International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research

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EISSN : 26024772
Current Publisher: Pen Academic Publishing (10.29329)
Total articles ≅ 87
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Tsveta Hristeva, Plovdiv Tobacco And Tobacco Products, Iliya Denev, Radka Bojinova, University of Plovdiv, Tobacco and Tobacco Products Institute
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 411-419; doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.7

Abstract:The quantitative dynamics of soil microorganisms in the rhizosphere of tobacco and tomato plants infected by broomrape /Phelipanche ramosa L./ were investigated. Parallel pot experiments with the two hosts of the parasite - Oriental type of tobacco and tomato were presented. The variants were: by introducing contamination into the soil - seeds by broomrape and control pots - without the seeds by broomrape. Experiments were carried out under controlled conditions. Soil samples for microbiological analyzes were taken from the rhizosphere, in dynamics. The microbiological analyses were executed according to Koh’s, in three replications (MPN/g a.d.s), with confidence level 0.05. The surveyed set of soil microorganisms has been comprised two indicators groups characterizing the overall biological state of the microbial communities: Autochthonous (on soil extract agar) and Oligotrophic (on diluted soil extract agar). Diversity indexes Shannon (H) and Simpson (D) and the distribution evenness (EH) in the microbial communities were determined. A statistical analysis has been made. The obtained results showed that the quantities of the two groups of microorganisms begun to change visibly around and after 20th day, compared to the amount at the rhizosphere of uninfected by broomrape plants. There was an increase at the population density of autochthonous microorganisms between 20 and 60 days and reduced significantly after this period. The trend was reversed at oligotrophic microorganisms, but the quantities were higher throughout the study period. These dynamics coincide with the phases of broomrape development - germination, formation of a haustorium (about 10-20th day) and attachment to the root of the host (up to about 40-60 days) and the above-ground phases (80-100 days). The analysis showed that microbial communities formed in rhizospheres in the presence of a broomrape had been an oligotrophic character. The relative share of oligotrophic microorganisms in these microbial communities was over 50% at both host rhizospheres.
Danica Andreevska, Dobre Andov, Trajche Dimitrovski, Emilija Simeonovska, Halil Sürek, Necmi Beşer, Jashka Ibraimi, Thrace Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne, Trakya University, Forestry And Water Economy Ministry Of Agriculture
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 392-401; doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.5

Abstract:The number of days to flowering and growth stages, plant and stem height, panicle length, number of panicles/ m2 , 1000 grains weight of paddy and biomass yield at harvest (straw + paddy rice) were examined in the newly introduced Turkish rice varieties Efe, Hamzadere, Çakmak and Tunca. The new varieties were grown under typical rice producing conditions in the Kocani rice producing region of North Macedonia during 2013 and 2014, in field trials set up in randomized complete block design, compared to standard variety San Andrea. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD test. The studied varieties in both seasons showed shorter average period from seeding to flowering (89 to 93 days across varieties) compared to San Andrea (99.5 days), as well as faster development thru the rice growth phases. The Turkish varieties had a significantly shorter plant (90.75 cm to 94.54 cm) and stem (77.00 cm to 86.53 cm) compared to San Andrea (114.50 cm and 99.63 cm). The number of panicles per m2 varied between the two years, with average values from 526.17 in Efe to 647.17 in Tunca. The 1000 grains weight of paddy ranged from 29.03 g in Çakmak to 33.47 in Hamzadere. San Andrea had significantly higher 1000 grains weight, with average value of 37.88 g. The biomass (straw+ paddy) in all varieties was higher in the first year compared to the second. The average values ranged from 28608.34 kg/ha in Efe to 33850.00 kg/ha in Çakmak. The studied Turkish rice cultivars generally showed better results for the examined characteristics than the standard San Andrea (shorter vegetative stage, faster development and maturation, lower plant height, more stable biological yield) and as such are potentially suitable for cultivation in the rice producing conditions of North Macedonia.
Neli Prodanova-Marinova, Institute Of Viticulture And Enology
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 455-465; doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.11

Abstract:At the Experimental Base of the Institute of Viticulture and Enology, Pleven, Bulgaria it was carried out a three-year planting (2014, 2015 and 2016) of a vineyard for chemicals testing for weed control. Each variant included 20 Cabernet Sauvignon vines grafted to Berlandieri X Riparia Selection Oppenheim 4 (SO 4) rootstock as it was repeated every year of the study. A single spray with Wing P (pendimethalin 250 g/l + dimethenamid P 212.5 g/l) at doses of 0.4 and 0.6 l/da was performed immediately after planting the vines and once with Stratos Ultra (100 g/l cycloxydim) at a dose of 0.2 l/da during the active vegetation stage of the wheat weeds. It was not found a negative impact on the bud germination and the shoot growth and maturation. Applied at a dose of 0.6 l/da, Wing P showed the best control over one-year weed vegetation in the vineyard as the treated vines had more intensive development and mature growth of greater length and mass.
Celal Yucel, Sırnak University
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 491-503; doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.14

Abstract:It is quite significant to develop annual and high-yield forage legumes to be pure-sown or intercropped with graminae species in winter cropping systems of Mediterranean region. In this sense, berseem clover is considered as a significant species for Mediterranean region. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine yield and herbage quality attributes of berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L.) genotypes in Çukurova region with dominant Mediterranean climate. Experiments were conducted over the experimental fields of Eastern Mediterranean Agricultural Research Institute (Doğankent/Adana) in winter intermediate cropping system (November-April) of 2010-11 and 2011-12 growing seasons. Experiments were carried out in randomized blocks design with 3 replications. In the first and second year of the experiments, green herbage (GH) yields varied respectively between 53.3-79.7 and between 22.7-32.3 t/ha; dry matter (DM) yields varied respectively between 7.26-12.02 and 5.16-7.42 t/ha; crude protein (CP) ratios varied respectively between 11.37-15.39 and between 15.22-18.88%; digestible dry matter (DDM) ratios varied respectively between 61.10-68.08 and between 56.84-67.70%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) ratios varied respectively between 27.22-41.45 and between 23.07-31.41%; relative feed values (RFV) varied respectively between 99.3-155.0 and between 146.5-190.5. In both years, genotypes 3, 8, 15, 16, 17 and18 had greater DM yields than the standard cultivar and the other genotypes. These genotypes were also prominent w-for herbage quality attributes. Genotype 18 was registered under the name of “DERYA” in 2015 and the other promising genotypes are still being used in on-going breeding studies.
Rangel Dragov, 6200 Field Crops Institute Chirpan, Dechko Dechev, Krasimira Taneva, Field Crops Institute
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 402-410; doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.6

Abstract:The durum wheat breeding program in Field crops institute FCI - Chirpan started in 1928. In the last ten years, a number of varieties have been created to meet modern cultural requirements. Genetic distance is of great importance for the success of the combining breeding. In the study are included 13 varieties created over the last 10 years and 8 of the Institute's best advanced durum wheat breeding lines. The field experiment was conducted in experimental field of FCI-Chirpan during 2015-2017 year. A randomized block design in four replicated was used with a trial plot size of 15 m2. A standard farming technology for durum wheat in the country was applied. Tre traits: grain yield, plant height, heading date, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, protein content, wet gluten and vitreousness were observed. The means of three-year trials for all studied traits were calculated and genetic differences between genotypes were found. The coefficients of variation (CV%) obtained for the individual traits show that the heading date and grain yields are the most variable. The correlation analysis determines significant coeficients for 9 out of 28 possible combinations of traits. The multivariate methods for determining the genetic distance between the involved genotypes in the study were used. According to the dendrogram of the cluster analysis, the distances between the four main groups formed are determined. The applied graphical PC analysis shows the interrelations between the traits and the grouping of genotypes in terms of the genetic distance between them. These methods can help for faster breeding progress using the established genetic distance as the basis for deploying the breeding program.
Dobre Andov, Danica Andreevska, Trajche Dimitrovski, Emilija Simeonovska, Halil Sürek, Necmi Beşer, Jashka Ibraimi, Thrace Agricultural Research Institute in Edirne, Trakya University, Forestry And Water Economy Ministry Of Agriculture
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 385-391; doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.4

Abstract:The paddy rice yield, milling fractions (head rice yield, brokens, bran and hulls) and white rice yield were examined in the newly introduced Turkish varieties: Efe, Hamzadere, Çakmak and Tunca grown under typical rice producing conditions of North Macedonia during 2013 and 2014, compared to standard variety San Andrea. The field trials were set up in randomized complete block design. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and LSD test. The new varieties showed higher paddy rice yield in both years, with average values ranging from 9365.39 kg/ha in Efe to 10704.02 kg/ha in Tunca compared to San Andrea (8784.40 kg/ha). San Andrea was characterized with the highest fluctuation in head rice yield and the lowest average (38.30 %). All Turkish varieties showed more stable and higher average head rice yield. Efe had the highest value by year and the highest average (56.15 %). The white rice yield in the new varieties was higher in both years, with average values of 4420.66 kg/ha in Hamzadere to 5351.65 kg/ha in Tunca, compared to San Andrea, where the lowest average of 3276.12 kg/ha and the highest fluctuation was obtained. Significant differences for the paddy and white rice yield and the head rice yield were obtained in both years. The new varieties showed promising results regarding the head rice yield and white rice yield, which is problematic and unstable in the prevalent rice varieties in the rice production of North Macedonia.
Gökhan Önder Ergüven, Munzur University, Göksel Demir, University of Health Sciences
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 353-364; doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.1

Abstract:The objective of our study is to contribute towards the development of the phytoremediation method which is a method that attempts to clean the soil polluted with organochlorine herbicides with the combined application of specially chosen plants, such as alfalfa, maize and soybean with Micrococcus strains. The enzymes and genes involved in the process of bioremediation of various pesticides have also been discussed. Initial degradation of herbicides carried out by bacterial strains include formatin of dehalogenated products with easy plant uptake and undergo oxidative degradation through plant detoxification enzymes, such as cyctochrome P450, peroxidase, phenoloxidase and glutathion S-transferase. Subsequently, this method can finalise the mineralization and degradation of toxicants into nontoxic compounds. Our study presents the results of our model experiments of selected strains of genera Micrococcus and plant phytoremediators. According to the results of the phytoremediation studies, Micrococcus sp. DR44 and Micrococcus sp. HEXBA04 showed best removal performance with Oxadiazon herbicide as 84% and Micrococcus sp. Pv8 and Micrococcus sp. BP3_1A showed 71% removal performance on Quizalofop-p-ethyl with alfalfa with maize, while removal efficiency of Liuron was 77% in alfalfa with Micrococcus sp. NCTC2665. Our study shows that effectively using this newly developed technological approach results in a reduction of pollution in soil samples that have been artificially contaminated. Future perspectives of pesticides bioremediation has also been briefly articulated to make a realistic comment with an element of optimism for researchers working in this field.
Spasimira Nedyalkova, Field Crops Institute – Chirpan, Zornitsa Stoyanova, Veska Georgieva, Rossitza Rodeva
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 442-454; doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.10

Abstract:An assessment of six Bulgarian and six foreign varieties of durum wheat was carried out for the occurrence of foliar diseases caused by fungal pathogens on a natural background. Field experiments were performed at two locations (Chirpan and Sofia) situated in different climatic zones of Bulgaria for six successive growing seasons (2012 – 2017) with exception of 2015 in Chirpan. The results of this research showed that the population of foliar pathogens of durum wheat was heterogeneous and included 13 fungal species. Some differences in symptom severity and relative proportion of the pathogens among varieties and years and between locations were found. Of the leaf spotting fungi, the causal agent of tan spot (Pyrenophora tritici-repentis) was the most prevalent in both prospected areas. The fungi belonging to Septoria leaf blotch complex (Parastagonospora avenae f. sp. triticea, Pa. nodorum and Zymoseptoria tritici) and newly found species Phaeophleospora sp. were more frequently isolated from leaf samples taken in Sofia location. Monographella nivalis and Cladosporium herbarum had contribution to the leaf spotting in both surveyed locations in some of the studied years. Cochliobolus sativus occurred only occasionally. Of the three rust fungi, Puccinia striiformis f. sp. striiformis was the predominant species. The first record of yellow rust was made in 2013. It was the most common disease in both localities in 2014 and 2016 due to warmer winters, which favored the survival of YR. The race analysis performed in Global Rust Reference Center revealed the appearance and distribution of a new race (Warrior) in Bulgaria. The weather conditions were exceptionally favourable for the development of certain diseases in some years. In this relation the influence of some elements of the climate on the pathogen prevalence was discussed. Except the weather other factors like cultivar characteristics, inoculum level, soil type, and predecessor played a role in changing spectrum of phytopathogenic fungi. In common the level of fungal diseases in Sofia region was higher compared to Chirpan. The studied varieties differed in their susceptibility to fungal diseases.
Vanya Ivanova, Galina Mihova, Bilyana Ivanona, Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute
International Journal of Innovative Approaches in Agricultural Research, Volume 3, pp 420-428; doi:10.29329/ijiaar.2019.206.8

Abstract:Wheat is the most important cereal crop in global agricultural economy and is cultivated in diverse agroclimatic regions of the world. Breeding for disease resistance is the most economically and environmentally safe method to reduce crop losses. The long term success of breeding for disease resistance depends on the nature of the pathogen and the virulence spectra in the pathogen population, the availability, diversity and type of genetic resistance in the host and the methodology for screening and selection for resistance. During 2013-2015, under conditions of an infection field at Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute - General Toshevo, Bulgaria, 680 common winter wheat lines were tested to a population of races of leaf rust P. triticina. Forty - two of the lines, which exhibited resistance under field conditions, were tested to 9 pathotypes of the pathogen at seedling stage under controlled conditions. Some of the tested lines carried adult plant resistance (APR), while others had combination of race specific and race nonspecific resistance. The combination of various mechanisms of resistance is of great importance for the durability of resistance. In this relation, the investigated 42 lines can be considered efficient sources of resistance which can be used in the breeding programs.