Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2332-1822 / 2332-1830
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 123
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Latest articles in this journal

Chijiiwa Tomoko, Ishimura Kayoko, Tomoko Chijiiwa, Kayoko Ishimura
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 29-41; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.83003

Psychiatric day care plays an important role as transitional support after discharge in Japan. However, interruption rate of the day care treatment is high during the introductory period. The purpose of this study was to clarify the experiences of psychiatric day-care patients during the introductory period and find an approach to care. A qualitative study with thirteen patients at the introductory period was designed to explore participant’s experiences through semi-structured interviews. At first, patients were confused about their attitude because they paid attention to themselves, and consequently closed their involvement with others. However, through therapeutic day care activities, they attempted to adapt themselves and gradually turned their attention toward others and accumulated interpersonal experiences. As interactions with others became more frequent, they became conscious of themselves and others. Finally, while having worries about the future, they looked toward recovery and became aware that they were changing. Experiences of patients during the introductory period were essential to their recovery and gave meaning to their day care usage. Nurses should collaborate with patients to determine whether day care would serve to open a patient’s life to new possibilities.
Carolina Macedo Alves Moreira, Carolina Gonçalves Pinheiro, Aline Ronis Sampaio, Michele Paula Dos Santos, Andres Felipe Mantilla Santamaria, Miriam Viviane Baron, Cristine Brandenburg, Nathália Ken Pereira Iketani, Mara Alessandra Porto Dos Reis Oliveira, Alexandre Sancho, et al.
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 131-142; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.84012

Capsular contracture is a frequent complication in the postoperative period of breast implantation. It usually accompanies the appearance of a firm breast that can progress to pain, distortion, and asymmetry of the breasts, requiring surgical revision. The present study is a case report. A 58-year-old woman with a medical diagnosis of capsular contracture of the right breast evidenced by ultrasound. She was referred to the physiotherapy clinic in October 2019 with an initial complaint of pain on palpation, swelling, and stiffness in her right breast. The patient was evaluated and the MACò method was used to treat capsular contracture. For this, 12 sessions of photodynamic therapy were carried out. The treatment included the use of LED by doping: red (300 s), violet (60 s) and blue (120 s), with the use of 1% methylene blue in target areas, three times a week. The patient had the beginning of symptoms’ remission in the fourth visit and total remission in the 12th visit. It was concluded that the use of photodynamic therapy using the MACò method showed improvement in signs and symptoms—the sensation of prosthesis stiffness in the lower and medial region, local temperature, and pain in the right breast. The patient was followed up after treatment and currently, she has no complaints. There was also no need for surgical intervention. In the present case report, the MACò method proved to be effective. Further research is suggested with a cohort of patients with capsular contracture, with randomization and evaluation of a larger number of patients with the referred method.
Christian Arinze Okonkwo, Peter Olanrewaju Ibikunle, Joseph Onuwa Umunnah, Kenneth Umezulike Ani, Gloria Ukamaka Mgbeojedo, Peter Agba Awhen
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 83-97; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.83008

Background: Low back pain is one of the important patients’ presenting complain that requires expert management from the physiotherapists. Yet no work was available for reference on the use of outcome measures for its evaluation by Nigeria physiotherapists. Objective: This study, therefore, investigated the outcome measures used by Nigerian physiotherapists to evaluate patients with Low Back Pain and the factors that influenced their use. Methods: A survey questionnaire was posted to 306 randomly selected mem- bers of the Nigeria Society of Physiotherapy (NSP). Data were analyzed using frequency, percentages, mean, ANOVA, and Pearson’s Chi-square. P-value was placed at 0.05. Results: 52.9% of the respondents (221) used a pain visual analog scale. Only 36.1% used LBP-specific clinical outcome measures. The factors that influenced their use were belief, attitude, knowledge, and choice. There was no significant difference between the majority of the factors and the use of clinical outcome measures. The P-values were 0.960, 0.648, 0.760 for belief, attitude and knowledge respectively. The only factor that had a significant difference (P = 0.029) with the use of clinical outcome measures was choice. Gender and postgraduate qualification had no significant influ- ence on the use of clinical outcome measures at the P-value of 0.117 and 0.510 respectively. Conclusion: Pain visual analog scale is the outcome measure frequently used by Nigeria Physiotherapists to evaluate patients with Low Back Pain. Belief, attitude, knowledge, and choice are the factors that influ- enced the use. There is a need to incorporate the use of LBP-specific outcome measures by Nigerian physiotherapists while treating patients with LBP.
Luca Collebrusco, Antonietta Tufi, Elisabetta Brunori
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 53-59; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.83005

The “Axillary web syndrome” (AWS) is an early complication following breast cancer surgery with axillary lymph nodes dissection. Case Report: The patient is a 69-year-old woman, retired ex-employee, with outcome surgery right axillary lymphadenectomy with shoulder pain and functional limitation with diagnosis AWS it where it was recommended the physiotherapy. The patient had improvement in terms of shoulder function and pain and quality of life. Conclusions: The description of the clinical case afflicted with AWS and the treatment protocol applied, highlighted the good performance of the results, notably as concerns patient’s quality of life. This result could represent a starting point for creating clinical trials aimed at building appropriate rehabilitation route in territorial rehabilitation services.
Murat Baloglu
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 183-190; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.84016

Background: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the robotic device used in lower limb rehabilitation to reduce motor impairment and improve motor performance in patients with traumatic spinal injury. Methods: The data were obtained by retrospective analysis of patients who underwent lower extremity rehabilitation after traumatic spinal injury by robot-assisted rehabilitation in the hospital between December 2017 and December 2019. The results were statistically analyzed and shown as mean ± SD (min-max). Results: A total of 51 patients with mean age of 59.51 ± 8.2 (38 - 72) were admitted to the clinic. Mean ages of thirty-one male patients and twenty females patients were 58.74 ± 8.88 (38 - 77) and 60.7 ± 7.09 (44 - 72), respectively. Comparing ages in terms of gender, it was not statistically significant (p = 0.441). Body mass indexes of male patients were 32.84 ± 6.52 (20 - 48) and 31.4 ± 7.73 (18 - 48) for females. Body mass index of patients was not statistically significant in terms of their gender (p = 0.478). Oswestry disability index scores were 32.04 ± 10.74 (16 - 58) before treatment and 30.69 ± 10.31 (15 - 55) after treatment. Oswestry disability index values before and after robotic rehabilitation were statistically significant (p Conclusions: The motor function gains obtained during the robot-assisted treatment of traumatic spinal injury patients showed robotic device was useful in the training program. Robotic rehabilitation was effective in the improvement of the lower extremities during motor examination.
Carl Edwards
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 110-118; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.83010

This evaluation of the Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (CTQ) was designed to establish the validity and flexibility of its potential use both within a primary and secondary care setting. The questionnaire was originally designed to predict the positive and negative outcome of Nerve Conduction Studies (NCS) in those patients with suspected Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS). Prior to being seen by the hand specialist patients who had been referred with suspected CTS where asked to complete the CTQ. These questionnaires were coded and filed by the clinic nurse. The hand specialist then completed the questionnaire with the patient preceding NCS. Questionnaires were scored subsequent to the appointment. Results for the hand specialist completed questionnaire showed an 80% specificity and 92% sensitivity regarding the ability of the CTQ to predict a positive NCS using a pre-determine cut-off score. The patient completed questionnaire showed a 70.67% specificity and 72% sensitivity. Using receiver operating characteristics a threshold score could be determined to achieve 100% sensitivity/specificity for both questionnaires. This questionnaire provides a useful addition in the assessment of patients with suspected carpal tunnel syndrome and could be used in a range of clinical settings although the scoring cut-off may need to be adapted depending on whether the questionnaire was completed by the clinician or patient. Using the questionnaire in a clinical setting would reduce the requirement for NCS by 60%, this would offer significant time and cost savings.
Suzuki Katsuya, Takasaki Hiroshi, Katsuya Suzuki, Hiroshi Takasaki
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 119-130; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.84011

Objective: To investigate whether a physical therapist trained through the Mechanical Diagnosis and Therapy (MDT) diploma program could guess psychological Patient Reported Outcome Measure (PROM) scores of individuals with low back pain (LBP) by taking patient history and completing a physical evaluation. Methods: Ten participants with LBP completed PROMs immediately before history taking and again after a physical evaluation. PROMs included the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK), Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Pain Coping Strategy Questionnaire. A physical therapist who completed the MDT diploma program took the patients’ history and completed their physical evaluation. The therapist completed the same PROMs immediately after both history taking and physical evaluation. Correlations between patient and therapist scores were calculated using Spearman’s ρ. Results: Statistically significant positive correlations were detected in the PCS (ρ = 0.65) and TSK (ρ = 0.78) before history taking, and in the PCS (ρ = 0.81) and TSK (ρ = 0.74) after physical evaluation. Discussion: The results are based on one MDT therapist and generalizability of the findings is limited. However, the current preliminary findings justify the need for further studies to explore effective post-graduate training to promote a patient centered approach.
Takashi Kimura
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 164-182; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.84015

Background: A correlation between self-care and gait in stroke patients has been shown. However, there are few reports suggesting an interaction between self-care and gait. Purpose: To investigate the interaction between locomotion and improvements in self-care. Participants and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 3034 stroke patients who were registered in the Japanese Rehabilitation Database. Using their data, patients were classified into three groups (severe, moderate, slight) based on the motor functional independence measure upon admission, and data were modified as mean-centered values. We performed a correlation analysis to evaluate the relationship among all the collected data. Subsequently, a hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to evaluate interaction using the self-care motor score from the Functional Independent Measure (FIM) as the dependent variable. Model 1 used two independent variables (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and cognitive FIM score), model 2 used two independent variables (locomotion gain and gain of an item with the strongest correlation coefficient to the de-pendent variable), and model 3 used a mean-centering value, which was added to model 2. The simple slope was used for further analysis. Results: Locomotion showed an interaction with self-care, except in the slight group. The R2 changes in models 1 and 2 were significant in the following: grooming, dressing lower body, and bladder management in the severe group (p Conclusion: Locomotion demonstrated interaction with improving self-care, mainly in the severe group. Therefore, for moderate and slight cases, an intervention that not only involves locomotion training but also focuses on improving activities of daily living should be considered.
Takeshi Oshikawa, Seigo Koura, Nishikawa Chihoko, Kazuho Nagao, Kentaro Higashi
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.81001

“Ease of comfort” and “functionality” are important factors that have been cited to improve wheelchair seating. The ability to maintain balance and posture while seated in a wheelchair improves stability, comfort, and functionality and is a prerequisite for daily activities. In this study, the authors used a sitting position measuring device to scientifically verify differences in sitting posture, comfort, and functionality depending on the presence or absence of cushions and the type of cushion in elderly individuals who used wheelchairs. Results suggested that a cushion fabricated by a therapist was more useful than a commercially available air cushion. While a commercially available air cushion was the most suitable, the therapist’s self-made cushion could be expected to demonstrate the same or better applicability than an air cushion.
Theresia Shavega
Open Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, Volume 8, pp 98-109; doi:10.4236/ojtr.2020.83009

Introduction: Excessive masturbation has for long been reported to affect youths with intervention strategies to intervene with this problem remaining unclear. This study aimed at determining the underlying factors for excessive masturbation, its effects and intervention strategies used. Methods: This was a case study design for a youth aged 19 years; affected by excessive masturbation. Data were collected through individual counseling and intervention. It involved 15 counseling sessions which were run in nine months in a three weeks interval. The sessions involved narration and exploration of the causes and effects of masturbation. Counseling intervention was built in a vicious circle. Results: Several factors, effects and intervention strategies were identified, reported and discussed in this study. Main causes were such as stories from friends and pornographic videos. Effects were multiple risk behaviors and health problems. Counseling model for individual was developed. Conclusion: The study indicates that there are multiple causes and effects of excessive masturbation. Since masturbation is secretly done, the effects are not widely known to many people. Most of these effects are long-term which affects a person psychologically, physically, socially and morally.
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