Advanced Functional Materials
ISSN / EISSN : 1616-301X / 1616-3028
Published by: Wiley (10.1002)
Total articles ≅ 17,988
Latest articles in this journal
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202105021
Integrating high-efficiency oxygen electrocatalyst directly into air electrodes is vital for zinc–air batteries to achieve higher electrochemical performance. Herein, a self-standing membrane composed of hierarchical cobalt/nanocarbon nanofibers is fabricated by the electrospinning technique. This hybrid membrane can be directly employed as the bifunctional air electrode in zinc–air batteries and can achieve a high peak power density of 304 mW cm−2 with a long service life of 1500 h at 5 mA cm−2. Its assembled solid-state zinc–air battery also delivers a promising power density of 176 mW cm−2 with decent flexibility. The impressive rechargeable battery performance would be attributed to the self-standing membrane architecture integrated by oxygen electrocatalysts with abundant cobalt–nitrogen–carbon active species in the hierarchical electrode. This study may provide effective electrospinning solutions in integrating efficient electrocatalyst and electrode for energy storage and conversion technologies.
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202105628
Despite clinical applications of the first-generation tissue adhesives and hemostats, the correlation among microstructure and hemostasis of hydrogels with wound healing is less understood and it is elusive to design high-performance hydrogels to meet worldwide growing demands in wound closure, hemostasis, and healing. Inspired by the microstructure of extracellular matrix and mussel-mimetic chemistry, two kinds of coordinated and covalent glycopolypeptide hydrogels are fabricated, which present tunable tissue adhesion strength (14.6–83.9 kPa) and microporous structure (8–18 µm), and lower hemolysis <1.5%. Remarkably, the microporous size mainly controls the hemostasis, and those hydrogels with larger pores of 16–18 µm achieve the fastest hemostasis of ≈14 s and the lowest blood loss of ≈6% than fibrin glue and others. Moreover, both biocompatibility and hemostasis affect wound healing performance, as assessed by hemolysis, cytotoxicity, subcutaneous implantation, and hemostasis and healing assays. Importantly, the glycopolypeptide hydrogel-treated rat-skin defect model achieves full wound closure and regenerates thick dermis and epidermis with some hair follicles on day 14. Consequently, this work not only establishes a versatile method for constructing glycopolypeptide hydrogels with tunable adhesion and microporous structure, fast hemostasis, and superior healing functions, but also discloses a useful rationale for designing high-performance hemostatic and healing hydrogels.
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202103103
The intentional inclusion of key atomic elements in a purpose designed glass helps to achieve unprecedented control over the ultrafast laser written circular waveguide morphology and refractive index change. Behavioral response of glass constituents to ultrafast laser in 14 different commercial silicate glasses having various compositions are studied. Viscosity, aluminum to alkaline earth+alkali ratio, and total silicon content within the glass are the prime control factors for producing waveguides with high circularity and refractive index change. Drawing on this knowledge, the designer glass is successfully fabricated from an empirical formula that facilitates maintaining circular waveguide morphology, high refractive index over fast feed rates, and amorphous composition.
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202105395
Natural cellulose fiber-based materials have been widely used in daily life for a broad application owing to their intrinsic merits such as easy availability, eco-friendly, good processability, and outstanding physical–mechanical properties. Surface modification of natural fibers with nanostructures is an effective strategy to integrate the textile substrates with many favorable functionalities. Here, a green, facile, and universal method is introduced for the in situ growth of γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD) metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) in cellulose fiber-based materials (CelluMOFs). Compared to the pristine fibers, the resulting CelluMOFs have high porosity with up to 50 times larger specific surface area and enhanced loading capacity to functional molecules (essential oils, antibacterial agents, and active drugs) with 23–36 times higher loading content. The CelluMOFs also exhibit high adsorption capability to volatile organic compounds and carbon dioxide. Moreover, the CelluMOFs textiles loaded with a model drug (doxorubicin) show a steady release profile and deep skin permeation capability. These CelluMOFs combine the advantages of both cellulose fibers and CD-MOFs, which greatly extend their applications in the fragrance industry, antimicrobial, pollutant removal, and biomedical textiles.
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202104927
The smart integration of multiple devices in a single functional unit is boosting the advent of compact optical sensors for on-site analysis. Nevertheless, the development of miniaturized and cost-effective plasmonic sensors is hampered by the strict angular constraints of the detection scheme, which are fulfilled through bulky optical components. Here, an ultracompact system for plasmonic-sensing is demonstrated by the smart integration of an organic light-emitting transistor (OLET), an organic photodiode (OPD), and a nanostructured plasmonic grating (NPG). The potential of OLETs, as planar multielectrode devices with inherent micrometer-wide emission areas, offers the pioneer incorporation of an OPD onto the source electrode to obtain a monolithic photonic module endowed with light-emitting and light-detection characteristics at unprecedented lateral proximity of them. This approach enables the exploitation of the angle-dependent sensing of the NPG in a miniaturized system based on low-cost components, in which a reflective detection is enabled by the elegant fabrication of the NPG onto the encapsulation glass of the photonic module. The most effective layout of integration is unraveled by an advanced simulation tool, which allows obtaining an optics-less plasmonic system able to perform a quantitative detection up to 10−2 RIU at a sensor size as low as 0.1 cm3.
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202103531
Many tumor therapies take advantage of upsetting the redox balance in tumor cells, but to do so requires excessive biochemical or physical attacks. The high-throughput simulation using multi-pathway techniques described herein can yield an increased efficacy in bio-oxidation. In this study, compartmental hierarchical nanoreactors are developed as an efficient multi-pathway singlet oxygen (1O2) generation system for superactive biocatalytic tumor therapy. The penetrated super cavity and connected dual-mesopore channels of the compartmental multienzyme nanoreactors are designed using the proposed heterogeneous template assembly for multi-enzyme complex (superoxide dismutase (SOD)-lactoperoxidase (LPO)) and photosensitizer molecule (indocyanine green (ICG)) encapsulation. Benefiting by the enhanced direct substrate diffusion between the interacting SOD–LPO complex and decrease in external diffusion, the parallel catalysis combined by the superactive cascade biocatalysis and enzyme-promoted photosensitization effect is verified by this compartmental silica nanoreactor system. The parallel pathways not only make full use of the products of SOD (H2O2 and O2), but also exhibit outstanding capability for 1O2 production, at ≈2.15 and 1.70 times augmented 1O2, respectively. Both in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrate the synergetic 1O2-mediated inhibition of tumor proliferation, lending this strategy great potential for the treatment of hypoxic tumors.
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202103268
Responsive materials prepared using shape-memory photonic crystals have potential applications in rewritable photonic devices, security features, and optical coatings. By embedding chiral nematic cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) in a polyacrylate matrix, a shape-memory photonic crystal thermoplastic (CNC-SMP) allows reversible capture of different colored states is reported. In this system, the temperature is used to program the shape-memory response, while pressure is used to compress the helical pitch of the CNC chiral nematic organization. By increasing the force applied (≈140–230 N), the structural color can be tuned from red to blue. Then, on-demand, the CNC-SMP can recover to its original state by heating it above the glass transition temperature. This cycle can be performed over 15 times without any loss of the shape-memory behavior or mechanical degradation of the sample. In addition, multicolor readouts can be programmed into the chiral nematic CNC-SMP by using a patterned substrate to press the sample, while the glass transition temperature of the CNC-SMP can be tuned over a 90 °C range by altering the monomer composition used to prepare the polyacrylate matrix.
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202104879
Lead halide perovskites (LHP) are rapidly emerging as efficient, low-cost, solution-processable scintillators for radiation detection. Carrier trapping is arguably the most critical limitation to the scintillation performance. Nonetheless, no clear picture of the trapping and detrapping mechanisms to/from shallow and deep trap states involved in the scintillation process has been reported to date, as well as on the role of the material dimensionality. Here, this issue is addressed by performing, for the first time, a comprehensive study using radioluminescence and photoluminescence measurements side-by-side to thermally-stimulated luminescence (TSL) and afterglow experiments on CsPbBr3 with increasing dimensionality, namely nanocubes, nanowires, nanosheets, and bulk crystals. All systems are found to be affected by shallow defects resulting in delayed intragap emission following detrapping via a-thermal tunneling. TSL further reveals the existence of additional temperature-activated detrapping pathways from deeper trap states, whose effect grows with the material dimensionality, becoming the dominant process in bulk crystals. These results highlight that, compared to massive solids where the suppression of both deep and shallow defects is critical, low dimensional nanostructures are more promising active materials for LHP scintillators, provided that their integration in functional devices meets efficient surface engineering.
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202103224
High-performance temperature sensors for the harsh environment are vital components for meeting the increasing demands for the development of existing and emerging technologies. In this study, specifically oriented (Mg1−xZnx)(Al1−yCry)2O4 single-crystal fibers (SCF) are grown by the laser-heated pedestal growth technique and used as acoustic waveguides for ultrasonic temperature sensors (UTS) for the first time. The anisotropic sensor performance of the MgAl2O4 SCF-UTS are investigated under a longitudinal wave and transverse wave conditions, and the -oriented MgAl2O4 SCF-UTS is found to have the highest sensitivity and resolution among all the MgAl2O4 SCF-UTS. On this basis, a unit sensitivity of 40.38–67.50 ns °C−1 m−1 and a resolution of 1.24–0.74 °C are achieved for the -oriented (Mg0.9Zn0.1)(Al0.995Cr0.005)2O4 SCF-UTS in the range of 20–1200 °C, both of which represent the best sensor performance achieved by a SCF-UTS to date. The positive temperature-dependent sensor performance, accompanied by a high working temperature (≈2000 °C) and outstanding anti-oxidation, indicates that the -oriented (Mg0.9Zn0.1)(Al0.995Cr0.005)2O4 SCF-UTS is a promising candidate for ultra-high temperature sensors. This study demonstrates a feasible strategy for the rational design of high-performance temperature sensors through a combination of crystal design, acoustic anisotropy, and lattice doping engineering.
Advanced Functional Materials; doi:10.1002/adfm.202104930
The regulation of lithium plating/stripping behavior is considered to be critical for next-generation safe and high-energy-density lithium metal batteries. Lithium deposition with maximum granular size and minimum microstructural tortuosity can significantly improve the lithium plating/stripping efficiency. Here, a self-assembled organosilane layer with nanopores is constructed on Cu current collector surface via a thiol-Cu reaction. In contrast to typical stacked-particle morphology with small grain size and high specific area in ether electrolyte, dough-like and lateral-growth lithium deposition can be plated on the modified Cu current collector due to the low surface energy of a lithiophilic SiOSi membrane. The planar and dense lithium deposition contributes to the stable implementation of up to near 500 cycles in full cells with high-loading LiFePO4 cathode. Anticorrosion in rigorous Cl-ion containing solution can even be achieved due to the corrosive repellency of hydrophobic organosilane. A high Coulombic efficiency (97.12%) is remained after corroding for 300 min. Moreover, the irreversible capacity loss caused by galvanic corrosion, an ignored but crucial aspect, has been significantly suppressed due to the passivation of high-redox-potential Cu by organosilane coating.