Open Journal of Stomatology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2160-8709 / 2160-8717
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 520
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Oumar Raphiou Diallo, Alpha Oumar Diallo, Alhassane Conde, Thierno Abdourahmane Balde, Karamoko Alpha Diallo, Gary Parker
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 25-36; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.111003

Abstract:
Introduction: Cleft palate (CP) is a congenital dysmorphosis that results from a failure of the palatal processes of the maxillary buds and nasal septum to merge. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of complications of the modified Furlow technique and to evaluate its anatomical and functional outcomes. Materials and Method: This was a retrospective study that took place over a period of 4 years (from January 1st, 2015 to December 31th, 2018) in the Department of Odontostomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery at the National Hospital of Donka (Conakry, Guinea). Data retrieval consisted of records from patients operated on for cleft palate according to Furlow’s modified technique only. The operative technique consisted of marginal incisions of the cleft according to the technique of the double Z-plasty of Furlow. Subsequently, the defect created between the 2 flaps and the anterior edge of the cleft was filled by two fat masses of Bichat sutured to each other with Vicryl 3-0. Four years after surgery, the patients were recalled for an evaluation of the anatomical and functional results. Results: 13 patients underwent surgical loading according to the modified Furlow technique. The average age of the patients was 6.9 years with an age range of 7 months and 17 years. Females were the most affected, with 61.54% of cases and a sex ratio of 0.62. The primary repair rate was 84.61% of cases. Immediate operative follow-up was simple with epithelialization of the flaps in all patients. Four (4) years after the surgeries, 12 patients were reevaluated (92.30%), among them one case (8.33%) of fistula complication was noted. The mobility of the veil and the phonation were good in 85.71% and 60% respectively. Articular disorders with nasonation were found in 2 patients (16.67%). Swallowing was normal in 85.72% of cases. Conclusion: The modified Furlow technique is an important contribution to cleft palate surgery significantly reducing the occurrence of postoperative complications. However, the delay of the surgical operation remains a real obstacle for obtaining a normal phonation.
Em Kalala-Kazadi, Fidèle Nyimi-Bushabu, Hubert Ntumba-Mulumba, Michel C. Brecx
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 55-64; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.111005

Abstract:
Background: Periodontitis is a multifactorial disease which is highly prevalent worldwide. The control of periodontal risk factor network is of paramount importance for the management of the disease. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and identify the factors associated with periodontitis in Congolese patients. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in four medical centers in the city of Kinshasa between April 2017 and April 2018. The study included patients aged at least 12 years old who consulted the dental services of these centers and who met the inclusion criteria. The participants underwent a structured interview and a clinical periodontal examination. The latter involved the entire dentition, and periodontal pocket and attachment level measurements were taken at six sites per tooth. The plaque and bleeding index were recorded. Logistic regression was used to identify associated factors. The significance level was set at p 0.05. Results: The study included 827 patients and 42% of them had periodontitis. The most represented age group was between 20 and 29 years old. In multivariate analysis, age greater than or equal to 35 years, OR = 2.45 CI 95% (1.77 - 3.45), and the amount of plaque expressed as plaque index ≥ 1, OR = 2 CI 95% (1.31 - 3.07) were factors associated with periodontitis. Conclusion: Factors associated with periodontitis found in this study are age ≥35 years and the amount of plaque expressed as plaque index ≥ 1. The latter reveals the importance of good oral hygiene.
Khaled B. H. Abubaker, Yuzhou Li, Sheng Yang
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 65-76; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.112006

Abstract:
Background: The objective of this meta-analysis was to assess whether mini-implants have added benefit in terms of implants success rate and average bone loss over conventional-sized implants after one year of follow-up. Methods: An electronic search of randomized clinical trials was conducted in MEDLINE (via PubMed), Cochrane Central Register of Clinical Trials (CENTRAL) and Web of Science for studies including complete or partial edentulous patients requiring two or four mini-implants or conventional/ standard-sized implants in the maxilla or mandible for implant-supported removable prostheses who completed 12 months of follow-up. Results: The search provided 194 unique articles which were screened for title and Screening generated 12 articles which went through full-text analysis using eligibility criteria, and 4 articles were included for meta-analysis. Meta-analysis of these studies indicated a non-significant difference in the success rate between the two interventions (OR = 1.69 [0.74, 3.85; p = 0.21]). Bone loss estimates resulted in a significant bone reduction (Mean Difference = -0.74 [-0.95, -0.53; p - with two conventional-sized implants, the estimates were non-significant (Mean Difference = -0.24 [-0.69, 0.20; p = 0.29]). Conclusion: The current evidence does not provide solid evidence of the benefits of one intervention over the other. More studies with follow-up times of 10 and more years are needed as current studies have described the short-term outcomes.
Yoko Tada, Junichi Karaki, Junpei Kubota, Yasuaki Kakinoki
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 77-90; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.112007

Abstract:
Objectives: Recently, an increasing number of elderly patients have complained of tongue pain and fissured tongue, while atrophy of the lingual papillae with low nutrition has also become a commonly encountered condition. The viewpoint that lingual papilla atrophy reflects systemic and pathological conditions, such as diabetes and in the circulatory system abnormalities, is supported by many clinicians. The present study was conducted to clarify the relationship of degree of atrophy of tongue papillae with oral symptoms, with an aim to evaluate the usefulness of clinical diagnostic criteria for tongue papillae atrophy. Subjects and Methods: The subjects were asked to protrude the tongue forward. The tongue was held at rest and impressions were taken of the tongue dorsum 15 mm posterior to the apex of the tongue. Surface impressions were measured using a Surfcoder SE300 and the obtained values were used to define surface roughness (Ra). Multivariate analyses of the relationships between the Ra measurements and the living environment, subjective symptoms of oral health, and survey results of measurements were performed to examine factors associated with Ra. The tongue was photographed with a digital camera, then RGB color value of four random points 15 mm from the tongue apex was determined. Using those findings, redness was calculated. Results and Conclusions: One hundred and six subjects with a mean age of 79.5 ± 9.2 years were analyzed. In the smooth group, there was more redness in the tongue dorsum as compared to the rough group. Total and Sagittal Ra values of subjects with dysphagia were lower than those without dysphagia, suggesting that the degree of oral mucosal atrophy is related to subjective symptoms of dysphagia. Subjects with high water intake had higher Coronal Ra values, which was considered to be related to the edematous state of the lingual papillae.
Solomon Obiri-Yeboah, Robert Nii Lamy Larmie, Nana Tuffour Ampem Gyimah, Alexander Oti Acheampong, Elijah Asomaoh, Peter Donkor
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 133-147; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.113011

Abstract:
Background: The aetiology and pattern of maxillofacail injuries vary in different parts of the world and even the same country. The purpose of the study was to determine the epidemiology of maxillofacial injuries at a tertiary Hospital in Ghana. Methodology: This is a six-month (January to June 2015) prospective study. Information on age, sex, aetiology, injury type etc. was collected using a specialized design data collection form. Data was analyzed using the SPSS 17th version. Ethical approval was obtained. Result: The total study sample was 111 with a male to female ratio of 2.5:1. Majority (34.2%) were within the ages of 21 to 30 years. Majority of the victims were urban dwellers. Most of the injuries occurred on the highway (42.3%) and in the evening (35.2%). Only a small percentage (5.4%) of the road traffic crashes (RTC) victims were in some form of protection. Twenty-one (18.9%) of the injuries were intentional, of which 18 (85.7%) were assault. The commonest maxillofacial injury was a combination of soft and hard tissues 72 (64.7%). The commonest cause of maxillofacial soft tissue injuries was RTC, 72.8%. Laceration (55.6%) was the most common soft tissue injury recorded. Mandibular fractures constituted the commonest hard tissue injuries. Conclusion: This study has shown that road traffic crashes are the most common cause of injuries to the maxillofacial region. The mandible is the most frequent site of fracture, while the commonest soft tissue injury is laceration. Majority of the victims were young energetic males and adherence to road traffic regulations was very low.
Shivaughn Marchan, Trevin Hector, Kelee Bascombe
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 148-158; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.113012

Abstract:
Statement of the problem: Flavored waters have become increasingly popular in the Trinidadian retail market. There is a paucity of literature on the erosive potential of these products on dental hard tissue. Purpose: This study 1) evaluated the pH and titratable acidity of popular still and sparkling flavored waters in the Trinidadian marketplace and 2) evaluated the effect of time and temperature on pH and titratable acidity. Materials and methods: A calibrated pH meter was used to measure pH at baseline (T0), at one week of storage (T1) and at one month of storage (T2). Titratable acidity was determined using 0.1 M sodium hydroxide until a neutral pH of 7 was attained. Results: All tested flavors of both still and sparkling water demonstrated pH well below the critical pH of 5.5. Reduced temperature and time in storage caused varying degrees of change in both pH and titratable acidity. Generally, the largest changes in titratable acidity occurred for sparkling varieties of water. Conclusion: The still and sparkling flavors of water tested are potentially very erosive to dental hard tissue.
Takehiro Suzuki, Masaaki Suemitsu, Mitsuko Nakayama, Chieko Taguchi, Masayuki Ukigaya, Chiori Nakamura, Yoshikazu Nakayama, Hiroshi Yamamoto, Kayo Kuyama
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 91-106; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.112008

Abstract:
Background: Oral potentially malignant disorders, which include oral lichen planus (OLP), are clinical presentations that carry a risk of development to cancer in the oral cavity. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLLs) are also termed interface/lichenoid mucositis. Malignant transformation of them remains controversial, but distinct clinical and histological criteria for how to differentiate OLP from OLLs have not been developed. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to elucidate findings that can allow histopathological differentiation of OLP and OLLs using histomorphological and immunohistochemical analyses. Materials and Methods: Analyses were performed in 10 cases diagnosed with OLP and 9 cases diagnosed with OLLs. Cytokeratin 19 (CK19), Ki-67 and CD3 were used as primary antibodies to detect basal cells, proliferative activity and T-cell distribution, respectively, and Perlecan and COX-2 to evaluate epithelial intracellular arrangements and interstitial distributions of proteoglycans and enzymes. Results: For CK19, positive cells were significantly found in OLLs at both the prominent area and site adjacent to the lesion comparison with those of OLP’s. The number of COX-2 positive cells was significantly higher in spinous and basal layers in OLLs of the prominent area. Additionally, OLLs showed mild to moderate expression for perlecan in the basal to spinous layers and in subepithelial tissue. Conclusion: Almost no basal cells were noted in the prominent area in OLP. COX-2 and perlecan were found in the basal to spinous layers in OLLs. Although there are restrictions, these suggested the possibility of helping to distinguish between OLP and OLLs.
Anne Kowlessar, Kevin Henry, Arlana Bissoon, Trudee Hoyte
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 271-277; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.118024

Abstract:
Double teeth refer to two teeth that are totally or partially joined by dentin and maybe their pulps. These developmental anomalies may be the result of either gemination or fusion. This is a case of a 15-year-old Indo-Trinidadian male who presented with the fusion of a mandibular third molar with a distomolar as an incidental finding. The patient had his general dental care provided by a paediatric dentist and was referred to an oral and maxillofacial radiologist, orthodontist, and oral surgeon for consultation. A Cone-beam CT was taken to supplement the plain film periapical and orthopantomogram radiographs. It showed the three-dimensional orientation of the double molar and the extent of joining. This is the first case of fusion of a mandibular third molar to a distomolar being reported in the Caribbean.
Akihiro Tagahara, Chihiro Masaki, Tomotaka Nodai, Takashi Munemasa, Taro Mukaibo, Yusuke Kondo, Ryuji Hosokawa
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 251-262; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.117022

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify optimal post and core materials for central incisors without ferrules using three-dimensional finite element analysis and three-point bending tests. Methods: Stress analyses were performed with six models: cast metal post and core (MP), composite resin core alone, straight fiber-reinforced post-composite resin core (FSR), tapered fiber-reinforced post-composite resin core, straight titanium post-composite resin core (TSR), and tapered titanium post-composite resin core (TTR). A 100-N load was applied to the lingual surface at a 45° angle to the long axis of the tooth. Maximum von Mises stress distributions were calculated with finite element analysis software. Five samples each of composite resin, straight fiber-reinforced post, straight titanium post, straight fiber-reinforced post and composite resin, and straight titanium post and composite resin were subjected to three-point bending tests, followed by analysis of variance and Tukey’s multiple comparison test. Results: Stress distribution was optimal on TTR. Maximum von Mises stress on the cervical side of the post was greatest in TSR (693 MPa) and TTR (556 MPa). Maximum stress on the apical side of the post was greatest in MP (110 MPa). Maximum stress in surrounding dentin was lowest in MP (203 MPa) and TTR (250 MPa). Gap distance was smallest in MP (0.09 mm) and largest in FSR (0.26 mm). Mean maximum three-point bending force was lowest in composite resin (26.9 N/mm) and highest in titanium post and composite resin (97.1 N/mm). Titanium post bending strength was consistently greater than that of the fiber-reinforced post (p < 0.01). Conclusion: These results revealed optimal stress distribution and high bending strength with the tapered titanium post and resin combination, suggesting that this combination can most effectively prevent root or post fracture in an anterior tooth without a ferrule.
Hiroko Omori, Chiaki Komine
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 11, pp 325-340; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2021.119029

Abstract:
Purpose: To establish a simple and accurate photodynamic diagnosis (PDD) method for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: OSCC cell lines HSC-2, HSC-3, HSC-4, and Sa3, and normal human oral keratinocytes (HOK) were used. First, we examined the amount of cells needed to detect differences in fluorescence intensities for PDD. OSCC cell lines were adjusted to concentrations of 1 × 104 (104), 1 × 105 (105), and 1 × 106 (106) cells/ml. The experimental groups comprised a group with 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA (+)), and a group without 5-ALA (5-ALA (-)). For each OSCC cell line, 100 μl of each concentration of cells of the 5-ALA groups was seeded onto fluorescence plates, and fluorescence intensity was measured at 60-min intervals for 240 min. Results are expressed as the ratio of fluorescence intensity in 5-ALA (+) to 5-ALA (-). As cells at the concentration of 106 cells/ml provided the clearest results, fluorescence intensities of all cell lines were measured using this concentration at 20-min intervals for 700 min using the same methods. Results: The 5-ALA (+) to (-) ratio increased in a cell concentration-dependent manner at 240 min; the ratio was highest with 106 cells/ml and lowest with 104 cells/ml. With 106 cells/ml in the 5-ALA (+) group, fluorescence intensity increased in a metabolic time-dependent manner; the increase was highest in HSC-2 cells, followed by HSC-4 cells, HSC-3 cells, Sa3 cells, and HOK. Fluorescence intensity was significantly enhanced after 40 min in HSC-2, HSC-3, and HSC-4 cells, after 60 min in Sa3 cells, and after 100 min in HOK compared to the 5-ALA (-) group (P < 0.05). Moreover, fluorescence intensity was significantly increased in OSCC cell lines compared to HOK after 40 min. Conclusion: Early detection of OSCC is possible by screening only microplate reader measurements of fluorescence intensity for PDD.
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