kepok banana peels), E (7 grams of Kepok banana peels), and F (9 grams of banana peel kepok). The results showed that the growth of white oyster mushrooms with D treatment had the most effect on mushroom weight and dry weight with an average of 62.38 grams and 6.35 grams. Whereas the number of fruiting bodies that had the most influence on treatment F was 16.9 grams. The results of the analysis of variance of one white oyster mushroom growth factor on the fresh weight parameter shows that Fhitung (9.46) > Ftable (0,01) (3.90). This means that oyster growth was very significant and the dry weight parameter indicates that Fhitung ( 2.79) > Ftable (0,05) (2.62), which indicates that the growth of oyster mushrooms was significant. The parameter of the number of fruiting bodies showed that Fhitung (5.06) > Ftable (0,01) (3.90), which indicates that the oyster mushroom growth was significant. This proves that offering Kepok banana peels affects the growth of white oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus ostreatus).
N Azmin, , H Hartati, A Ariyansyah, F Fahruddin
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 755; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/755/1/012067

Abstract:
The use of medicinal plants in Bima communities has been widely practiced for a long time by parents and ancestors, however, this was usually not based on scientific understanding of the chemical contents in those medical plants. Consequently, in determining the standard amount of dosage relies on experience and hereditary habits. The purpose of this study was to determine the antibacterial and phytochemical activity test of traditional medicinal plants in Bima community. Samples of medicinal plants used were Muntingia calabura, Phyllanthus urinaria, Ageratum conyzoides, Manilkara zapota and Momordica charantia. The results indicate that Muntingia calabura and Ageratum conyzoides contain alkaloid compounds, flavonoids, trpenoids, saponins and tannins with concentrations of 20.40 and 60 ml which have the ability to inhibit the activity of Staphylococcus aureus by producing an inhibitory zone that is classified as a very well with an average radius of the inhibition zone 14.47 ± 0.40 mm. Whilst, the phytochemical test result of medicinal plant extracts show that 4 plant samples contain flavonoid compounds, 1 sample does not contain flavonoids, 4 samples contain alkaloid compounds, 5 samples contain steroid compounds and terpenoids, 4 samples contain saponin compounds, and 1 sample does not contain saponins.
A A Zelenina, S I Kuzmin
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 751; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/751/1/012128

Abstract:
This paper provides a justification for the assessment of the effectiveness of the use of air-water heat pumps in the heating systems of individual residential buildings in conjunction with the water boiler. The criterion for the cost-effectiveness of the heating system with a combined heat source is the relative cost of equipment and operation of the system, given to the duration of the heating period. Cost components are presented in the form of a system of equations reflecting the dependence of the price parameters of heating system equipment on thermal characteristics. The proposed method of assessing the benefits of renewable energy is applicable to different climatic areas.
O D Repinskiy, N B Romaneskul, N A Studenkova
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 751; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/751/1/012170

Abstract:
The article considers the topic which is currently relevant for the construction industry – competitiveness growth of construction companies in the market by application of additive technologies. 3D technologies open up new ground for the construction industry as their application allows them to construct buildings of almost any shape, therefore, designers and architects will get more freedom to implement their creative plans and ideas. Upgrading of construction technologies will reduce quantity of waste and provide higher safety level on construction sites. Innovativeness of Additive Manufacturing (additive technologies) is based on application of special equipment - a 3D printer. Intensive development of Additive Manufacturing significantly changes ratio of economic factors in construction. The author believes that profitability of companies in a new competitive context will depend not on scale of production but on quality and originality of ideas. Philosophy of the economy after the third industrial revolution will base on development of original projects and not on products manufacturing.
D Kobylkin, N Krasnoshtanova, M Kuklina, A Trufanov, E Altangerel, Z Dashdorj, A Tikhomirov, G Jafari
IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Volume 751; doi:10.1088/1755-1315/751/1/012010

Abstract:
Mostly ecosystem problems concern contradictions between extensive land use and cover in the context of sustainable agricultural landscape. Environment governance along with land use planning and development requires a thorough consideration of capacities and flows of ecosystem services and concomitant goods as well. Pertinent assessment is usually performed through mapping techniques. However, experts emphasized the need to find and apply novel means of presenting the structure and dynamics of service-providing entities. This paper introduces a brief characterization of landscape of the Oka district (Republic of Buryatia, Russia) in novel network scope with aim to provide further possible tradeoff between traditional land use and ecosystem sustainability.
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