Open Journal of Stomatology

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2160-8709 / 2160-8717
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 553
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Seidu Adebayo Bello, Nathan Ukuoghene Ikimi, Ifeoluwa Oketade, Osaro Eke, Omoyemi Taiwo Ajisebutu, Fawaz Bello, Abiodun Ayotunde Adebayo
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 248-257; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.129022

Abstract:
The importance of oral health and the general health of an individual are interwoven such that if the oral health is poor, the general health would also be poor. There has been an increase in the interest of researchers in the state of the oral health because of the deleterious effects a poor oral health can have on the general health. While the prevalence of oral diseases has been reported to be on the increase worldwide, this paper presents a report on the prevalence of oral diseases in 10 rural communities known as Oke-ogun communities in Oyo State of Nigeria. Cleft and Facial Deformity Foundation (CFDF), an indigenous non-governmental organization (NGO) organized an outreach program, with permission from the State Health Ministry, to examine, diagnose dental diseases, and carry out free surgeries for patients in the visited communities. The program was for two weeks and was divided in phases with the first phase done in May 2019 and second phase in September 2019. Among 1396 respondents, 43.6% complained of toothaches with more female than male presenting with that complain. Also, 511 (36.6%) were reported to have gingivitis and 51 (3.7%) had dental caries. Furthermore, gingivitis and chronic periodontitis were more common in males 776 (55.6%) than females 620 (44.4%) and this was statistically significant at ≤0.002. Periodontal disease was found to be more prevalent in Oke-ogun communities in Oyo state, and this called for urgent intervention strategies by the federal government of Nigeria, non-governmental organizations (NGO) and the international organizations like the World Health Organization (WHO) since the poor oral health would eventually translate to poor general health.
Wonjun Choi, Won Hee Lim
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 87-95; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.123008

Abstract:
Aim: Phosphatase and tension homolog (PTEN) has been known to maintain homeostatic control over the body. The roles of PTEN in periodontal complex are unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of PTEN in periodontal structures by removing PTEN from osteoblasts and odontoblasts. Materials and Methods: The function of this endogenous PTEN was evaluated by conditionally eliminating the PTEN gene using an Osteocalcin (OCN) Cre driver. The resulting OCN-Cretg/+; Ptenfl/fl mice were examined using micro-CT and histology, immunohistochemical analyses for osteogenic markers in the periodontal ligament (PDL) and bone turnover. Results: Bone apposition was increased around molar areas accompanying deposition of cementum in micro CT. Osteoprogenitor markers except for OCN in the PDL maintained their expression in both wild-type and OCN-Cretg/+; Ptenfl/fl mice. Both alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoclast activity increased in the PDL of OCN-Cretg/+; Ptenfl/fl mice compared to those in wild-type mice. Conclusions: Loss of PTEN causes an increase of bone turnover in the periodontal surrounding tissues with an increase of cementogenesis. These findings underscore the effect of PTEN on homeostasis of the periodontal ligament.
Mohammed M. A. Abdulla Al-Abdaly, Amer Hassan Alasmari, Saeed J. Alqahtani, Ahmed Abdulrahman Alzahrani, Jawaher Moshabab A. AlAhmari, Ghadeer Mohammed Mohammed Al-Abdaly, Ibrahim Hassan Ibrahim Alqaysi, Mohammed Dhafer Mohammed Al-Shamrani
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 42-61; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.122005

Abstract:
Background: There are associations between the severity of periodontal diseases and some predisposing factors, such as age, race, and income rate. Therefore, the present study was designed to evaluate the extra-oral digital panoramic radiographic interpretation and clinical findings of stage IV periodontitis among some samples concerning Saudi/non-Saudi nationality. Material and Methods: The study comprised a random sample of 298 residents in Saudi Arabia referred to the internship program clinics at the College of Dentistry, King Khalid University. They were according to the age of participants as follows: youth (15 - 24 years), adults (25 - 64 years), and seniors (65 years and over) within two groups according to nationality (Saudi and non-Saudi). Clinical periodontal examination and radiographic extra oral digital panoramic radiographs were done, and then the periodontal parameters, the percentage of bone loss, and the pattern of bone loss were recorded. The data was collected, and the statistical analysis was performed with ANOVA test, Tukey’s test, Chi-square test, and T-test and considered a P-value at (p 0.05). Conclusion: At the end of this study, we concluded that there are alterations in clinical and radiographic and clinical findings of stage IV periodontitis with the alteration of participants’ ages and nationality.
Oumar Raphiou Diallo, Alhassane Conde, Ibrahima Diallo, Mamadou Saliou Diallo
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.121001

Abstract:
Introduction: Temporomandibular joint ankylosis (TMJA) is a fusion of joint surfaces by fibrous or bone tissue and the resulting limitation of mouth opening. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of TMJA, describe the clinical aspects and assess management. Materials and Method: It was a retrospective study that was carried out in the Department of Odontostomatology and Maxillofacial Surgery of Donka National Hospital for a period of 5 years (January 2016 to December 2020). Included were all records of inpatients and managed cases of TMJA during the study period. Socio-demographic, clinical and therapeutic variables were analyzed. Results: During the study 13 TMJA cases were collected with the frequency of 0.47%. The age group 1 - 9 was the most affected (61.54%) with extremes of 4 and 28 years. Men were the most concerned (53.87%). Restriction of mouth opening was the main reason for consultation (69.23%). The etiologies of ankylosis were dominated by infection including cellulitis of dental origin (53.85%) followed by facial trauma (30.77%). Arthroplasty was the most commonly used technique (73%), two cases of recurrence were noted (15.38%). Conclusion: TMJA affects mainly children and the etiology is dominated by cellulite of dental origin hence the interest of sensitization of the population for early management of oral diseases.
Wenjing Wang, Hongyi Zhang, Yi Liu
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 197-208; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.127019

Abstract:
Semaphorin 3A could be involved in angiogenesis and also enhanced bone formation was investigated in many researches. In our current study, we firstly investigated that canal obliteration might be present in some regenerative endodontic procedures cases clinically. After the establishment of the model of apical periodontitis in the maxillary first molars of rats, pulp revascularization was performed in mesial root canal. Histological sections showed that most of the tissues growing into the root canal were not real pulp tissue, but cementoid, osteoid and periodontal-like membrane. Moreover, we detected that the expression of Semaphorin 3A increased in the mesial root canal. When we used CoCl2 to induce hypoxic environment, the expression of genes and proteins, Hypoxia inducible factor-1α, Vascular endothelial growth factor, and Semaphorin 3A in dental pulp stem cells were both upregulated. In conclusion, hypoxia mediated the high expression of Semaphorin 3A in DPSC might be involved tissue regeneration during pulp vascularization.
Hilkka Helovuo, Elvi Tunnela, Jyrki Ollikainen, Keijo Paunio
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 209-228; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.128020

Abstract:
The aim of the study was to gather further information regarding the reasons for superinfections and soft tissue necrosis, and to compare them with common gingivitis and periodontitis. A further aim is to see if there are differences in the recovery from these diseases which all are associated with microorganisms. The information was gathered retrospectively from 250 patients and altogether 4022 visits to a specialist. The material was chosen randomly according to the first letter of the patient’s surname, among the 250 patients that were selected. The treatments of 155 patients took place between 1987-2016. The treatment of some patients had started earlier, but the controls had been continued for a long time after 1987. The examinations have been clinical, microbiological, and based on anamnesis, roentgenograms and histopathological examinations. The follow-up time was between 1 to 40 years. The patients who had periodontitis or superinfection were treated in the same way. Antibiotic therapy was prescribed for recurring infections, or if the patient had a difficult disease. In periodontal-endodontic infections, root canals were treated. Periapical lesions were surgically treated. Both periodontitis and superinfections occurred predominantly in the age group between 41 and 60 years. Narcotic- or snuff-addicts were not included in the material, nor were alcoholics, although 6 patients did report moderate use of alcohol. Diseases and other infections had been treated both in patients with periodontitis and in the superinfection group. Oral symptoms were the same, except that the superinfections were violent. The difference in diagnosis was based on the anamnestic information of the antibiotics which induced the acute reaction, on the clinical and microbiological studies. The patients had received 12 different antibiotics, from which 10 induced superinfection. Extraction of teeth did not prevent normal infection, nor superinfection. The infections appeared as ulcers, white coverings or the flush of mucosa, and if the teeth remained, gingival pockets were purulent. The found micro-organisms were yeasts, mould, bacteria, also periodontopathogens. In the superinfection group, some multiply resistant organisms were found. The prognosis of the treatment was good both for patients with periodontitis and superinfection. Flap necrosis is a local, rare surgical complication, in which one factor is superinfection. Incorrect treatment of soft tissue did not lead to flap necrosis in this study. Superinfection is a different disease to periodontitis or gingivitis, because it is induced by antibiotics, and it is linked with multiply resistant microorganisms that are not sensitive to the antibiotics used. Normal periodontal, surgical and endodontic treatments are suitable for patients with periodontal-endodontic problems or superinfection. Superinfection can be very severe, locally or in the whole periodontium, if the infection is bacterial. When the infection was due to yeasts or moulds, local infection was not found. The recovery prognosis is good both in periodontitis and in superinfection. The connection to other diseases is not clear. Cardiovascular diseases, rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes mellitus, accidents and other infections were in anamnesis both in patients with periodontitis and in patients with superinfection. Patients with urinary tract infections who were prescribed antibiotic treatments were more prone to superinfection. Anyone can contract a superinfection. In a healthy gingival, it appears as ulcers, coverings, flushing or gingival bleeding, whereas in patients with periodontitis, the superinfection is mainly purulent. Endodontic superinfection is also possible.
Yoshinori Ono, Akira Fukatsu, Osamu Tsuzukibashi
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 229-247; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.129021

Abstract:
Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to develop a novel selective medium (OVSM) and useful identification method for oral Veillonella species, to assess the prevalence of this species using the selective medium, and to investigate whether the monitoring of oral Veillonella species levels is useful as a clinical indicator for the diagnosis of halitosis. Methods: To examine bacterial populations in the oral cavity, a novel selective medium (OVSM) and multiplex PCR method were developed for isolating and identifying oral Veillonella species. OVSM consists of tryptic soy agar, sheep blood, sodium lactate, vancomycin, and oxacillin. Results: Oral Veillonella species grew well on OVSM. Oral Veillonella species accounted for 5.4% and 27.2%, respectively, of all bacteria in the tongue biofilm samples of healthy and halitosis subjects. Oral Veillonella species produced larger amounts of volatile sulfur compounds than other representative oral bacteria. Conclusion: These results indicate that monitoring the levels of these organisms is useful as a clinical indicator for the diagnosis of halitosis.
Koji Umezawa, Sachiyo Hayashi, Osamu Tsuzukibashi, Akira Fukatsu, Satoshi Uchibori, Mana Fuchigami, Chiaki Komine, Takashi Asano, Masanobu Wakami, Taira Kobayashi, et al.
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 183-195; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.126018

Abstract:
Purpose: Fusobacterium nucleatum is an opportunistic pathogen involved in periodontal diseases, extraoral infections, and colorectal cancer. Fusobacterium necrophorum causes a variety of necrotic infections. F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum are classified into five and two subspecies, respectively. Conventional identification methods were technically hard to distinguish each subspecies of two Fusobacterium species accurately. The purpose of the present study was to design primers to identify two medically important Fusobacterium species at the subspecies level, using one-step multiplex PCR. Methods: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed based on partial sequences of the 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) gene, RNA polymerase B (rpoB) gene, and DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB) of each subspecies of F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum. Results: These primers were able to distinguish each subspecies of F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum and did not display cross-reactivity with representative Fusobacterium species other than F. nucleatum and F. necrophorum. Conclusion: Our developed one-step multiplex PCR method is accurate, specific, cost-effective, time-saving, and worked without requiring DNA extraction.
Akira Fukatsu, Osamu Tsuzukibashi, Mana Fuchigami, Satoshi Uchibori, Chiaki Komine, Koji Umezawa, Sachiyo Hayashi, Yuji Takahashi, Taira Kobayashi, Masanobu Wakami, et al.
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 119-129; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.124012

Abstract:
Purpose: Although the genus Candida is frequently isolated from human oral cavities, the distribution at the species level of these organisms has been little reported. The purpose of the present study was to assess the distribution at the species level of the genus Candida in human oral cavities. Methods: This study was performed using culture and Multiplex PCR methods. Moreover, the genotyping classification of C. albicans was analyzed with a PCR. Results: Of all subjects (n = 90), detection frequency of genus Candida was 42.2%. Genus Candida was not detected in the subjects between 0 to 9 years old, and there was no difference in the detection frequencies of this organism among each generation from 10s to 80s. C. albicans was the most dominant species, followed by C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata, and C. dubliniensis. Plural Candida species tended not to be detected in the individual sample. Genotype A was dominant in the C. albicans isolates. Conclusion: These results indicated that C. albicans of genotype A was dominant and that the genus Candida rarely coexists with other Candida species, in each individual oral cavity.
Mbathio Diop, Amadou Dieng, Serigne Ndame Dieng, Morel Aguiar, Aida Kanouté, Massamaba Diouf, Daouda Faye, Cheikh Mouhamadou Mbacké Lô
Open Journal of Stomatology, Volume 12, pp 281-293; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojst.2022.1210025

Abstract:
The high frequency of dental extractions creates a high demand for prosthetic rehabilitation. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the profile of consumers of prosthetic care at the Institute of Odontology and Stomatology in Dakar. It was a descriptive and retrospective study of patients who had been consulted at the prosthetic clinic of the Institute of Odontology and Stomatology of Dakar. Data were collected from medical records from 09 November 2019 to 09 June 2020. The tools used to collect and process the information were the Sphinx software and the Excel spreadsheet. Out of the 101 patient records, 51% were male and 48% belonged to the age group of 18 to 39 years. Nearly 38.61% of the patients lived less than 5 km from the health care facility and 70.3% of the respondents had a monthly income of fewer than 100,000 FCFA. Clinically, 96% of patients came for functional reasons, 78.2% for aesthetic reasons, and partial edentulism was the most frequent diagnosis (96%). Chi-square tests were performed to find a dependency or non-dependency relationship between diagnosis and age, but also between income and treatment cost. In sum, age and diagnosis were independent of each other, just as patient income was not related to treatment cost. Proximity to health facilities, income, and cost of treatment are factors that influence accessibility to oral health care. It is important to integrate the profile of the consumer of care into global management.
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