Applied Biological Chemistry

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ISSN / EISSN : 2468-0834 / 2468-0842
Total articles ≅ 485
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Myun Soo Kim, Minjee Lee, Hanna Oh, Wonsang Seo, Gwang-Seob Kim, O-Hyun Ban, Minhye Shin, Young Hoon Jung, Jungwoo Yang
Published: 2 July 2021
by 10.1186
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00620-7

The use of probiotics has been applied for a variety of fields (e.g., immune system, mental health, and heart). In this study, the feasibility of lysates from L. rhamnosus IDCC 3201 for cosmetic ingredients was evaluated. More specifically, enhanced ceramides production in human epidermal keratinocytes by the lysates and its proposed machanism were investigated through in vitro and genome analysis. In results, enhanced spingomyelinase activity and thereby increased ceramides production by the lysates from L. rhamnosus IDCC 3201 was observed. Furthermore, it was found that the existence of glucosylceramdase in L. rhamonsus IDCC 3201 was attributed to enhanced ceramides production. Finally, it was verified that the lysates from L. rhamonsus IDCC 3201 was regarded as safe for its use as cosmetic materials. Thus, these findings have significant implications that might lead to the development of functional and safe cosmetic products from probiotics.
Hak-Dong Lee, Leo Adrianne Paje, Sullim Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Kyungki Hong, Hyukjin Kwon, Sanghyun Lee
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-7; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00622-5

An analytical method was established to identify and quantify hydroxycinnamic acids, such as 1,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (DCQA) and chicoric acid (CA), in mixtures of Saussurea grandifolia and Taraxacum coreanum (MST) by using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). Analyses were carried out by using an INNO C18 column with a gradient elution system, and different parameters were used to validate our optimized method. Results demonstrated limits of detection and quantification of 5.46 × 10–3 and 16.54 × 10–3 mg/mL for DCQA and 0.37 × 10–3 and 1.14 × 10–3 mg/mL for CA, respectively. The calibration curves for DCQA and CA showed good linearity over the concentration ranges of 0.025–0.4 and 0.00625–0.1 mg/mL, respectively, and both exhibited r 2 = 1.0000. In the accuracy test, high recovery rates were obtained ranging from 101.16–104.18% for DCQA and 97.55–108.49% for CA, while the precision values were ≤ 1.00% for DCQA and ≤ 1.21% for CA. The values obtained from our analyses support the use of this analytical method for the accurate identification and quantification of DCQA and CA from MST. Our methodology could be used further to determine the content of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives in routine analyses and large-scale extraction processes.
Junghyun Park, Dongyeop Jang, Hung Manh Phung, Tae Joon Choi, Chang-Eop Kim, Sanghyun Lee, Ki Sung Kang, Seo-Hyung Choi
Published: 23 June 2021
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-17; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00617-2

The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is rapidly increasing due to the adoption of a Westernized lifestyle; at the same time, safe and efficient treatment is required due to the side effects and refractoriness of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The frequently used multi-compound treatment for GERD in the current traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinical field comprises Crassostrea gigas Thunberg shell (CGTS), Bambusae Caulis in Taeniam (BCT), Ponciri Fructus Immaturus (PFI), Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (SBG), medicated leaven (ML) and Glycyrrhizae Radix et Rhizoma (GRR). The current review was based on “Kun-Shin-Choa-Sa” theory and network analysis was conducted to explore the potential pharmacological activities, including efficacy and mechanisms of action of multi-compound treatment against GERD. Hypergeometric test results showed that the targets of multi-compound treatment are significantly associated with GERD gene sets, consistent with the literature review findings. In particular, the enrichment analysis indicated that the SBG targets are related to the IL-17 signaling pathway, bile secretion, small-cell lung cancer, and non-small cell lung cancer, corroborating the literature review, particularly concerning anti-inflammatory effect. In the literature review, CGTS and BCT, classified as “Kun,” play a role in anti-acid, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidative effects. The complementary “Shin” herbs, PFI and SBG, showed functions related to improving the prolonged gastric emptying rate, peristalsis, and a gastric cytoprotective effect. With the role of “Choa,” ML was suggested to inhibit H. pylori growth and diminish gastric acid secretion, consistent with the gastric acid secretion pathway in the enrichment analysis. However, the enrichment analysis did not show any significantly related pathways for CGTS and PFI, which may reflect the lack of information in the KEGG database in terms of the link between GERD, its mechanisms, and the abundance of minerals in CGTS. Despite the pharmacological potential of multi-compound treatment, this study should be corroborated by well-designed future experimental studies.
Xiu Yuan, Junghak Lee, Heeju Han, Boeun Ju, Eunyoung Park, YongHo Shin, Jonghwa Lee,
Published: 22 June 2021
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00619-0

The dissipation of ethoprophos and tricyclazole in soil and their translocation tendency to spinach were investigated. Prior to field trials, the analytical method for the determination of these pesticide residues was optimized and validated on soil and spinach. The field trial was conducted under greenhouse conditions for two different pretreatment periods with the pesticides. After treating with pesticides 30 (PBI-30) and 60 days (PBI-60) before seeding, soil samples were collected on different days for the dissipation study of soil. Spinach samples were harvested from the soil, and 50% and 100% mature spinach samples were collected. The initial amounts of ethoprophos residue in the PBI-60 and PBI-30 soils were 0.21 and 2.74 mg/kg, respectively, and these both decreased to less than 0.01 mg/kg on the day of spinach harvest. Similar initial residues of tricyclazole were observed in the PBI-60 (0.87 mg/kg) and PBI-30 soils (0.84 mg/kg), and these decreased to 0.44 and 0.34 mg/kg, respectively. The half-lives of ethoprophos in the soils were calculated as 7.6 and 4.8 days, respectively, while relatively long half-lives of 36.5 and 77.0 days were calculated for tricyclazole. According to the pesticide residue amounts in the spinach, the translocation rate from the soil to the spinach was determined. In the case of ethoprophos, the residual amount was already rapidly degraded in the soil, and the translocation rate could not be confirmed. On the other hand, for tricyclazole, it was confirmed that 1.19 to 1.61% of the residual amount in soil was transferred to spinach. According to these results, safe management guidelines for tricyclazole in soil were suggested considering the maximum residue limit on spinach.
Trong Nguyen Nguyen, Yeong-Geun Lee, Hyoung-Geun Kim, Dahye Yoon, Jin Tae Jeong, Dae Young Lee, Nam-In Baek
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-6; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00618-1

Repeated column chromatography using Sephadex LH-20, silica gel (SiO2), and octadecyl SiO2 (ODS) as well as preparative HPLC column chromatography led to isolation of a new dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan along with four known ones, gomisin L2 (1), L1 (2), M1 (3), and M2 (4). Their chemical structures were fixed based on MS, IR, and NMR data analyses. In addition, the stereochemistry of atropisomers, the absolute configuration of the axial chirality in a biphenyl structure, was confirmed by a CD experiment. The new lignan was named gomisin M3 (5).
Senthil Nagarajan,
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-12; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00616-3

Sesamolin is one of the lignans derived from sesame oil. It has demonstrated significant antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-mutagenic properties. It also reportedly augments natural killer (NK) cell lysis activity. We previously reported that sesamolin also exerts anticancer effects in vitro and induces enhanced NK cell cytolytic activity against tumor cells. Herein, we aimed to determine the mechanism by which sesamolin prevents and retards tumorigenesis in BALB/c mouse models of leukemia induced by murine (BALB/c) myelomonocytic leukemia WEHI-3B cells. Banded neutrophils, myeloblasts, and monocytic leukemic cells were more abundant in the leukemia model than in normal mice. Sesamolin decreased the number of leukemic cells by almost 60% in the leukemia model mice in vivo; additionally, sesamolin and the positive control drug, vinblastine, similarly hindered neoplastic cell proliferation. Spleen samples were ~ 4.5-fold heavier in leukemic mice than those obtained from normal mice, whereas spleen samples obtained from leukemic mice treated with sesamolin had a similar weight to those of normal mice. Moreover, sesamolin induced a twofold increase in the cytotoxic activity of leukemic mouse NK cells against WEHI-3B cells. These results indicated that sesamolin exerts anti-leukemic effects in vivo.
Sora Shin, , Han Sol Park
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-8; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00615-4

This study was set to study the effects of surfactants on crops using Triton X-100, one of widely used surfactants for various purposes including agricultural uses, as a target surfactant. The effects of Triton X-100 on the growth of wheat and lettuce were studied and the germination and shoot growth of wheat were not significantly affected by Triton X-100. With lettuce, the increasing Triton X-100 concentrations tend to negatively affect the growth, possibly due to the absorption of Triton X-100 by lettuce. The average lettuce fresh mass was reduced by 31% when Triton X-100 concentration increased from 0 to 240 mg L−1. This may mean that chemicals dissolved or mobilized by Triton X-100 can be absorbed by lettuce. The Cd mobilization was facilitated with Triton X-100, and the absorption of procymidone in soil by lettuce was greater when Triton X-100 was applied (i.e., 0.18 mg kg−1) than when water was applied (i.e., 0.15 mg kg−1), although they were statistically not different (p-value > 0.05). The average lettuce masses in the presence of residual procymidone in soil and Triton X-100 (16 g) were lower than that of the control soils (20 g), although they were statistically not different (p-value > 0.05). The results suggest that surfactants contained in pesticide formulations can potentially affect crop growth and absorption of other contaminants. Therefore, the residual surfactants and active ingredients in pesticide formulations need to be properly managed to protect the environment and to produce crops free of contaminants.
Jong-Hwan Park, Se-Wook Hwang, Su-Lim Lee, Jae-Hoon Lee, Dong-Cheol Seo
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00614-5

This study evaluated the characteristics and mechanism of phosphate adsorption by fly ash discharged from a biomass thermal power plant (BTP-FA) under various environmental conditions in order to increase the recyclability of BTP-FA. The phosphate adsorption properties of BTP-FA and fly ash derived from coal thermal power plant (CTP-FA) were better matched by those predicted by the Langmuir isothermal model and the pseudo-second-order model, and their maximum adsorption capacities were 62.1 and 4.1 mg/g, respectively. It was found that the adsorption of phosphate by BTP-FA was predominantly influenced by the outer boundary layer rather than the inner diffusion in the pores. The phosphate adsorption process by BTP-FA was greatly influenced by the initial pH and the BTP-FA dose. Therefore, to effectively treat phosphate using BTP-FA, the concentration and flow rate of phosphate in the incoming wastewater must be considered. The concentration of dissolved calcium from BTP-FA decreased sharply during the phosphate adsorption process compared to that in the phosphate-free solution. This was thought to be due to surface adsorption/reaction between calcium and phosphate. The SEM–EDS and FTIR results also supported the surface adsorption/precipitation reaction of Ca-P. Recycling fly ash discharged from biomass power plants as phosphate adsorbents is expected to contribute not only to waste reduction, but also to wastewater purification.
Kathyleen Nogrado, Tatsuya Unno, Hor-Gil Hur,
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-9; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00613-6

Antibiotic resistance in soil environment has eminently been compared and studied between agricultural and pristine soils, and the role of concentrated animal feeding operations has markedly been recognized as one of the major sources of antibiotic resistance. This study described the tetracycline resistance in small-scale farms in pursuit of presenting its possible role and contribution to the persistence of antibiotic resistance in the environment. Results of the study would render additional information on the occurrence of the ribosomal protection protein (RPP) tet genes among the isolated bacteria from the selected agricultural soils. Four tetracycline resistance and RPP genes were determined in two different agricultural soil settings. Both the culture and molecular method were used to determine and measure tetracycline resistance in soils from arable land and animal house. Results revealed a significantly higher number of culturable antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal houses than arable lands which was suggestive of higher antibiotic resistance in areas where there was direct administration of the antibiotics. However, quantification of the gene copy numbers in the agricultural soils indicated a different result. Higher gene copy number of tetO was determined in one animal house (IAH-3), while the two other tet genes tetQ and tetW were found to be higher in arable lands. Of the total 110 bacterial isolates, tetW gene was frequently detected, while tetO gene was absent in any of the culturable bacterial isolates. Principal component analysis of occurrence and gene copy number of RPP tet genes tetO, tetQ, and tetW also revealed highest abundance of RPP tet genes in the manure and arable soils. Another important highlight of this study was the similarity of the RPP tet genes detected in the isolated bacteria from the agricultural soils to the identified RPP tet genes among pathogenic bacteria. Some of the tetracycline-resistant bacterial isolates were also multidrug resistant as it displayed resistance to tetracycline, erythromycin, and streptomycin using disk diffusion testing.
Fengjuan Liu, Wenshu Huang, Zuoshan Feng, Yongxia Tao, Yingying Fan, Weizhong He, Xiaoli Li, Xiaotong Fang, Cheng Wang, Yujia Bai
Applied Biological Chemistry, Volume 64, pp 1-10; doi:10.1186/s13765-021-00612-7

China is one of the main producers in the worldwide raisin market. Most China’s raisins are produced in Xinjiang where the Thompson seedless grape (Vitis vinifera seedless) is the main variety of green raisin. However, the browning of Thompson seedless grape during drying has been well-acknowledged as the primary factor affecting the development of the raisin industry. Data independent acquisition (DIA)-based protein profiling was performed on fresh and shade-dried Thompson seedless grapes. As a result, 5431 proteins were identified, among which the amounts of 739 proteins in fresh grape were found to be significantly different with those in dried grape. The functional annotation based on the Blast2GO showed that the ‘organic substance metabolic process’, ‘regulation of molecular function’, ‘enzyme regulator activity’, and ‘isomerase activity’ related proteins became very active during browning. Further analyses revealed that the browning-related proteins, which with significant different amounts in fresh and in dried grapes, are primarily involved in the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, tyrosine metabolism, phenylalanine metabolism, oxidative phosphorylation metabolism, plutathione metabolism, peroxisome pathway, and fatty acid degradation. And five random differential proteins were verified with parallel reaction monitoring (PRM). The PRM results were in agreement with the DIA data. The main browning-related proteins of Thompson seedless grape were identified in this study. Their properties were tested, and their roles in the browning mechanism were indicated. This will lay base to a better understanding on the enzymatic browning of Thompson seedless grape, and it will also provide guidance for controlling the quality of Thompson seedless grapes in industry.
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